In summary

What to Look for in the Best Cbd Vape Juices for 2019

  • Vape Juice products like Hemp Bombs, Diamond, CBD Pure and Koi with high-quality CBD   E-Liquids.
  • Products that are pure, potent, and have good reviews.
  • CBD E-Liquids that have a perfectly blended flavor, and cloud production.
  • Opt for variety bundles to try out different flavors and potencies.
  • Lab verified and quality tested by a third-party lab.
  • Products that offer a standardized formulation
  • THC- free
  • Made from organic and natural industrial hemp
  • cGMP manufacturing guidelines
  • Quality Control
The full article

Hemp Bombs CBD Vape Oil

Hemp Bombs 300mg CBD Oil Bottle

The Hemp Bomb CBD product line is made with organic- certified, premium-grade industrial hemp. This brand’s quality control standard is high, and this too is a very popular brand. All the products offer third-party lab testing results, and customer service is reliable. This brand has numerous CBD mg dosing options, and pricing is very reasonable for an organic CBD product that is free of contaminants.

Check Latest Price

CBDfx Vape Juice Range

CBDfx Vape Juice Range Bottle

CBDfx Vape Juice is made from high-quality cannabidiol isolates, and it is available in 250 mg, 500 mg, and 1000 mg CBD. They come in a variety of flavors including “Blue Raspberry”, “Wild Watermelon”, “Strawberry Milk” and more.

Check Latest Price

Hemplucid Full Spectrum CBD Vape / Drip

Hemplucid Full Spectrum CBD Vape / Drip Bottle

HempLucid uses a whole-plant CBD hemp extract. It is USDA organic certified, with a mild natural flavor and aroma. Pricing is high, yet the product is worth it.

Check Latest Price

The CBD Movement

Over the past couple of years, the CBD movement has gained strength with the development of new therapies and numerous consumer products derived from cannabis and its components, including cannabidiol or CBD. CBD is a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid and offers both therapeutic and medicinal purposes for humans and pets.

Understanding what is in CBD vape oil and the health risks that may be associated with vaping is important. The huge demand for high-quality CBD vape oil and its pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic benefits has led to the demand for the absence of harmful organic solvents that are generally used in the chemical synthesis. Consumers need to opt for a high-quality CBD vape oil, as well as research trending CBD products to make sure that they are purchasing CBD vape oil that has no negative health effects due to contaminants.

2019 Guide with The Top CBD e-Liquid Brand Picks

Vaping is an effective, safe, and fast-acting way of consuming CBD for instant pain relief. But how does one choose the best CBD vape juice?

Vaping may offer a much higher bioavailability, which means that it may be stronger than taking a capsule since CBD reaches the bloodstream immediately. Vaping is a popular and easy method, and its fast effects provide almost instant relief from chronic pain and help with numerous other health conditions. 

With so many brands available, finding the best CBD vape juice may be challenging. New vapers and even vaping pros need to be well-informed about CBD vape products, pricing, and safety issues and make sure that they purchase quality products

  • Safe, reliable CBD E-Liquids are the easiest way to vape CBD
  • CBD may also come in the form of capsules, tinctures, oils, or edibles such as gummies and CBD-infused beverages. This allows the consumer with many options for CBD consumption.
  • Consumers need to examine price per mg and opt for established brands.
  • Check the potency of cannabinoid, as well as their customer service.
  • Look at the company website information, expertise, reviews and sales.
  • Only purchase a full-spectrum CBD product and not an isolate product.

Although available in most parts of the United States, CBD products are mostly unregulated, so exercise caution when consuming them. It would also be wise to consult a doctor before starting any CBD therapy as CBD may interact with other drugs and cause adverse side effects. Vaping CBD allows CBD to enter into the bloodstream directly through the lungs. CBD bypasses the digestive system, creating effects almost immediately.

CBD Oil Tinctures

If one does not mind the taste of hemp seed oil, then tinctures are ideal. The distinctive and herbal taste of hemp is available via CBD tinctures, some of which may be pleasantly flavored. As a consumer, one has the option of buying either the flavored or unflavored CBD oil tinctures. With tinctures, one can simply place a few drops underneath the tongue. They are easy to carry and are more potent. Be sure to check the dosage of new products.

 Purchasing Tips for The Best CBD Oil Tinctures

  • Start with a lower strength tincture since tinctures are highly concentrated.
  • Always consider the strength of the tincture before purchasing.
  • Higher-strength tinctures are more cost-effective than some, yet beginners should be cautious about using the more potent tinctures at first.
  • More potent tinctures offer more potency and other cannabinoids which may be beneficial.
  • Examine all the brands and don’t be shy to ask questions. It is a relatively new market which needs more transparency.
  • Most tinctures contain hemp seed oil extract that is mixed with a neutral oil like coconut or hemp seed oil.
  • Opt for the latest versions which offer CBD combined with supplements that offer numerous health benefits.
  • It is the consumer’s responsibility to check out all the pros and cons of all the additional ingredients.

How to Purchase a High-Quality CBD Oil Tincture

  • Purchase from well -known brands that have efficient customer services and educational websites.
  • Every CBD oil tincture product needs to be well-labelled, and the quantity of the CBD/ full spectrum hemp extract clearly visible.
  • Check out the hemp source and make sure it is U.S. sourced and not China or Europe.
  • Third-party lab tests need to be readily available for the consumer to inspect and clearly understand, to show the exact levels of cannabinoids and THC.
  • Full-spectrum tinctures are preferable than those from supplements made from isolates, which are extracts of CBD on its own.
  • Isolates are better to use when cooking with CBD. A CBD isolate may be less potent or effective than a full-spectrum CBD extract.

CBD Tincture Sublingual Dosing

There may be some benefits that once can notice immediately, and others that may take a while.  Be informed about the potency of a specific tincture. Examine the oil tincture dosage instructions and understand them fully.

  • Depression, stress, and anxiety:  The recommended dose is from 5-50 mg with a 300mg tincture. This means taking half a dropper twice a day at 5mg per dose.
  • Panic disorder and PTSD: The recommended dose is to start off with a 600 mg CBD tincture that uses a 10mg per half dropper.
  • Insomnia and Other Sleep Disorders: 25-160mg. The recommended dose is from a 2000mg tincture which provides 30mg of CBD per dose. Smaller doses should be used in the mornings and larger doses at 4000mg tincture at night, which has a 60mg of CBD.
  • Migraines and Chronic Headaches: 10-50mg with a 600mg tincture for migraines, and 2.5 to 50mg from a 300mg or 600mg tincture for pain and inflammation.

There is no standard CBD dosage that applies to everyone, and finding the right dose is a challenge.  Several factors go into determining one’s dosage, depending on an individual’s reason for vaping CBD oil. Those factors include CBD strength, delivery process, the user’s body weight and body chemistry, and the severity of his or her medical condition. Also, as cannabidiol acts on several molecular pathways in the body, everyone’s experience is unique.

It is always recommended that one begins with the smallest dose, gradually increasing until one finds the correct dosage that works for their body. Tinctures can be organic, gluten-free, natural, and contain no preservatives, sweeteners or artificial flavors like the Every Day Optimal CBD Brand.

Inspect the CBD mg Amount

Consumers need to inspect the “total” amount of CBD oil within their product, and not what is stated on the product container. Consumers should be aware that there may be a variety of ingredients within the CBD oil, and that they need to look out for the “pure” CBD content mg amount. This is stated on the ingredient label as a percentage. Consumers can also contact the manufacturer to find out more about their CBD products.

What One Should Look for When Purchasing CBD Oil

CBD oil needs to be homogenous, or one that does not separate into layers. It should be a well-mixed and complete product that is uniform. Separation is a huge problem that CBD vape consumers face when purchasing any CBD vaporizer liquids. CBD does not mix with most e-liquid bases that are being sold today. When there is this type of separation, consumers may get uneven doses when vaping. This makes it difficult to control how much CBD one ends up consuming. Always inquire about dosing and the accuracy of a CBD product’s label because not enough research has been done on the long-term use of CBD in people and pets. It is important to look at and examine all the safety reviews and reviews on Amazon and other websites before purchasing CBD oil.

Synthetic Cannabinoids (SC)

Contaminants in CBD Oil May Include the following:

  • Heavy metals
  • Pesticides
  • Molds
  • Synthetic cannabinoids like ab-fubinica

This may result in the following health conditions:

  • Fatal Coronary artery thrombosis
  • Arrhythmias
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Sudden cardiac death
  • Psychosis
  • Suicidal tendencies
  • Seizures
  • Acute tubular necrosis
  • Intracranial hemorrhage
  • Anxiety
  • Drowsiness
  • Agitation

CBD Vape Pens

Vape pens are a good choice because they do not leave behind a CBD scent after use. They are also small and discreet. A CBD vape pen is great for use with a high-quality CBD liquid. Vape pens are also incredibly easy to use. CBD vape juice or vape liquid will last depending on the frequency of “vape draws” from the vape user. It can last for as long as a month to as little as a day. Make sure that the CBD vape juice has no nicotine, and is of a high- quality without contaminants. Inspect all the ingredients and the dosage instructions. Read all product reviews and select a brand that comes from a reputable company with many trustworthy reviews.

Warning on Ceramic Coils and Toxic Metals

Many people regard vaping as a safe alternative to smoking. However, unbeknownst to vapers, they may be inhaling dangerous levels of toxic metals through the materials that are used to manufacture vape pens. Coils made from ceramics are popular and touted as the next big thing that will revolutionize one’s vaping experience. But vapers who are concerned about their safety are looking for assurance that coils made from ceramics are safe.

Ceramic coils may induce a much-improved flavor and provide a longer coil life when compared to conventional coils. However, there are issues that the benefits of using coils made of ceramics may come at the detriment of one’s health.

Scientists analyzed 15 metals in e-liquid from the refill dispenser before the liquid gets in contact with the heating element. They also analyzed the metals contained in the vapor and in the remaining e-liquid in the tank after vaping. They found that the metal concentrations were higher in the tank and aerosol compared to the refill dispenser, which suggests that the heating coil is the culprit.

Tested chemicals included aluminum, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, titanium, tungsten, uranium and zinc. The prolonged inhalation of these metals has been linked to heart, lung, brain, and liver damage. Chronic exposure may also reduce immune system function and upsurge the risk for certain types of cancer.

In metallurgy, tellurium acts as a stabilizer in steel. Tellurium is used to improve machinability without weakening conductivity in copper. In other applications, tellurium is used as a pigment to produce blue and brown colors in ceramics and glass. The coils made from ceramics could contain tellurium.

Meanwhile, a study was conducted to assess indoor air quality before, during and after the use of e-cigarettes. Researchers found that antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc were present in the air in varying quantities either before, during or after vaping. Test results from another study confirmed that e-cigarettes are a potential source of exposure to toxic metals. Higher concentrations of toxic metals in the aerosol compared to the dispenser confirms the coil contact-induced e-liquid contamination.

More on CBD Oil

CBD oil is one of the 104 chemical compounds from cannabinoids found in cannabis. With no “high effect” that comes from regular marijuana, CBD is beneficial for numerous health conditions and ailments. It also has no dependence potential. According to a recent report from the World Health Organization, CBD is safe.

“ In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.”

—Harvard Health Blog

The World Health Organization describes CBD in terms of the following:

“The range of conditions for which CBD has been assessed is diverse, consistent with its neuroprotective, antiepileptic, hypoxia-ischemia, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, and antitumor properties.”

The latest study of CBD on drug addiction states that: 

“Another possible therapeutic application which has been investigated is the use of CBD to treat drug addiction. A recent systematic review concluded that there were a limited number of preclinical studies which suggest that CBD may have therapeutic properties on opioid, cocaine, and psychostimulant addiction, and some preliminary data suggest that it may be beneficial in cannabis and tobacco addiction in humans. However, considerably more research is required to evaluate CBD as a potential treatment,”

—The World Health Organization

CBD oil comes from hemp plants, is natural and not psychoactive, so it is relatively safe to use. It is also the second and most prevalent active ingredient of cannabis. CBD oil is derived from  cannabis plants (marijuana) and then diluted with a carrier oil like hemp seed oil or coconut oil. There are no mind-altering side effects with CBD, and the latest scientific studies demonstrate numerous potential health benefits like relief from pain and stress.

According to a recent 2019 study “Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the two major active principles present in Cannabis sativa is gaining great interest among the scientific community for its pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic applications.

CBD can be prepared either by chemical synthesis or extraction from Cannabis sativa (hemp). The latter is more convenient from several points of view, including environmental and economical, but mainly for the absence of harmful organic solvents normally used in chemical synthesis.

Although CBD produced by hemp extraction is the most widely employed, it carries two major impurities. The first one is the already known cannabidivarin (CBDV), whereas the second one is supposed to be the butyl analog of CBD with a four-term alkyl side chain,” via PubMed.1

CBD prevents the body from absorbing anandamide. This is a compound that regulates pain. With increased levels of this compound in the bloodstream, people and pets feel less pain. CBD has very little effect on the endocannabinoid system (ECS). It does not affect the same receptors that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) would, which gives the “high” effect. Terpenes are organic compounds that enhance a vaper’s euphoric high. Terpenes also affect the taste of a substance, and it holds numerous medical benefits. Cannabis has naturally high levels of terpenes.

An excellent way to make sure that one is getting a whole-plant product with naturally occurring terpenes, he or she should opt for CBD extracted from hemp flowers. Vaping a high-CBD hemp flower requires an herb vaporizer and is not as easy as using regular vape juice. However, the inconvenience is well worth the trouble because vaping CBD flower is an authentic cannabis experience with no additives.

How to check the CBD label:

  • Every CBD consumer needs to examine the analytical testing of the final CBD products by certified third-party labs. This guarantees the safety and composition of CBD oils and helps to prevent side effects from contaminants.
  • Look for high testing standards to ensure product safety, consistency and purity.
  • Read the reviews on the best flavors when choosing a vape juice flavor.
  • Explore the different potencies from 200mg, 500mg, and 1000 mg. Start off with the lowest dosage possible.

CBD Side Effects

 According to Dr. Peter Grinspoon, Harvard Health Blog, side effects include the following:

  • Nausea
  • Irritability
  • Fatigue

“CBD can increase the level in your blood of the blood thinner coumadin, and it can raise levels of certain other medications in your blood by the exact same mechanism that grapefruit juice does. A significant safety concern with CBD is that it is primarily marketed and sold as a supplement, not a medication.”

The World Health Organization(WHO) adds that “in general, CBD has been found to have relatively low toxicity, although not all potential effects have been explored.” WHO also addressed the potential toxic reviews of CBD with a 2018 update.

The following are some of the relevant findings to date from in vitro and animal studies:

  • CBD affects the growth of tumoral cell lines but does not affect most non-tumor cells. However, a pro-apoptotic effect has been observed in lymphocytes.
  • It does not affect embryonic development (limited research)
  • Evidence on potential hormonal changes is mixed, with some evidence of possible effects and other studies suggesting no effect, depending on the method used and the particular hormone
  • It does not affect a wide range of physiological and biochemical parameters or significant effects on animal behavior unless extremely high doses are administered (e.g., in excess of 150 mg/kg iv as an acute dose or in excess of 30 mg/kg orally daily for 90 days in monkeys)
  • Effects on the immune system are unclear; there is evidence of immune suppression at higher concentrations, but immune stimulation may occur at lower concentrations.
  • There is potential for CBD to be associated with drug interactions through inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes, but it is not yet clear whether these effects occur at physiological concentrations.
  • CBD was also not associated with abuse potential

Dr. Grinspoon also adds that “currently, the FDA does not regulate the safety and purity of dietary supplements. So you cannot know for sure that the product you buy has active ingredients at the dose listed on the label. In addition, the product may contain other (unknown) elements. We also don’t know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition.”

CBD Oil Health Benefits

  • Pain reliever
  • May help with depression and insomnia
  • May provide relief from cancer side effects including chemotherapy and radiation
  • Promotes skin health by preventing sebaceous gland cells from secreting too much sebum
  • May provide benefits to patients with neurological disorders
  • Helps decrease inflammation
  • May help prevent cognitive decline
  • Beneficial for pets
  • May be beneficial for cardiac health
  • May have antipsychotic effects on schizophrenic patients and patients with other mental disorders
  • CBD may be beneficial in preventing tumor growth in patients with breast, colon, lung, prostate and brain cancer
  • It aids in diabetes prevention by reducing diabetes up to 56% and reducing associated inflammation in diabetic patients.

Full Spectrum CBD vs Broad-Spectrum CBD vs CBD Isolates

Although they are not identical, full spectrum CBD oil and broad-spectrum CBD oil both contain an extensive range of cannabinoids. Full spectrum CBD oil has had no cannabinoids eliminated during the extraction process. Full spectrum CBD oil still contains the psychoactive compounds, which produce the entourage effect. The entourage effect is induced when all of the cannabinoids work together for a much-improved CBD experience, THC included. However, if one sees “full spectrum” on the label, check the company’s lab reports. A full spectrum CBD oil would most likely have THC as an ingredient.

The refining process is critical for crafting broad-spectrum oil. If some unwanted cannabinoids are removed during the CBD extraction process, a broad-spectrum CBD oil is produced. Some CBD companies choose to remove THC from their products while keeping the other cannabinoids in the formula. With broad spectrum CBD oil, the only one missing ingredient is THC.

Meanwhile, some CBD manufacturers take an extra step to an almost pure CBD. This type of hemp-based product is known as CBD isolate. Those who opt for CBD isolates are sensitive to other cannabinoids. Although CBD by itself does have benefits, the results may not be as potent as that of using a broad-spectrum or full spectrum CBD oil.

When purchasing a CBD isolate, make sure it is 99+% pure. Otherwise, there will be traces of other cannabinoids in the formula. Although these numbers are most likely negligible, it does defeat the purpose of seeking out a pure CBD product.


“Some CBD manufacturers have come under government scrutiny for wild, indefensible claims, such that CBD is a cure-all for cancer, which it is not. We need more research, but CBD may be proving to be an option for managing anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain,”

—Harvard Health Blog

Every consumer has to make an accurate and informed decision concerning the products they want to purchase. Vaping CBD has numerous health benefits, but one should be selecting a high-quality e-liquid that benefits one’s needs. Much information is needed when it comes to one’s CBD provider and one’s health.

Since there is no shortage of choices, purchasing the right one will be beneficial to one’s health. Keep in mind that CBD can be purchased in the form of transdermal patches, tinctures, capsules, topicals and edibles. When it comes to pricing, this product is not one to not spend on. High-quality CBD products may be slightly pricier, but are definitely worth the cost. 

Since CBD has numerous health benefits, and may also help with serious illness, consumers should note that the stronger the potency, the higher the price. With the huge array of vape juice flavors from sweet mango, farm-fresh strawberry milk to crushed pineapple and roasted Columbian coffee, it is easy to see why the CBD market is booming.

More Info

Less Info

A Closer Analysis of Tellurium

Tellurium is usually found naturally as the telluride of gold (calverite). It is produced as a by-product of the smelting of copper and other metals. (Gerhardsson et al, 1986).  A finely divided suspension of elemental tellurium in air can be exploded. The fire hazard of tellurium is moderate in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame or by chemical reaction with oxidizing agents. Reactions with zinc, chlorine, fluorine, and solid sodium are vigorous and have a potential to cause fires (HSDB, 1997).

Uses for tellurium include: additive to metal alloys, vulcanization of rubber, semiconductors and electronic devices, and catalyst. Tellurium vapour is used in “daylight lamps”. Tellurium is also used in blast caps, and it has limited use in pottery glazes. (PATTY, 1993)

Tellurium has the appearance and physical properties of a metal yet has the chemical properties of a non-metal. It forms compounds in oxidation states -2, +2, +4 and +6. Of toxicological interest are elemental tellurium, tellurium dioxide, the gases hydrogen telluride and tellurium hexafluoride, and the water-soluble salts of tellurous and telluric acid. It also forms a number of organometallic complexes (Gerhardsson et al, 1986). There is no evidence that tellurium is an essential trace element. Tellurium exposure is characterized by a distinctive garlic odor which is due to formation of the hepatic metabolite dimethyl telluride.

Tellurium is used as an additive in many metallurgical processes such that it is often involved in multiple metal exposures, notably with lead, zinc, arsenic, selenium, cadmium and thallium. Tellurium exposure also occurs during electrolytic copper refining where tellurium is formed in the anode slime. Tellurium intoxication is rare, though acute (Gerhardsson et al, 1986; Blackadder and Manderson, 1975) and chronic (Keall et al, 1946; Shie and Deeds, 1920) occupational exposure has been reported.

An isolated case of poisoning from tellurium-contaminated meat has been reported (Müller et al, 1989). The source of contamination is unknown.

The only reported deaths from tellurium intoxication occurred when two men were mistakenly injected with some 2 g sodium tellurite during retrograde pyelography (Keall et al, 1946).

Mechanisms of Toxicity

There are few data on the mechanism of toxicity of tellurium or its compounds. Animal studies suggest tellurium may affect the conversion of squalene to cholesterol so interfering with neurotransmission via demyelination (Gerhardsson et al, 1986). Impaired secretory nerve neurotransmission is the proposed mechanism of impaired saliva and sweat secretion in humans and of reduced gastric acid secretion in animals poisoned with tellurium (Shie and Deeds, 1920).

There is some evidence that the aroma of fresh garlic is caused by a high tellurium content. This may contribute to garlic’s cholesterol-lowering properties (Larner, 1995).

In vitro studies demonstrate that tellurite (Te4+) ions can penetrate the erythrocyte membrane and, in the presence of reduced glutathione, form telluride (Te2+) which causes irreversible membrane damage and hence haemolysis (De Meio and O’Leary, 1975; Kurantsin-Mills et al, 1988). Tellurate (Te6+) ions do not penetrate the erythrocyte membrane. Haemolysis has been observed in animals poisoned with tellurium (Shie and Deeds, 1920), but not as a feature of tellurium intoxication in man. Tellurium and its compounds are industrial chemicals used in metal alloys, “daylight lamps” and the electronics industry.

Acute poisoning with tellurium is rare. Two men died after 2g sodium tellurite was mistakenly injected during retrograde pyelography (Keall et al, 1946). Exposure may occur occupationally, particularly during the production of metal alloys and electrolytic copper refining. Irritant to skin and eyes may cause dermal discoloration.

Toxicity Through Inhalation

A garlic odour to the breath, sweat and urine is characteristic of tellurium exposure. A metallic taste, nausea, loss of appetite, tiredness, reduced sweating and unspecified ECG changes have been reported. Exposure may cause respiratory tract irritation, although reports of significant pulmonary toxicity are rare.

Toxicity Through Ingestion

A garlic odor of the breath, sweat, urine and feces is characteristic of tellurium exposure. Initial symptoms of nausea, vomiting and a metallic taste develop within hours. Fever, hair loss, weight loss and fatigue may occur days to weeks after substantial ingestion.

Toxicity Through Injection

A garlic odor of the breath and body secretions is characteristic after systemic administration of tellurium. Loin pain, nausea, vomiting, confusion, dyspnea and cyanosis occurred in two patients following accidental intraureteric injection of 2g sodium tellurite; both died (Keall et al, 1946).

Dermal Management

  1. If possible, the patient should remove soiled clothing and wash him/herself.
  2. Wash contaminated hair and skin with soap and copious amounts of water.
  3. Pay special attention to skin folds, fingernails and ears.

 Ocular Management

  1. Immediately irrigate the affected eye thoroughly with tepid water or 0.9% saline for at least

10-15 minutes.

  1. Any particles lodged in the conjunctival recesses should be removed.
  2. Continue irrigation with saline infusion using drip tubing.
  3. Repeated instillation of local anesthetic may reduce discomfort and help more thorough decontamination.
  4. Corneal damage may be detected by instillation of fluorescein.
  5. Patients with corneal damage and those whose symptoms do not resolve rapidly should be referred for ophthalmological assessment.

Minor ingestions (very mild or no symptoms):

  1. Gastrointestinal decontamination is unnecessary. 
  2. Symptomatic and supportive measures only.

Moderate/substantial ingestions:

  1. Gastric lavage should be considered only if the patient presents within one hour; its value is unproven.
  2. Symptomatic and supportive measures as dictated by the patient’s condition.
  3. Monitor the ECG, biochemical and hematological profiles.
  4. Collect urine and blood for tellurium concentration measurements to confirm diagnosis although these assays are not widely available. Check with NPIS.
  5. It has been suggested that ascorbic acid may reduce the garlic odor from tellurium intoxication (De Meio, 1947) but this has not been confirmed.
  6. Dimercaprol increases tellurium toxicity and should not be used.

In cases of inhalation:

  1. Remove from exposure
  2. Treat symptomatically and supportively.
  3. If symptoms occur perform a chest X-ray, ECG, biochemical and hematological profiles.
  4. Collect urine and blood for tellurium concentration measurements to confirm diagnosis although these assays are not widely available. Check with NPIS.
  5. It has been suggested that ascorbic acid may reduce the odor from tellurium intoxication (De Meio, 1947) but this not been confirmed.
  6. Dimercaprol increases tellurium toxicity and should not be used.

In cases of injection:

  1. Symptomatic and supportive care as dictated by the patient’s condition.
  2.  Monitor the ECG, biochemical and hematological profiles.
  3. Collect urine and blood for tellurium concentration measurements to confirm diagnosis although these assays are not widely available. Check with NPIS.
  4. It has been suggested that ascorbic acid may reduce the garlic odor from tellurium intoxication (De Meio, 1947) but this has not been confirmed.
  5. Dimercaprol increases tellurium toxicity and should not be used.

More Information on Antimony

The most important use of antimony is as an alloying ingredient with metals such as lead, tin and copper. Antimony trioxide is used as a flame retardant in textiles, as a catalyst, and as an opacifier in glass, enamels and ceramics. Antimony tetroxide is used as an oxidation catalyst. Antimony trisulphide is used in fireworks, matches, as a pigment, and in the manufacture of ruby glass. Antimony pentasulphide is used in vulcanization processes. Pentavalent antimony preparations (including sodium stibogluconate) are still used in the treatment of leishmaniasis. Trivalent compounds (especially antimony potassium tartrate) inactivate schistosomes by inhibiting the activity of phosphofructokinase.  (Bueding and Fisher, 1966; PATTY, 1994)

Antimony is a metalloid since it has properties of both metals and non-metals. It exists in a trivalent and pentavalent state and forms inorganic and organic compounds. Examples of trivalent antimony compounds are antimony trioxide, antimony trisulphide, antimony trichloride, antimony potassium tartrate (tartar emetic) and stibine (Sbh2). Pentavalent antimony compounds include antimony pentasulphide and antimony pentoxide. Sodium stibogluconate (sodium antimony gluconate) exists with antimony in both the trivalent and pentavalent forms. Elemental antimony oxidizes slowly in moist air to form a mixture of antimony and antimony oxide and burns in air to form antimony trioxide vapor.

Pentavalent antimony is an oxidizing agent. Historically, the systemic administration of antimony compounds has been used in the treatment of many conditions including syphilis, whooping cough and gout and topical antimony compounds were believed to improve herpetic lesions, leprosy, mania and epilepsy. Antimony has been used also as an emetic, a decongestant and a sedative and still has a role in the treatment of tropical infections.

Industrial exposure to antimony occurs mainly by inhalation of dust or fumes during the processing or packaging of antimony compounds. Antimony poisoning also has occurred following the misuse of pharmaceuticals. Antimony compounds may be absorbed by inhalation and ingestion, gastrointestinal absorption in man is poor necessitating parenteral administration of antimony pharmaceuticals.

Absorbed trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds differ significantly in their distribution; trivalent compounds have an affinity for red blood cells whereas pentavalent antimony is found in the plasma. Following injection or oral administration significant antimony concentrations can be found in the liver, kidney, thyroid, adrenals and bone (Winship, 1987). Some pentavalent antimony is reduced to the trivalent form in the liver (Winship, 1987).

Lauwers et al (1990) estimated that the total body pool of antimony in a patient who died following accidental antimony potassium tartrate ingestion was only five per cent of the ingested dose with high antimony concentrations in the liver, gall bladder and gastrointestinal mucosa. This is consistent with antimony undergoing enterohepatic circulation.

CBD Clinicals is reader-supported. When you buy through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. Learn more

Featured Posts

Spruce CBD Oil Review

Spruce is a family-owned business based out of Raleigh, North Carolina. The company was founded in 2018 in the belief that modern medicine is broken and that there is a need for alternatives to dangerous pharmaceuticals. Spruce’s lab-grade CBD oil is 100% natural and tested by a third-party lab in...

Read more

Best CBD Oil for High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Why People Are Taking CBD for High Blood Pressure? According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), high blood pressure can harden the arteries, which decreases the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart, leading to heart disease(5). In a 2015 study conducted by researchers from the...

Read more

NuLeaf Naturals Review

Based in Colorado, USA, and founded in 2014, NuLeaf Naturals is one of America’s top pioneering hemp companies. NuLeaf Naturals wellness products are derived from specially bred therapeutic hemp (Cannabis Sativa) plants grown on licensed farms in Colorado. Their hemp CBD plants are 100% organic whole-plant extracts and grown with...

Read more

Best CBD for Neuropathy (Nerve Pain)

As medical cannabis products have become more popular, people are turning to them to treat everything from anxiety to depression to chronic pain. Individuals who are suffering from neuropathy may show interest in trying CBD oil. What Is CBD? CBD comes from a plant that is part of the Cannabaceae...

Read more

SabaiDee Review

SabaiDee CBD products are tested both in-house and by independent laboratories to verify the quality of every batch. Their products all come with SabaiDee’s Happiness Guarantee. 

Read more

Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Cancer

Why Some People are Using CBD for Dogs with Cancer? An article posted by the American Kennel Club (AKC) says that there is no conclusive scientific data on using cannabidiol (CBD) to treat dogs specifically. However, there is anecdotal evidence from dog owners suggesting that CBD can help with neuropathic...

Read more

CBD Oil for Kids with Anxiety

Why People are Turning to CBD for Children with Anxiety? CBD has become a popular OTC treatment that parents give their children, says Doris Trauner, M.D., professor of neurosciences and pediatrics at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and a physician at San Diego’s Rady Children’s Hospital....

Read more

CBD Oil for Candida

Why People are Turning to CBD for Candida? Candidiasis or thrush is a medical condition caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like fungus. This type of fungus spreads over within the mouth and throat, and it usually infects men and women alike. Certain cannabinoids, like CBD, have been shown as a...

Read more