Best CBD Oil for Fertility

Are you or your partner having fertility issues that make it difficult for you to conceive? Here are some tips for finding the best CBD oil for fertility that may increase your conception rate.

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


4.8 out of 5
  1. Peppermint flavor masks any unpleasant taste
  2. Contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full
  3. Bottle includes a graduated dropper for correct serving measurement

Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Natural remedy for various illnesses
  2. Product is full-spectrum whole-plant extract
  3. Contains naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes

Editor's Pick

Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Maximum possible potency
  2. Each dropper full contains 80mg of CBD
  3. Conveniently fits in a 30mL bottle

Best Seller

Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg


4.6 out of 5
  1. Proprietary full-spectrum
  2. Developed using advanced AVIDA CORE Spectrum Technology
  3. Highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3)

Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg


4.7 out of 5
  1. Made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp
  2. Available in many flavours
  3. Safe for daily use

Best THC-Free

CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures


4.4 out of 5
  1. Do not contain THC
  2. Available in different potencies and sizes
  3. Brand has special deals and offers

Best Customer Rated

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg


4.4 out of 5
  1. THC-free
  2. Has plenty of flavours to choose from
  3. Totally vegan

Best Starter

NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


4.6 out of 5
  1. Lowest concentration for CBD beginners
  2. Fully organic and lab-tested
  3. Full-spectrum

Best Flavor Range

Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil


3.9 out of 5
  1. Has a wide range of flavours
  2. Safe to intake
  3. Get 20% off when you avail of their subscription

Compare the Best CBD Oil for Fertility in 2021

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
4.8 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
4.6 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

3.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
4.7 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
4.4 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
4.4 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
4.6 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
3.9 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

Best CBD Oil for Fertility

1. Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.8
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Mid-strength  No other flavors
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Mid-strength
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

2. NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

3. Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Extra Strength  Tastes bitter
 No artificial flavoring or colors  No THC-free option
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Extra Strength
 No artificial flavoring or colors
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 Tastes bitter
 No THC-free option
Overview

The largest bottle of CBD oil that Spruce offers contains 2,400mg of CBD. This is full-spectrum CBD oil, which is the maximum possible potency. Each high potency dropper full contains 80mg of CBD. There are no flavorings in it, which allows for the most CBD to fit in the 30ml bottle.

4. Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Light Spearmint flavor  No other flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Pros
 Light Spearmint flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Cons
 No other flavor
Overview

Avida Extracts Full Spectrum CBD oil is the latest iteration of the brand’s advanced Avida CORE Spectrum technology. They use a proprietary full spectrum blend, resulting in the highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3) to support your health.

5. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
cbdc overall score
4.7
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Various delicious flavors to choose from  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Pros
 Various delicious flavors to choose from
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Cons
 cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
Overview

cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

6. CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee  Dropper is a bit shaky
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Pros
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Cons
 Dropper is a bit shaky
Overview

CBDistillery’s Isolate CBD Oil Tinctures harness the power of pure CBD. CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures include 0.0% THC. When you use CBDistillery CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures, you can be assured you’re using the highest quality CBD on the market.

7. NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural  A bit pricey compared to competitors
 Approximately 100 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 100 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
 A bit pricey compared to competitors
Overview

This is one of several concentrations from NuLeaf Naturals. As the lowest concentration, it is the company’s best option for those new to CBD oil. The product is lab-tested and fully organic. It is full-spectrum, so it contains THC in small quantities.

8. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Vegan and Gluten free  Does not ship internationally
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Pros
 Vegan and Gluten free
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Cons
 Does not ship internationally
Overview

A 750mg bottle of cbdMD’s Broad Spectrum Oil Tincture does not contain THC. It also has a fairly wide flavor range which is perfect for those who prefer other taste. Vegan consumers are considered since cbdMD offers Vegan products. Aside from all of that, another reason why people love cbdMD is because it’s free from harmful chemicals.

9. Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
3.9
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Wide variety of flavors  Incomplete information about the product
 Lab test results are complete  Does not ship to all international countries
 30-day money-back guarantee
Pros
 Wide variety of flavors
 Lab test results are complete
 30-day money-back guarantee
Cons
 Incomplete information about the product
 Does not ship to all international countries
Overview

Hemp Bombs offer CBD Oil Tinctures that come in a 30ml bottle containing 750mg of CBD. They provide a wide range of flavors perfect for those that have a knack for sweets. Consumers can safely intake this because it’s free of chemicals and pesticides. Hemp Bombs also offer a 20% off on products upon subscription.

How CBD Helps With Fertility

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) notes that emotional stress may increase the risk of infertility among women(1).

According to a 2014 study, cannabidiol (CBD) may improve psychological wellness by reducing depression and anxiety(2). Such mental health disorders may be associated with reduced conception(3) rate and infertility(4).

Meanwhile, another study reported that CBD may help attenuate fertility issues by interacting with the endocannabinoid system (ECS)(5).

A study hypothesized that the ECS dysregulation may lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an ovulation disorder linked to female infertility(6).

PCOS may be caused by the decreased fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an enzyme that breaks down anandamide (AEA). 

Low AEA levels may cause a miscarriage(7), while high AEA levels may lead to the overproduction of oocytes (immature egg cells) to form multiple cysts in the ovaries(8)

Symptoms, such as irregular menstruation cycles and enlarged ovaries, may be associated with PCOS(9)

Meanwhile, cannabinoid receptors 2 (CB2 receptors) in the ovarian follicles may help AEA in oocyte maturation(10)

Furthermore, a study observed that CBD may bind to the cannabinoid receptors in reducing inflammation(11), another symptom associated with PCOS(12).

However, the excessive activation of cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1 receptors) may cause insulin resistance for women with PCOS(13).

Women with endometriosis, another female reproductive tract-related disorder, may have a higher risk of infertility due to the formation of endometrial-like tissues outside the womb(14)

Those with endometriosis may experience inflammation and chronic pain in the pelvic region(15). These symptoms may be reduced by CBD(16)

A study reported that CBD oil may help in reducing pain and improve the mood of women with endometriosis(17).

As for males, a study suggested that the G-protein coupled receptors (GPR18) may activate an acrosome reaction (sperm penetration to fertilize the egg cell)(18).

However, CBD may negatively affect male fertility, such as the decreased sperm concentration, fertilization rate, and sexual behavior(19)

A study also hypothesized that CBD use may decrease motility and viability of sperm cells, leading to infertility(20)

In another study, it was noted that in vitro fertilization (IVF) increases the chances of conception(21). However, the researchers believe the procedure may increase the maternal death rate.  

Clomiphene citrate, a drug used to increase sperm production, may cause side effects, such as weight gain, hair loss, gastrointestinal distress, gynecomastia (enlargement of male breasts)(22)

Individuals looking for a natural alternative may opt to use CBD oil to avoid the adverse effects of other fertility treatments

However, it is essential to consider that CBD may produce different effects on the reproductive system of both sexes. The best course of action is to consult an obstetrician and gynecologist (OB/GYN) before using any CBD products.

Benefits of Using CBD for Fertility

CBD may provide health benefits that can help with conception. 

Researchers reported that depression and anxiety may inhibit conception(23). CBD may help in attenuating these psychological disorders(24)

Studies suggested that infertility, such as PCOS, may be linked to ECS imbalance(25)

Meanwhile, CBD may activate and regulate the ECS receptors and enzymes. A study stated that CBD may modulate the ECS by regulating the oocyte formation and maturation, reducing the risk of PCOS(26).

The overproduction of oocytes may cause the enlargement of ovarian follicles, leading to infertility(27).

A study stated that CBD may interact with the ECS, particularly with the CB1 receptors, in maintaining the regular production of oocytes(28).

Another study also showed that fertility-related disorders, particularly endometriosis, may cause inflammation and pain(29)

Research has suggested that CBD may have anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain relief) effects useful to endometriosis patients(30)

Risks and Side Effects of Using CBD for Fertility

Despite the purported CBD benefits for fertility, the compound may produce side effects, such as tiredness, dry mouth, fatigue, loss of appetite, drowsiness, and diarrhea(31).

Furthermore, CBD use may decrease the sperm count, fertilization rate, and sexual behavior of males(32)

CBD may also interact with other medications, including blood thinners(33) and insulin-related medications(34)

CBD may provide lesser adverse effects than IVF and clomiphene citrate. However, it is still necessary to consult with a doctor first before using any CBD products.

How Soon Can the Effects of CBD Be Felt?

You may feel the purported therapeutic effects of CBD based on your preferred CBD form. 

CBD tinctures are placed sublingually (under the tongue) for around 90 seconds before swallowing(35). The effects may be evident within 15 to 45 minutes upon application. 

Meanwhile, CBD topicals may take effect within 15 to 30 minutes upon applying the product onto the inflamed part of your skin(36). The effects may last from two to four hours. 

If you want to avoid the earthy taste of pure CBD hemp plant extract, you may find CBD edibles, such as CBD gummies, as a favorable option. 

However, CBD edibles may take around 30 to 60 minutes upon consumption as they need to pass through the digestive system(37). The effect may last for over six hours.

Vaping CBD may not be recommended for everyone, especially pregnant women, despite providing an instantaneous effect(38).

A study suggested that vape and e-cigarettes may worsen lung disorders(39) and inhibit pregnancy(40)

Choosing the Right CBD Oil for Fertility

CBD products for fertility come in different forms, including CBD tinctures, CBD edibles, and CBD topicals. Here are some tips for choosing high-quality products:

  • Determine if the CBD product underwent third-party laboratory testing. The certificate of analysis (COA) indicates any residual harmful substances, actual CBD concentration, and CBD potency of the CBD product
  • Compare the product label to the COA found on the website of the brand. The COA ensures the accuracy of the advertised specification of the CBD product based on third-party laboratory testing. 
  • Choose CBD products made from organic, non-GMO hemp. Trustworthy CBD brands produce hemp plants from their farms or purchase from licensed hemp farmers that promote sustainable farming.
  • Pick a brand that uses pure hemp oil mixed with a human consumption-friendly carrier oil, such as hempseed oil or MCT oil.
  • Check your state laws concerning the legality of purchasing and using CBD for fertility(41).  
  • Select CBD products that opt for CO2 extraction for hemp plants. According to a study, FDA recognizes this extraction method as a safe pharmaceutical manufacturing process(42)
  • Consult your healthcare professional specializing in CBD and fertility disorders before using any CBD products.
  • Learn the different types of CBD products, namely full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and CBD isolates.

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all the naturally occurring compounds of the hemp plant, such as terpenes, fatty acids, flavonoids, and cannabinoids

Among the cannabinoids present in full-spectrum CBD oil is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This psychoactive phytocannabinoid may lead to a positive drug test result if frequently used. 

For those wanting to get pregnant, it may be best to avoid full-spectrum CBD. The presence of THC may result in infertility among males(43).

Meanwhile, broad-spectrum CBD oil contains the same compounds present in a full-spectrum CBD except for THC. If you want to avoid the side effects of THC or you are allergic to the compound, you may choose this CBD product.

Meanwhile, you can also choose CBD isolates. These CBD products are pure CBD extracts without the other compounds of the cannabis plant, hemp.

Legality of CBD

In the US, 47 states already legalized CBD use with varying state regulations(44).

As stated in the 2018 Farm Bill, CBD products with less than 0.3% THC can be used legally on a federal level(45)

However, marijuana is still considered a Schedule 1 drug, substances deemed to have potentially addictive or abusive substances without any officially recorded medical benefits(46)

According to the FDA, it is still illegal to sell CBD products as a dietary supplement(47)

Despite the legalization of CBD use in the US, it is still recommended to review the regulations of using CBD products in your state(48)

CBD Dosage for Fertility

The FDA has no approved dosing guide for CBD for fertility.

However, the FDA suggests a starting dosage of 2.5mg of Epidiolex, the only FDA-approved CBD product for rare cases of epilepsy(49), twice a day(50).

A study on sleep and anxiety reported that individuals may tolerate a daily dose of 25mg to 175mg of CBD with some side effects, such as dry eyes, fatigue, and mild sedation(51).

Another human clinical trial showed that individuals could tolerate up to 1500mg of CBD per day(52).

As a precaution, starting with a low dosage of CBD is recommended. You may gradually increase the dosage until you obtain your desired results. 

However, consulting a medical specialist is still suggested before using any CBD products for fertility.

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD help with fertility?

    Poor mental health may be associated with infertility among women(53), which CBD may improve(54). Gynecological disorders may also cause female infertility

    CBD may aid in the ECS in regulating oocyte formation(55). An imbalanced ECS may lead to PCOS, which is also a cause of infertility(56)

    Women who have endometriosis may develop symptoms, such as pelvic pain and inflammation(57). These symptoms may be relieved by the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of CBD(58).

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps with fertility?

    Several research studies have indicated that CBD may have antidepressant(59), anxiolytic (anxiety reduction), anti-inflammatory(60), and analgesic properties. 

    Symptoms, such as poor psychological health, ECS imbalance, chronic pain, and inflammation, may be associated with infertility(61)

    Moreover, a study suggested that CBD may help prevent gynecological disorders, such as PCOS(62)

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can have negative effects on fertility?

    Studies noted that CBD use may negatively affect male fertility due to the decreased sexual behavior(63) and sperm viability(64)

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication I may be taking for fertility?

    Despite the lack of evidence for CBD interaction with fertility-related drugs, CBD may interact with other medications(65-67). Hence, consulting a gynecologist or a medical professional may ensure safe CBD use

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD to help with fertility?

    Fertility treatments, such as IVF for women(68) and clomiphene citrate for men(69), may be considered to increase the fertility rate. 

    However, IVF may cause maternal death during pregnancy(70).

    On the other hand, clomiphene citrate may cause weight gain, hair loss, gastrointestinal distress, gynecomastia for men(71)

    You may try using CBD while practicing a healthier lifestyle, which includes the following(72):

    • Quitting tobacco use
    • Avoiding alcohol consumption
    • Limiting caffeine intake
    • Exercising moderately
  • Can I fail a drug test if I use CBD for fertility?

    Unlike THC, CBD is undetectable on drug tests(73). However, frequent use of CBD with trace amounts of THC products may accumulate and appear positive in drug tests.

  • What is the CBD dosage for fertility?

    There is no FDA-approved dosing guide on CBD for fertility. However, a study suggested that a person could tolerate up to 1500mg of CBD per day(74).

    It is also suggested to start with a low dosage of CBD. If you are not satisfied with the results, you may gradually increase the dosage. 

  • What are the side effects of CBD?

    Despite the purported CBD benefits for fertility, the compound may produce side effects, such as tiredness, dry mouth, fatigue, loss of appetite, drowsiness, and diarrhea(75).

  • What are the risks of taking CBD for fertility?

    A study suggested that the excessive activation of the CB1 receptors may cause insulin resistance in women(76).

    Furthermore, studies suggested that CBD use may decrease the male fertility rate, including low sexual arousal and low sperm concentration(77-78).


  1. Infertility. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/infertility/index.htm
  2. de Mello Schier, A. R., de Oliveira Ribeiro, N. P., Coutinho, D. S., Machado, S., Arias-Carrión, O., Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Nardi, A. E., & Silva, A. C. (2014). Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets, 13(6), 953–960. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871527313666140612114838
  3. Domar, A. D., Clapp, D., Slawsby, E., Kessel, B., Orav, J., & Freizinger, M. (2000). The impact of group psychological interventions on distress in infertile women. Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 19(6), 568–575. https://doi.org/10.1037//0278-6133.19.6.568
  4. Rooney, K. L., & Domar, A. D. (2018). The relationship between stress and infertility. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 20(1), 41–47. https://doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.2018.20.1/klrooney
  5. Luschnig, P., & Schicho, R. (2019). Cannabinoids in Gynecological Diseases. Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1159/000499164
  6. Walker, O. S., Holloway, A. C., & Raha, S. (2019). The role of the endocannabinoid system in female reproductive tissues. Journal of ovarian research, 12(1), 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13048-018-0478-9
  7. Maccarrone, M., Valensise, H., Bari, M., Lazzarin, N., Romanini, C., & Finazzi-Agrò, A. (2000). Relation between decreased anandamide hydrolase concentrations in human lymphocytes and miscarriage. Lancet (London, England), 355(9212), 1326–1329. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02115-2
  8. Walker, O. S., Holloway, A. C., & Raha, S. op. cit.
  9. Melo, A. S., Ferriani, R. A., & Navarro, P. A. (2015). Treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: approach to clinical practice. Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil), 70(11), 765–769. https://doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2015(11)09
  10. Walker, O. S., Holloway, A. C., & Raha, S. op. cit.
  11. El-Talatini, M. R., Taylor, A. H., Elson, J. C., Brown, L., Davidson, A. C., & Konje, J. C. (2009). Localisation and function of the endocannabinoid system in the human ovary. PloS one, 4(2), e4579. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004579
  12. Duleba, A. J., & Dokras, A. (2012). Is PCOS an inflammatory process?. Fertility and sterility, 97(1), 7–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.11.023
  13. Juan, C. C., Chen, K. H., Wang, P. H., Hwang, J. L., & Seow, K. M. (2015). Endocannabinoid system activation may be associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertility and sterility, 104(1), 200–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.03.027
  14. Lessey, B. A., & Kim, J. J. (2017). Endometrial receptivity in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis: it is affected, and let me show you why. Fertility and sterility, 108(1), 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.05.031
  15. Khoufache, K., Michaud, N., Harir, N., Kibangou Bondza, P., & Akoum, A. (2012). Anomalies in the inflammatory response in endometriosis and possible consequences: a review. Minerva endocrinologica, 37(1), 75–92.
  16. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain‐related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European Journal of Pain, 20(6), 936-948.
  17. Armour, M., Sinclair, J., Chalmers, K. J., & Smith, C. A. (2019). Self-management strategies amongst Australian women with endometriosis: a national online survey. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 19(1), 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2431-x
  18. Flegel, C., Vogel, F., Hofreuter, A. et al. (2016). Characterization of non-olfactory GPCRs in human sperm with a focus on GPR18. Sci Rep 6, 32255 . https://doi.org/10.1038/srep32255
  19. Cacciola, G., Chianese, R., Chioccarelli, T., Ciaramella, V., Fasano, S., Pierantoni, R., Meccariello, R., & Cobellis, G. (2010). Cannabinoids and Reproduction: A Lasting and Intriguing History. Pharmaceuticals, 3(10), 3275–3323. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph3103275
  20. Amoako, A. A., Marczylo, T. H., Elson, J., Taylor, A. H., Willets, J. M., & Konje, J. C. (2014). Relationship between seminal plasma levels of anandamide congeners palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide and semen quality. Fertility and sterility, 102(5), 1260–1267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.07.767
  21. Dayan, N., Joseph, K. S., Fell, D. B., Laskin, C. A., Basso, O., Park, A. L., Luo, J., Guan, J., & Ray, J. G. (2019). Infertility treatment and risk of severe maternal morbidity: a propensity score-matched cohort study. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l’Association medicale canadienne, 191(5), E118–E127. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.181124
  22. World Health Organization. (2018). Cannabidiol (CBD) Critical Review Report. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  23. Domar, A. D., Clapp, D., Slawsby, E., Kessel, B., Orav, J., & Freizinger, M. (2000). The impact of group psychological interventions on distress in infertile women. Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 19(6), 568–575. https://doi.org/10.1037//0278-6133.19.6.568
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