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Caffeine as a Stimulant

The caffeine content of beverages varies widely, and coffee is the primary source of dietary caffeine consumption. The International Coffee Organization says coffee lovers consume approximately 1.6 billion cups of coffee every day. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says about 80 percent of U.S. adults take some form of caffeine every day. According to a survey conducted by the National Coffee Association (NCA) on 3,000 respondents, more Americans are drinking a cup of coffee every day than they have been for the past six years. What made people more addicted to drinking coffee? The answer is in the caffeine, which, as a stimulant, acts on the brain and nervous system.

Numerous prescription and non-prescription pharmaceutical preparations make use of caffeine. There are some health benefits to caffeine consumption. In small doses, caffeine can make one feel reinvigorated and attentive. In large doses, however, one is likely to feel apprehensive and have trouble sleeping. As in many other drugs, there is a possibility that one could develop a tolerance to caffeine, which means ever-larger quantities are required to achieve the same result.


People most often think of marijuana when they hear the word “cannabis”, but THC, which is the one responsible for getting a user high, is not the only component. CBD (cannabidiol) is the second most predominant of the active components of cannabis (marijuana), and it is an essential component of medical marijuana. Cannabidiol is from the hemp plant, which is related to the marijuana plant. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), on the other hand, is the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana that gives the high sensation when one smokes it. But THC is also available in oils, edibles, tinctures, capsules.

Like THC and CBD, phytocannabinoids are cannabinoids, which are chemical compounds in the cannabis plant. The term ‘phyto’ pertains to the definition “derived from plants”, but most people refer to phytocannabinoids only as cannabinoids. While there are minimal differences between the two terms, experts typically use them interchangeably.

CBD and THC may have comparable chemical structures, but despite that, they do not have the same psychoactive effects. Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive compound, which means it does not produce the “high” associated with THC. THC binds with the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors in the brain and produces a high or sense of euphoria. Cannabidiol, however, binds very inadequately to CB1 receptors. It can even interfere with the binding of THC and dampen the psychoactive effect.

Understanding the Effects of CBD

Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), a type of cannabis plant, is one of the most recognized ancient plants. It belongs to the category schedule I drug in the United States but is acknowledged in 16 states and the District of Columbia for therapeutic purposes. However, marijuana is defined as cannabis, and cannabis covers the marijuana cultivar and the hemp cultivar. When the U.S. President Trump signed the 2018 Farm Bill, he removed hemp from the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) as long as it contains less than 0.3 percent THC, the psychoactive component.

Cannabinoid receptors in humans and some animals collaborate with message transporters called cannabinoids. When they work together, they generate a succession of responses that are intended to bring functions back into equilibrium. In the body, CBD and THC interact with cannabinoid receptors to help cure or limit the effects of certain medical conditions.

CBD also impacts non-cannabinoid chemicals. Dopamine, the chemical which plays an essential role by which we feel pleasure or a sense of reward, also interacts with CBD. Dopamine plays a role in how we feel pleasure. Dopamine influences our unique ability as humans to think and plan. CBD can block the sensitivity of the brain’s dopamine system to respond to drugs like amphetamine. CBD has been shown to prevent the brain’s dopamine pathways actively and may possess anti-addiction characteristics as well.

CBD products are available over the counter and online. One may take CBD in several ways — from smoking and vaping to giving the oil or extract sublingual. CBD is also accessible in the form of pills or food products like gummy candies, as well as in skin creams and patches.

Consumers can purchase CBD oil separately and use it orally. They may bake delicious treats with this oil, or make beverages with it, such as fortified coffees and teas. The results on the body from consuming CBD varies from person to person. Some adverse side effects may include nausea, fatigue and irritability. In many cases, CBD brings about energy, making a person more alert and active.

Meanwhile, in other people’s experience, CBD can produce just the contrary reaction. In very high doses, the latter group of people reported feeling drowsy after consuming CBD, as higher doses of CBD can cause a slight drop in blood pressure. According to professionals and even the World Health Organization, even in extremely significant quantities, CBD can probably cause extreme sleepiness, lethargy, upset stomach, nausea, jitters and diarrhea, not death.

One prominent figure in the field of Science related to the use of cannabis for medical purposes is Dr. Bonni Goldstein. As a licensed physician for 27 years, she focused on medical cannabis for the last decade. She is currently the Medical Director of Canna-Centers, a California-based medical practice dedicated to educating patients about the use of cannabis for severe and chronic medical conditions. Her work has helped shed light on the world’s most misunderstood plant, especially now that it is becoming more common to find in the coffee shops, CBD mixed with one’s favourite coffee.

CBD Infused Coffee

Research about what happens when one mixes CBD with caffeine is slightly erratic, as the exact interaction that could result from the combination of these compounds is still unknown. More research needs to happen, although there is already a lot of anecdotal evidence out there.

One might assume that the jolt brought about by his or her morning brew might prevent him or her from enjoying the calmness brought about by the CBD. But, according to some accounts, this is not always the case. Even Dr Bonni Goldstein said that figuring out how someone would react to CBD differs in each case. She explains, “At low doses, CBD is a stimulant, and in higher doses, it can cause sedation. Someone’s reaction to a combination of these compounds would not be easily predictable because various doses of each would affect the response.”

CBD naturally helps promote a calmer, more relaxed demeanour, so it is perfect for those who like the alertness, but not the increased heart rate, shakes, irritability, or jumpiness that sometimes comes with a morning latte. Users claim to have a heightened sense of concentration and a more optimistic attitude. Just the absence of anxiety or stress can be a means to get a much-improved sleep at night and a more relaxed time going about one’s routines in the morning.

Getting CBD and caffeine at the same time is also not difficult. To make CBD coffee, mix CBD into the brew. There are also delectable edibles like CBD brownies, cookies, or even gummies. That is a great way to get one’s daily CBD dose in a form that matches perfectly with coffee.

CBD Caffeine Chews and CBD Caffeine Pills

There are different kinds of CBD edibles in the market today to cater to the varied preferences of CDB enthusiasts. There are chews, pills, gummies, chocolates, and candies, and brownies. CBD edibles can vary significantly on potency, and they are ideal for people who have never tried CBD products before. A low-strength edible is ideal for those who want to experiment for themselves and use several CBD products at once. CBD energy chews contain caffeine for that energy boost, and they may be readily purchased online. Some popular brands are Hank’s HiNaturals, HQO, Dixie Kicks, and Holy Grail, to name a few. For CBD caffeine pills, there are Infinite CBD AM Capsules, Lazarus Naturals Energy Blend CBD Isolate Capsules, Earth Mined CBD AM Capsules.

CBD Caffeine Withdrawal

Some people are trying to eliminate coffee or significantly reduce the amount of their caffeine intake. However, making the transition may not be smooth or comfortable. Withdrawal symptoms associated with caffeine include depressed mood, poor concentration, headache, irritability, fatigue, lagging energy level, anxiety, and shaking. These symptoms can last from two to nine days. People who turned to CBD coffee did not experience these symptoms associated with caffeine. However, some people think that the reduction of withdrawal symptoms is experienced only as long as you continue using CBD until the withdrawal is over. They found that when they went back to their regular coffee after a few days of using CBD, they experienced the dreaded caffeine headache. 


CBD is generally safe to consume, but it is best to start taking it in low doses. Some people take their CBD oil drops or capsules at the same time they drink coffee, or they infuse their caffeine beverages with CBD. One of the reasons that pairing CBD and caffeine has become popular is that the interaction with CBD oil cancels the side-effects of caffeine consumption. Combining CBD and caffeine is also almost effortless. However, take note that CBD loses its potency when it is subject to high temperatures. Allow your drink to cool down a little before you add your CBD, or opt for a chilled version of your favorite coffee or tea.

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Date of Peer Review: October 2002

L-Asparagic acid
(S)-Aminobutanedioic acid
L-Aminosuccinic acid
CAS #56-84-8C4H7NO4
RTECS #CI9098500Molecular mass: 133.1
UN #
EC #
NO open flames.
In case of fire in the surroundings: use appropriate extinguishing media.
EXPLOSIONFinely dispersed particles form explosive mixtures in air.
Prevent build-up of electrostatic charges (e.g., by grounding). Prevent deposition of dust; closed system, dust explosion-proof electrical equipment and lighting.
InhalationCough. Sore throat.
Local exhaust or breathing protection.
Fresh air, rest. Refer for medical attention.
Skin Protective gloves.
Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap.
EyesRedness. Pain.
Safety spectacles.
First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.
IngestionBitter taste. Burning sensation in the throat and chest.
Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work.
Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Give plenty of water to drink.
Sweep spilled substance into containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Wash away remainder with plenty of water. (Extra personal protection: P1 filter respirator for inert particles.)
EU Classification
UN Classification
 Separated from strong oxidants.
Programme on
Chemical Safety
Prepared in the context of cooperation between the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the Commission of the European Communities © IPCS, CEC 1999



Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air. If dry, it can be charged electrostatically by swirling, pneumatic transport, pouring, etc.CHEMICAL DANGERS:
The substance decomposes on burning producing toxic gases including nitrogen oxides. Reacts violently with oxidants.

TLV not established.

The substance can be absorbed into the body by ingestion.
Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a nuisance-causing concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly when dispersed, especially, if powdered.EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE:
The substance is irritating to the eyes and the respiratory tract.


Decomposes below boiling point at 324°C
Melting point: 270°C
Density: 1.7 g/cm^3
Solubility in water, g/100 ml: 0.45
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: -3.89
LEGAL NOTICENeither the CEC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the CEC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information
© IPCS, CEC 1999

Many new mothers wonder (or fear) if beginning to breastfeed means quitting caffeine. This thought is particularly troublesome when a woman realizes her new motherly fate, which includes a significant lack of sleep. Although a cup of caffeinated coffee in the morning may help boost energy, thus helping mothers to manage sleep deprivation better, many remain concerned about the safety of caffeine during breastfeeding and how the stimulant impacts their babies.

Caffeine is a plant-derived compound that acts as a stimulant for the central nervous system. It can deliver higher energy levels and greater levels of alertness to those who consume it. Despite its health benefits, it may offer negative implications for the breastfed baby.

Effects of Caffeine on Breastmilk

Studies have determined that about 1% of the caffeine you consume passes through breast milk to your baby. Although the total amount may not seem like much, infants do not process caffeine the same way nor as quickly as adults.

Caffeine is considered to be generally safe during breastfeeding and is categorized as a Lactation Risk Category L2, meaning it is safer, usually peaking about 1-2 hours after ingestion. The American Academy of Pediatrics has coined caffeine as being a “Maternal medication usually compatible with breastfeeding.”

Although caffeine is considered to be mostly safe, there are still risks associated with drinking it during breastfeeding. Many of the risks are linked to higher caffeine consumption. One study indicated that the iron content of breastmilk might decrease due to chronic coffee drinking, likely due to the acids found in coffee.

When an adult drinks caffeine, it is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream by way of the gut. The liver then takes action and breaks it into compounds that put it to use for different bodily functions and organs.

Caffeine remains in the body for three to seven hours in healthy adults, but infants retain it for 65 to 130 hours, due mostly to their not yet fully developed kidneys and liver. Infants may start showing symptoms of the effect of caffeine within hours after their mother consumes caffeine. These symptoms may last for days.

Newborns have the hardest time processing caffeine that passes through breast milk. As a baby gets older, his or her ability to break down caffeine increases and the amount of time it remains in his system is reduced. Babies older than 4 months of age may be better to process caffeine, so symptoms may not last as long.

Some other infant-related risks associated with maternal caffeine consumption include an increased prevalence of infant night waking as well as increased fussiness and/or jitteriness.

Additionally, mothers face risks of excessive caffeine intake as well. The negative effects associated with caffeine consumption include jitters, anxiety, dizziness, rapid heartbeat and insomnia, according to multiple studies.

Does Caffeine Decrease Milk Supply?

Some mothers are concerned that caffeine may decrease their milk supply. There is not any evidence that supports the claim that caffeine consumption leads to a decreased milk supply. One 1994 study found that caffeine does not change the composition of breast milk but instead stimulates milk production. However, there are not many other studies that make this claim.

How Much Caffeine is Too Much when Breastfeeding?

The best way to determine how much caffeine is best for your baby is to monitor your baby to determine how he or she responds to the amount of caffeine you are drinking. Various sources recommend that breastfeeding mothers should not exceed somewhere between 300 (two to three 5-oz cups) to 750 mg (five 5-oz coups) of caffeine per day.

During pregnancy, the recommendation is not to exceed 300 mg/day of caffeine consumption. Some breastfeeding moms and their providers prefer to stay within those limits while others find that consuming as much as 750 mg of caffeine per day does not adversely affect their infant.

Interestingly, babies of mothers who drank caffeine during their pregnancy are often less sensitive to caffeine consumption post-birth.

If your baby seems irritable or has trouble sleeping long, it may be a good idea to cut back on caffeine or eliminate it for a while to determine if the amount of caffeine in your diet is affecting him.

Sources of Caffeine

Most people first think of coffee when thinking about beverages that contain caffeine, but many different foods and drinks contain this plant-based compound. If you are concerned about the amount of caffeine you consume for the sake of your breastfed baby, keep in mind these other foods and drinks that contain caffeine (including the last in the list, which may surprise you):

  • Coffee, which contains 60 to 200 mg/caffeine per 8-ounce cup
  • Energy drinks, which contain 50 to 160 mg/caffeine per 8-ounce cup
  • Soda, which contains 30 to 60 mg/caffeine per 12-ounce serving
  • Brewed tea, which contains anywhere from 9 to 110 mg/serving
  • Hot chocolate, which contains 3-32 mg/caffeine per 8-ounce cup
  • Decaf coffee, which contains 2-4 mg/caffeine per 8-ounce cup

Coffees and teas, as well as many other caffeinated beverages, can vary in the amount of caffeine per serving – often depending on how they are prepared and which type of bean (coffee) or leaf (tea) they come from. These numbers are only approximate.

Other sources of caffeine include candy, chocolate, supplements, some medications and any other food or drink that claims to boost energy.

Managing Caffeine Consumption while Breastfeeding

Caffeine can be enjoyed in moderation by many breastfeeding mothers. Below are some tips to wisely manage your consumption of caffeine while breastfeeding.

Monitor your baby. If your baby becomes restless or fussy, he may be sensitive to caffeine, and it may be time to cut back on the amount you drink. See how your baby responds for 2-3 weeks then consider introducing a little back in if you feel it is necessary.

Drink caffeine after a nursing or pumping session. To allow the caffeine content in your breast milk to drop, consider drinking your cup of coffee right after a nursing session.

Try half-caf. If you want to reduce the amount of caffeine in your diet but are not ready to cut it out altogether, consider making a mix of regular and decaf coffee. Put the same amount of grounds in your coffee maker but divide it up between both types.

If you have to cut out caffeine for a while, it likely won’t last forever. Remember that we mentioned before that as an infant grows, his body processes caffeine more efficiently? It means that if you need to cut out caffeine for a time, it will not be permanent. Your child may be able to handle caffeine better as he gets a little bigger.

For more tips about drinking caffeine while breastfeeding as well as advice about the safety or risks, you can talk to a lactation consultant or doctor.

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