Does CBD Interact With Magnesium?

Magnesium is a mineral naturally present in a variety of foods, available as a supplement, and an ingredient in antacids and laxatives (1). 

Magnesium is essential in assisting more than 300 enzymes to carry out various chemical reactions in the body, such as building proteins and healthy bones and regulating blood sugar, blood pressure, and muscle and nerve functions. Without enough magnesium, these areas malfunction.

More than half of the magnesium in the body is stored in bones, while some are in various tissues.

Can CBD Be Taken With Magnesium?

There is no data available on the adverse effects that may result from an interaction between CBD and magnesium. Neither is there a study that says the two substances may be safely taken together.

For these reasons, one should consult with a medical professional before supplementing with both CBD and magnesium and taking them together.

CBD can interact with other compounds that, like itself, are metabolized (broken down) in the body by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Primarily found in liver cells, cytochrome P450 enzymes account for 70% to 80% of enzymes involved in drug metabolism (2). 

These enzymes break down external substances, such as medications that are ingested, and internal substances, such as toxins, that are formed within cells. 

Meanwhile, results of a randomized clinical trial showed that magnesium supplementation does not affect liver enzymes in patients with a fatty liver (3).

Can CBD Replace Magnesium?

No study explicitly says CBD can be used in place of magnesium. However, a close look at the main health benefits of magnesium reveals this mineral possesses characteristics comparable to those of CBD.

Listed below are some areas where magnesium and CBD share the same therapeutic benefits.

  • Bone Problems

Population studies have noted an association of greater bone mineral density in men and women with higher magnesium diets (4). 

Similarly, CBD promotes bone health. The effect of CBD on bones was demonstrated by a 2015 study that investigated the properties of cannabidiol concerning bone-related conditions. Data showed that that CBD led to an improvement in fracture healing (5).

Magnesium is often prescribed as an adjunct treatment for migraine headaches. Clinical studies have reported low magnesium levels in people suffering from this condition (6).

Meanwhile, CBD’s antiemetic properties, which prevent nausea and vomiting, are incredibly helpful. 

A 2011 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology revealed the antiemetic effects of cannabinoids in response to a toxic challenge. 

CBD, the primary non-psychoactive compound in cannabis, was shown to suppress nausea and vomiting within a limited dose range (7).

A 2014 review from the European Journal of Pharmacology established the potential of cannabinoids to limit or prevent nausea and vomiting from a wide range of causes (8). 

Magnesium helps with neurological pathways that, when not functioning correctly, are known to lead to mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Several studies have linked lower magnesium levels with increased depression (9).

Similarly, a study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology found that CBD decreases anxiety levels in individuals with a social anxiety disorder (SAD). 

Results indicated that, relative to placebo, CBD was associated with significantly decreased subjective anxiety (10). 

In another study, results showed that CBD could induce rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhance neurotransmission (11). Neurotransmission is the process of communication between nerve cells.

  • Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD)

Studies have shown that increased magnesium intakes or high blood levels of magnesium are linked to a lower risk of stroke and deaths from heart disease. 

However, it is difficult to separate other nutrients in these same foods that are protective against CVD (12).

Meanwhile, a study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology showed that CBD might help attenuate oxidative stress, as well as cardiac dysfunction, fibrosis, and cell death (13).

In a 2015 study conducted by researchers from the University of Nottingham Royal Derby Hospital in the UK, CBD was shown to be a potent vascular relaxant to human arteries, suggesting its potential benefits to dilate blood vessels and increase blood flow (14)

Magnesium helps enzymes that control blood sugar and insulin activity. Prospective studies show an association of diets low in magnesium with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (15).

In comparison, the results of a study in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism suggested that the stimulus of cannabinoid receptors CB-1 in the islet (cluster) cells within the pancreas might be linked to insulin production (16).

In another 2016 study, researchers from the University of Nottingham found that when CBD was used in conjunction with cannabis compound THCV, it helped increase insulin production and lower blood sugar in those with type 2 diabetes (17).

Conclusion

Magnesium and CBD possess similar therapeutic benefits. However, they work in immensely different ways and no study explicitly says CBD can be used in place of magnesium. 

Moreover, there is no data available on the adverse effects that may result from an interaction between CBD and magnesium. Neither is there a study that says the two substances may be safely taken together.

For these reasons, one should consult with a medical professional before supplementing with both CBD and magnesium and taking them together.


  1. Harvard TH Chan. Magnesium. Retrieved from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/magnesium/
  2. NIH Genetics Home Reference. (2020, March 17). Cytochrome p450. Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/genefamily/cytochromep450
  3. Karandish M, Tamimi M, Shayesteh AA, Haghighizadeh MH, Jalali MT. The effect of magnesium supplementation and weight loss on liver enzymes in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Res Med Sci. 2013;18(7):573–579.
  4. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements: Magnesium Fact Sheet for Health Professionals https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/. Accessed 9/2/2019.
  5. Kogan NM, Melamed E, Wasserman E, et al. Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30(10):1905–1913. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.2513.
  6. Gröber U, Schmidt J, Kisters K. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Nutrients. 2015 Sep 23;7(9):8199-226.
  7. Parker LA, Rock EM, Limebeer CL. Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7):1411–1422. DOIi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01176.x. 
  8. Sharkey KA, Darmani NA, Parker LA. Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014;722:134–146. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.09.068. 
  9. Tarleton EK, Littenberg B. Magnesium intake and depression in adults. J Am Board Fam Med. 2015 Mar-Apr;28(2):249-56; Kirkland AE, Sarlo GL, Holton KF. The Role of Magnesium in Neurological Disorders. Nutrients. 2018 Jun 6;10(6).
  10. Crippa JA et al.Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report.J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jan;25(1):121-30. DOIi: 10.1177/0269881110379283. Epub 2010 Sep 9. DOI: 10.1177/0269881110379283.
  11. Linge R et al. Cannabidiol induces rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhances cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission: role of 5-HT1A receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2016 Apr;103:16-26. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.12.017. Epub 2015 Dec 19.DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.12.017.
  12. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements: Magnesium Fact Sheet for Health Professionals https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/. Accessed 9/2/2019.
  13. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Bátkai S, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(25):2115–2125. DOIi:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.07.033.
  14. .Stanley CP, Hind WH, Tufarelli C, O’Sullivan SE. Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;107(4):568–578. DOIi:10.1093/cvr/cvv179.
  15. Gröber U, Schmidt J, Kisters K. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Nutrients. 2015 Sep 23;7(9):8199-226.
  16. Jourdan T, Godlewski G, Kunos G. Endocannabinoid regulation of β-cell functions: implications for glycaemic control and diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2016;18(6):549–557. DOI:10.1111/dom.12646.
  17. Jadoon K et al. Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study. Diabetes Care Oct 2016, 39 (10) 1777-1786; DOI: 10.2337/dc16-0650.

 

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 HYPOMAGNESAEMIA

 

    DEFINITION

 

    A serum magnesium concentration below the normal range (typically 0.8

    to 1.2 mmol/L, 1.6 to 2.4 mEq/L, 2.0 to 2.6 mg/dL).

 

    TOXIC CAUSES 

 

    Alcoholism

    Amphotericin

    Aminoglycosides

    Beta agonists 

    Cisplatin

    Cyclosporin 

    Diuretics 

    Hydrofluoric acid

    Laxatives 

    Pentamidine

    Theophylline

 

    NON-TOXIC CAUSES

 

    Congenital renal magnesium wasting 

    Diabetes mellitus

    Hyperparathyroidism

    Hyperthyroidism

    Inadequate magnesium intake

    Pancreatitis

    Primary hyperaldosteronism

    Prolonged diarrhoea

    Prolonged nasogastric suction

    Renal transplantation

    Total parenteral nutrition

 

    CLINICAL FEATURES

 

    The clinical features are non-specific, variable and not well

    correlated with serum magnesium concentration.  Initially, anorexia,

    nausea, vomiting, lethargy and weakness may develop.  The principal

    symptoms of magnesium deficiency consist of paresthesiae, muscular

    cramps, irritability, decreased attention span and mental confusion. 

    Physical findings reflect associated hypocalcaemia and may include

    positive Trousseau’s and Chvostek’s signs, tremor, hyperreflexia,

    peculiar movements of the fingers described as “athetoid tetany” and,

    sometimes, convulsions. 

 

    Cardiac arrhythmias, disturbances of conduction, ventricular

    fibrillation and cardiac arrest can occur in patients with coexisting

    hypokalaemia.

 

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

 

    Hypocalcaemia

    Hypokalaemia 

    Neurologic disorders with increased deep tendon reflexes (e.g.

    progressive primary muscular atrophy)

    Seizures due to other causes

 

    RELEVANT INVESTIGATIONS

 

    Serum magnesium

    Serum calcium, phosphorus

    Serum sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate

    Renal function tests (urea, creatinine)

    ECG

    Arterial blood gas analysis

 

    TREATMENT

 

    In treating magnesium deficiency, it is important to detect and

    correct any associated potassium and calcium deficiencies.

 

    In mild magnesium deficiency, restoration of body stores occurs

    quickly after providing a diet high in magnesium.  In more severe

    magnesium deficiency, parenteral administration of magnesium salts is

    safe and effective but must be used cautiously in patients with renal

    insufficiency.  Initial treatment requires 8 to 12 g of intravenous

     magnesium sulfate in divided doses over the first 24 hours, followed

    by 4 to 5 g daily for 3 to 4 days.  It is important to replete

    magnesium stores in patients with hypomagnesaemia but not to provide

    an excess.

 

    Magnesium oxide is typically supplied as 600 mg tablets containing 30

    mEq/L of magnesium per tablet.  Several days of 4 to 6 tablets per day

    should be sufficient to restore the deficit in most patients. 

    Administration of oral magnesium can cause diarrhoea.

 

    CLINICAL COURSE AND MONITORING

 

    The management of moderate-to-severe hypomagnesaemia should include

    admission to hospital with monitoring of haemodynamic status,

    neurologic status and serum electrolytes.

 

    During replacement therapy, serum magnesium and deep tendon reflexes

    should be monitored closely, especially in patients with renal

    insufficiency.  If the patient becomes weak or loses deep tendon

    reflexes, stop the infusion immediately. 

 

    LONG-TERM COMPLICATIONS

 

    None

 

    AUTHOR(S)/REVIEWERS

 

    Authors:            Dr Tim Meredith and Dr Yeong-Liang Lin 

                        Center for Clinical Toxicology 

                        Vanderbilt University Medical Center

                        Nashville, USA.

 

    Reviewers:          Rio de Janeiro 9/97:  J.N. Bernstein, E. Birtanov,

  1. Hentschel, T.M. Meredith, Y. Ostapenko,
  2. Pelclova, C.P. Snook, J. Szajewski

                        Birmingham 3/99: B. Groszek, H. Kupferschmidt,

  1. Langford, K. Olson, J. Pronczuk.

    

MAGNESIUM (POWDER)ICSC: 0289
Date of Peer Review: April 2000
CAS #7439-95-4Mg
RTECS #OM2100000Atomic mass: 24.30
UN #1418
EC Index #012-001-00-3 (pyrophoric)

 

TYPES OF HAZARD / EXPOSUREACUTE HAZARDS / SYMPTOMSPREVENTIONFIRST AID / FIRE FIGHTING
FIREHighly flammable. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.NO open flames, NO sparks, and NO smoking. NO contact with moisture, acids, halogens and many other substances.Special powder, dry sand, NO other agents. NO water.
EXPLOSIONFinely dispersed particles form explosive mixtures in air.Do NOT expose to friction or shock. Prevent build-up of electrostatic charges (e.g., by grounding).

 

EXPOSUREPREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST!
InhalationCough. Laboured breathing. Headache. Dullness. Weakness. Fever or elevated body temperature.
Skin
EyesRedness. Pain.Safety goggles.
IngestionAbdominal pain. Diarrhoea.Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work.Rinse mouth. Refer for medical attention.

 

SPILLAGE DISPOSALPACKAGING & LABELLING
Do NOT wash away into sewer. Sweep spilled substance into containers. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Personal protection: P2 filter respirator for harmful particles.Airtight.

EU Classification

Symbol: F

R: 15-17

S: (2-)-7/8-43

UN Classification

UN Hazard Class: 4.3

UN Subsidiary Risks: 4.2

UN Pack Group: ll

EMERGENCY RESPONSESTORAGE
Transport Emergency Card: TEC (R)-43GWS-II+III

NFPA Code: H0; F1; R2;

Fireproof. Separated from strong oxidants, acids. Dry.
IPCS

International

Programme on

Chemical Safety

Prepared in the context of cooperation between the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the Commission of the European Communities © IPCS, CEC 2005

SEE IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON BACK

 

MAGNESIUM (POWDER)ICSC: 0289

 

IMPORTANT DATA
PHYSICAL STATE; APPEARANCE:

GREY POWDER

PHYSICAL DANGERS:

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air. If dry, it can be charged electrostatically by swirling, pneumatic transport, pouring, etc.

CHEMICAL DANGERS:

The substance may spontaneously ignite on contact with air or moisture producing irritating or toxic fumes. Reacts violently with strong oxidants. Reacts violently with many substances causing fire and explosion hazard. Reacts with acids and water forming flammable/explosive gas (hydrogen – see ICSC0001), causing fire and explosion hazard.

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS:

TLV not established.

MAK not established.

ROUTES OF EXPOSURE:

The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation.

INHALATION RISK:

Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly.

EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE:

Inhalation of fumes may cause metal fume fever.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Boiling point: 1100°C

Melting point: 651°C

Density: 1.7 g/cm³

Solubility in water: none

Auto-ignition temperature: 473°C

Explosive limits, vol% in air: see Notes

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
NOTES
Burns with an intense flame. In order to prevent eye injury do not look directly at magnesium fires. Reacts violently with fire extinguishing agents such as water, carbon dioxide and powder. Explosive limits, vol% in air: (LEL) 0.03 kg/m³. Card has been partly updated in October 2005. See section Emergency Response.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
LEGAL NOTICENeither the CEC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the CEC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information
© IPCS, CEC 2005

 

CALCIUM CARBIDEICSC: 0406
Date of Peer Review: October 1995

Calcium acetylide

Acetylenogen

CAS #75-20-7CaC2
RTECS #EV9400000Molecular mass: 64.1
UN #1402
EC Index #006-004-00-9

 

TYPES OF HAZARD / EXPOSUREACUTE HAZARDS / SYMPTOMSPREVENTIONFIRST AID / FIRE FIGHTING
FIRENot combustible but forms flammable gas on contact with water or damp air. Many reactions may cause fire or explosion.NO contact with water.Special powder, dry sand, NO other agents.
EXPLOSIONRisk of fire and explosion on contact with water.Use non-sparking handtools. Prevent deposition of dust; closed system, dust explosion-proof electrical equipment and lighting.In case of fire: cool drums, etc., by spraying with water but avoid contact of the substance with water.

 

EXPOSUREPREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST! STRICT HYGIENE!
InhalationCough. Laboured breathing. Shortness of breath. Sore throat.Local exhaust or breathing protection.Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Refer for medical attention.
SkinRedness. Skin burns. Pain.Protective gloves. Protective clothing.Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower.
EyesRedness. Pain. Blurred vision. Severe deep burns.Safety goggles or eye protection in combination with breathing protection if powder.First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.
IngestionLaboured breathing. Shock or collapse. (Further see Inhalation).Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Wash hands before eating.Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer for medical attention. See Notes.

 

SPILLAGE DISPOSALPACKAGING & LABELLING
Remove all ignition sources. Sweep spilled substance into clean dry containers. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Do not use water.Airtight.

EU Classification

Symbol: F

R: 15

S: (2-)-8-43

UN Classification

UN Hazard Class: 4.3

UN Pack Group: II

EMERGENCY RESPONSESTORAGE
Transport Emergency Card: TEC (R)-43S1402 or 43GW2-II+III

NFPA Code: H1; F3; R2; W

Separated from incompatible materials. See Chemical Dangers. Dry. Well closed.
IPCS

International

Programme on

Chemical Safety

Prepared in the context of cooperation between the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the Commission of the European Communities © IPCS, CEC 2005

SEE IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON BACK

 

CALCIUM CARBIDEICSC: 0406

 

IMPORTANT DATA
PHYSICAL STATE; APPEARANCE:

GREY CRYSTALS OR BLACK LUMPS, WITH CHARACTERISTIC ODOUR.

CHEMICAL DANGERS:

Shock-sensitive compounds are formed with silver nitrate and copper salts. The substance decomposes violently on contact with moisture and water producing highly flammable and explosive acetylene gas (ICSC # 0089), causing fire and explosion hazard. Reacts with chlorine, bromine, iodine, hydrogen chloride, lead, fluoride magnesium, sodium peroxide and sulphur, causing fire and explosion hazard. Mixtures with iron (III) chloride, iron (III) oxide and tin (II) chloride ignite easily and burn fiercely.

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS:

TLV not established.

ROUTES OF EXPOSURE:

The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation.

INHALATION RISK:

Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly especially if powdered.

EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE:

Corrosive. The substance is corrosive to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. Inhalation of the substance may cause lung oedema (see Notes).

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Melting point: about 2300°C

Relative density (water = 1): 2.22

Solubility in water: reaction

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
NOTES
Reacts violently with fire extinguishing agents such as water, producing explosive gas. The substance may contain contaminant resulting in the release of the toxic gas phosphine on contact with water. The symptoms of lung oedema often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort. Rest and medical observation are therefore essential. Immediate administration of an appropriate inhalation therapy by a doctor or a person authorized by him/her, should be considered. Specific treatment is necessary in case of poisoning with this substance; the appropriate means with instructions must be available. Also consult ICSC 0089 Acetylene. Card has been partly updated in October 2005. See section Emergency Response.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
LEGAL NOTICENeither the CEC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the CEC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information
© IPCS, CEC 2005

 

MAGNESIUM (PELLETS)ICSC: 0701
Date of Peer Review: March 1995

Magnesium turnings
CAS #7439-95-4Mg
RTECS #OM2100000Atomic mass: 24.3
UN #1869
EC Index #012-002-00-9

 

TYPES OF HAZARD / EXPOSUREACUTE HAZARDS / SYMPTOMSPREVENTIONFIRST AID / FIRE FIGHTING
FIREHighly flammable in powder form. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.NO open flames, NO sparks, and NO smoking. NO contact with moisture or acid.Dry sand. Special powder. NO hydrous agents. NO water.
EXPLOSIONFinely dispersed particles form explosive mixtures in air.Prevent deposition of dust; closed system, dust explosion-proof electrical equipment and lighting.

 

EXPOSUREPREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST!
InhalationCough.Local exhaust or breathing protection.Fresh air, rest.
SkinProtective gloves.Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower.
EyesRedness. Pain.Safety goggles.First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.
IngestionDo not eat, drink, or smoke during work.Rinse mouth.

 

SPILLAGE DISPOSALPACKAGING & LABELLING
Sweep spilled substance into containers. Do NOT wash away into sewer. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Personal protection: P2 filter respirator for harmful particles.Airtight.

EU Classification

Symbol: F

R: 11-15

S: (2-)-7/8-43

UN Classification

UN Hazard Class: 4.1

UN Pack Group: III

EMERGENCY RESPONSESTORAGE
Transport Emergency Card: TEC (R)-41GF3-II+III

NFPA Code: H0; F1; R1;

Fireproof. Separated from strong oxidants, acids, carbonates, halogens. Dry.
IPCS

International

Programme on

Chemical Safety

Prepared in the context of cooperation between the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the Commission of the European Communities © IPCS, CEC 2005

SEE IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON BACK

 

MAGNESIUM (PELLETS)ICSC: 0701

 

IMPORTANT DATA
PHYSICAL STATE; APPEARANCE:

SILVERY-WHITE METALLIC SOLID IN VARIOUS FORMS.

CHEMICAL DANGERS:

The substance may spontaneously ignite on contact with air if finely divided or on heating. Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed. The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts violently with oxidants and many other substances, causing fire and explosion hazard. Reacts with moisture or acids, evolving combustible gas (Hydrogen – see ICSC 0001), causing fire and explosion hazard.

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS:

TLV not established.

ROUTES OF EXPOSURE:

The substance can be absorbed into the body by ingestion.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Boiling point: 1100°C

Melting point: 649°C

Relative density (water = 1): 1.74

Solubility in water: reaction

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
NOTES
Magnesium burns with an intense flame. Avoid direct viewing of magnesium fires. Reacts violently with fire extinguishing agents such as water, powder, carbon dioxide and halons.

Card has been partly updated in October 2004. See sections Occupational Exposure Limits, EU classification, Emergency Response.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
LEGAL NOTICENeither the CEC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the CEC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information
© IPCS, CEC 2005
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