• CBD has been shown to possess numerous potential health benefits that may help with many ailments and medical conditions, including pain, anxiety, sleeping problems, and arthritis(1).
  • CBD is safe. According to a 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) report, “In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential… To date, there is no evidence of public health-related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.”(2)
  • In some states, buying CBD may require having a medical cannabis prescription, while elsewhere, CBD may be sold only at a licensed dispensary. Under the 2018 Farm Bill, hemp-derived CBD is not subject to regulation as a controlled substance at the federal level(3).
  • Finding the best CBD oil for one’s needs may be a daunting task. Below is a CBD shopping guide with useful tips and information on assessing product potency, CBD oil type, extraction methods, ways of taking CBD, and the importance of a certificate of analysis.

Best CBD Oils

 

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Clinical Scores
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
    Perfect for...New CBD users
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
     Mid-strength  No other flavors
     Natural peppermint flavor
     Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsOrganic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price Range$89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsOrganic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forNew CBD users
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Customer Service
  • Clinical Scores
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
    Perfect for...Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
     Extra strong  No other flavors
     Significant benefits with just a few drops
     100% Natural ingredients
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take itUsing 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilCoconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price RangeSingle Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsContaminant-free
    AllergensVegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forPatients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Best Organic

Nuleaf Naturals 725mg Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
Nuleaf Naturals 725mg Full Spectrum CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Clinical Scores
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
    Perfect for...Health conscious
  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. There are approximately 300 drops in this 0.5 FL OZ bottle, where 1 drop = 2.4 mg of CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
     Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
     All natural
     Approximately 300 drops total
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsUSDA Certified Organic Hemp Oil, Full Spectrum Hemp Extract
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take itUnder the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    725mg of CBD per 0.5 FL OZ (15ml)
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    48.33mg to a max of 51.82mg per 1ml
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursNatural
    Price Range$99.00 - 1-pack, $434.00 - 6-pack
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    1-pack - $0.13, 6-pack - $0.59
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsNo additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    AllergensNot specified
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forHealth conscious
    Countries servedUSA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Parguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
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Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures Products
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Natural Alternative
  • Clinical Scores
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
    Perfect for...CBD users with different needs
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
     Plenty of concentrations to choose from for all people with various kinds of needs  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
     Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
     Affordable pricing
     Affordable pricing
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    300 mg - 7500 mg / 30 ml bottle, 1000 mg - 1500 mg / 60 ml bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    30 ml: 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml), 750 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 50 mg per dropper (1ml), 3000 mg - 100 mg per dropper (1ml), 5000 mg - 166.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 7500 mg - 250 mg per dropper (1ml), 60 ml: 1000 mg - 16.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug TestContaining less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    FlavoursNatural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range30 ml Bottles: $29.99 for 300 mg, $69.99 for 750 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg, $149.99 for 3000 mg, $239.99 for 5000 mg, $339.99 for 7500 mg 60 ml Bottles: $74.99 for 1000 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    30 ml - $0.05 - $0.10, 60 ml - $0.06 - $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forCBD users with different needs
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why Choose Full-Spectrum CBD Oil?

The two primary types of CBD are CBD isolate and full-spectrum CBD oil, and consumers must understand the differences.

Full-spectrum CBD oil has all of the cannabinoids that can be extracted from the cannabis plant, and it offers a more excellent range of benefits than pure CBD isolate.

Isolate CBD is pure CBD only and does not contain other types of cannabinoids.

While CBD isolate is considered to be more potent or concentrated than other CBD products, this does not make it superior. The high potency of the isolate cannot rival the combined effects of the various cannabinoids contained in full-spectrum CBD oil products.

The full-spectrum variety contains a complete range of cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds naturally present in cannabis, including other minerals, such as a variety of fatty acids and beneficial fiber.

Terpenes are the compounds in cannabis that give it distinctive aromas and flavors, while flavonoids are responsible for the vivid colors in most plants.

The combination of all these components creates a synergy known as “entourage effect,” where all of the constituents working together are more efficient than their isolated elements(4).

There are several ways to take full-spectrum CBD oil. There are full-spectrum CBD drops or tinctures, which, despite the strong, unpleasant taste, offers the benefits of all the cannabinoids and other compounds the products contain. There are CBD capsules, pills, balms, patches, and vapes.

These various forms of CBD products give people more choices and allow them to customize their method of use to their lifestyle, preference, and need.

What CBD Potency Means and Why It Matters

Knowing a CBD product’s potency helps one determine its bioavailability, or how much CBD actually gets absorbed in the body.

CBD has to reach the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the body for it to be effective.

The ECS, which is comprised of a series of cannabinoid receptors, is responsible for physiological processes, such as appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory. The primary objective of the ECS is homeostasis, or balance, of the different biological systems.

To get to the ECS, CBD has to be first absorbed into the bloodstream, a concept known as bioavailability.

Bioavailability is the extent and rate to which a compound or an active drug ingredient is absorbed and becomes readily available for the body to use(5).

Once in the system, CBD has to stay in circulation long enough to be delivered to the tissues and organs where it is needed.

However, note that the amount of the CBD taken is not always comparable to the amount that gets absorbed and used.

Bioavailability depends on pharmacokinetics, or how the body processes compounds.

Pharmacokinetics refers to the sum of the body’s mechanisms for absorption and elimination, the characteristics of CBD itself, and the numerous external factors that can either help or hinder the way the body assimilates and uses CBD.

Also, the route of entry, or delivery method, can impact how much and how quickly CBD enters the bloodstream.

A 2018 systematic review published in Frontiers in Pharmacology looked into the pharmacokinetics of CBD in humans. Researchers also examined the pharmacokinetics of CBD in different forms of administration, such as sublingual drops, oral capsules, spray sublingual, and nebulizer(6).

When looking for the most potent CBD products, check the label for information on the product’s potency or bioavailability.

CBD Buyers Guide: How to Choose the Best CBD Product

Finding the CBD product that suits one’s needs and preferences may require a little experimentation and some time. What works best for an individual may not work for someone else.

Still, regardless of the type or form of CBD product one chooses, he or she must employ careful consideration in choosing the best CBD oil that is right for him or her.

The following factors are essential to ensure the safety and reliability of the CBD products purchased:

1. Decide on which medical condition CBD would be used.

It is essential to consider the purpose of using CBD.

Since CBD has been shown to treat a wide range of ailments and medical conditions, and there have been studies that demonstrate CBD’s therapeutic benefits for specific conditions, an individual may look to it for treating a particular health concern.

However, CBD is not a cure-all, and caution is advised as more longitudinal research is necessary to obtain substantial evidence to validate the results of the studies.

Far-reaching medical claims highlight CBD’s success in treating various conditions such as anxiety, acne, insomnia, addiction, inflammation, and Parkinson’s disease.

However, such assertions often go beyond what science has shown, according to cannabis researcher Ryan Vandrey, an associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine(7).

Vandrey says their team looked at individuals with health problems, such as epilepsy, chronic pain, autism, and anxiety, cannabis product users (predominantly CBD product users). He said those people reported a better quality of life and satisfaction with health, pain, sleep, and mood compared with those who were not using cannabis products.

He added that when those who were not using cannabis at the time of the first survey later started using cannabis, they showed improvements that mirrored the differences between cannabis users and nonusers in the beginning.

Still, before individuals proceed to explore how CBD can help them alleviate symptoms of specific disorders, they should get all the information they need.

Read more on the potential health benefits of CBD, along with the scientific research behind the claims, in the section Why CBD? A Look at CBD’s Potential Benefits and What the Research Says.

2. Choose the kind of CBD oil.

Choose which kind of CBD oil would best suit the medical condition or purpose that it is going to help address.

A CBD isolate is molecularly separated from the rest of the cannabis compounds. Thus, it is the pure form of CBD oil, which contains only CBD without the other types of cannabinoids. Because an isolate is THC-free, there is no risk of THC intake as well.

Broad-spectrum CBD is a mix between full-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate. The other compounds found in the plant are preserved in the extract, except that THC is completely removed.

Because broad-spectrum CBD oil contains multiple cannabinoids but is THC-free, it can provide the enhanced benefits of the entourage effect, without the risk of the user becoming “high”.

However, when it comes to maximizing the benefits of CBD oil, full-spectrum CBD oil’s use of the whole plant and all the cannabinoids gives it advantages over pure CBD isolate or broad-spectrum CBD.

Some CBD products, like those of NuLeaf Naturals and Charlotte’s Web, use whole-plant extracts, which give the benefits of all the cannabinoids in the plant.

No CBD oil type is better than the others. People have different needs, and this determines which type of CBD is best-suited for an individual’s unique condition.

For more information on these types of CBD oil, scroll down to the Full-Spectrum, Broad-Spectrum, or CBD Isolate? section.

3. Choose a preferred form of taking CBD.

CBD is available in several different dosage forms, and sometimes it is challenging to choose which form to use.

There is CBD tincture, CBD topical cream or ointment, CBD lotion, CBD capsule, CBD patch, CBD gummies, and CBD vape, among others. These various forms give people more choices and allow them to customize their method of use to suit their lifestyle, preference, and need.

The different forms vary in the way each delivers localized or systemic relief, the onset time, and the duration of the effects.

Localized relief only impacts a specific area on which the product was applied, while systemic relief affects the whole system or the whole body.

A discussion on the most common forms of CBD can be found in the Ways to Use CBD Oil section.

Conduct research on the exact legal status and stipulations applicable to CBD in the area where it would be purchased and used.

All of the 50 states have laws legalizing CBD with specific restrictions. While the federal government still categorizes CBD in the same class as marijuana, it does not habitually enforce it(8).

In some states, buying CBD may require having a medical cannabis prescription, while elsewhere, CBD may be sold only at a licensed dispensary.

Under the 2018 Farm Bill, hemp-derived CBD is not subject to regulation as a controlled substance at the federal level(9).

To get more information on state laws, possession limits, and corresponding penalties, scroll down to Is CBD Legal? section.

5. Purchase only from legitimate and reliable big brands.

The majority of companies that manufacture the best CBD oil products grow their hemp from their farm, or they purchase from licensed organic hemp producers.

What exactly makes for an excellent CBD manufacturer? Here are a few things to look for when choosing a CBD supplier.

  • Proof of a real manufacturing facility

As the CBD industry is mostly unregulated, CBD oil can be extracted almost anywhere, and no one would know the difference.

Make sure the product that a company is offering is made in a legitimate manufacturing facility rather than in someone’s garage or shed.

  • Information on where the hemp comes from

Know the source of the hemp from which the CBD oil is made. Is it cultivated sustainably following the highest standard? Is it non-GMO and organic? Is it cultivated in the U.S. or sourced from overseas?

Top CBD manufacturers provide information to answer these questions.

Some CBD products, like those of NuLeaf Naturals and Charlotte’s Web, are derived from specially-bred hemp plants grown on farms in Colorado, USA.

Lazarus Naturals sources their CBD extracts from hemp grown on farms located in Oregon.

Meanwhile, Spruce CBD sources its hemp from two family-owned farms in Colorado and Kentucky. Their hemp is 100% pesticide-free and sustainably farmed.

  • Knowledge of the complete process from seed to sale

Track the entire process, including cultivation, harvest, extraction, production, distribution, and sales.

These tracking systems often contain a combination of written records and software in a single database that can be used by cultivators, processors, manufacturers, transporters, and others involved in the process that provides a thorough history of the product.

  • Appropriate regulatory licenses and proper manufacturing certifications

There are some regulatory licenses and manufacturing certifications that the best CBD manufacturers hold. For more details on licenses and certifications, scroll down to Are there other regulatory licenses and manufacturing certifications that CBD manufacturers must have? section.

6. Check the store from where the products are bought.

When buying from an online store, do some research on product reviews first. When buying from a physical store or dispensary, check whether the store is authorized by the government to sell CBD.

With a large number of brands proliferating almost everywhere, it is never simple to determine the genuine brands from the questionable ones, especially when buying online where one gets to see the product only after it is delivered.

A typical CBD store only sells products that are CBD-infused, which means no products have a THC level above 0.3% present if THC is present at all.

Meanwhile, medical marijuana dispensaries may have CBD in some of the available products, but these products also contain higher levels of THC.

7. Look for the COA (Certificate of Analysis).

One important thing to look for in CBD products is certification codes. Several certification authorities approve certain products only after some thorough screening tests.

A certificate of analysis (COA) is a laboratory report regarding the contents of a product. In the case of CBD, a COA includes cannabinoid content and other tested compounds, such as pesticides, mold, and heavy metals.

COAs ensure the customer knows what is in the product they are purchasing. This does not only promote transparency, but it also ensures that the product contains what it claims.

A reputable CBD company always ensures its products have passed lab testing and offers the most recent COAs of the products they provide. After all, a COA is as much for the customer as it is for the manufacturer to make sure that consumers get only high-quality products.

COAs ensure that consumers get only products of the highest quality with every purchase.

Apart from the COA, another certificate that is worth checking is the U.S. Hemp Authority Certification, which is the CBD industry’s initiative to provide high standards, best practices, and self-regulation.

Medterra, Hempworx, Charlotte’s Web, and Pet Releaf are only some of the companies that are certified by the U.S. Hemp Authority.

8. Compare company claims vs. third-party lab test results.

A 2017 Penn study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that almost 70% of CBD products sold online are either over or under labeled, causing potential serious harm to its consumers(10).

Marcel Bonn-Miller, Ph.D., an adjunct assistant professor of Psychology in Psychiatry and the lead author of the study, believes the mislabeling of cannabidiol products is a direct result of inadequate regulation and oversight.

After analyzing ingredients listed on the labels of CBD products sold online and comparing them with the actual product constituents determined by laboratory analysis, researchers found that nearly 43 percent of the products contained more CBD than advertised.

Thus, consumers must select a reputable company that would provide lab results from third-party testing and is available to respond to inquiries from buyers.

Some companies, like Spruce, Green Roads, NuLeaf Naturals, Medterra, and Lazarus Naturals, even use QR codes linked to lab results on every package for transparency.

Meanwhile, because of the unclear regulations in the USA and some problems with online product labeling, the authors of a Mayo Clinic article recommended the use of imported products from Europe(11).

The same authors explained that Europe, aside from having a more established regulatory system for hemp, has more rigid requirements for low THC levels at less than 0.2% dry weight compared with the US requirement of below 0.3% dry weight.

Still, consulting with a trusted medical professional experienced in CBD use is ideal before purchasing any CBD product.

Additional Tips on Shopping for the Best CBD

  • Consider CBD-rich, high-quality products derived from high-resin cannabis grown sustainably following with certified regenerative organic standards.
  • Be wary of CBD brands that claim their CBD is derived from the seed and stalk of hemp plants. CBD is not present in hemp seed, and there is barely any CBD in the stalk of the hemp plant.
  • Avoid CBD hemp oil vape cartridges containing flavor additives, toxic thinning agents (such as propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol), and other harmful ingredients(12).
  • Avoid poor quality CBD-infused gummies made with artificial colors and corn syrup.
  • Reach out to CBD companies directly to ask questions. Try another brand if they do not communicate.

Why CBD? A Look at CBD’s Potential Benefits and What the Research Says

Cannabis researcher Ryan Vandrey at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine’s advice before trying any new drug, including CBD, is to always first consult with a physician(13).

He says that just because there is no impairment and potential for abuse does not mean that it is without risk and appropriate treatment for an individual. When talking to a doctor, focus the discussion on what treatment options are available and what the relative potential for risk and benefit would be for each option.

Vandrey also has the same recommendation about CBD products for pets, as there is even less research to support CBD as a treatment for them.

Nevertheless, he believes there is a real therapeutic potential for cannabinoids. However, data that can be used to determine safety, efficacy, formulation, and dosing is needed for each therapeutic area in which CBD is believed to be beneficial.

Here are some of the potential health benefits of CBD, along with the scientific research behind the claims.

CBD Oil for Inflammation

CBD’s anti-inflammatory characteristics have been shown in several human and animal studies, like that of a 2014 study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation and a 2012 research conducted by authors from the Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine in the University of São Paulo, Brazil(14).

Other studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions of CBD may be of use in treating rheumatoid arthritis and the associated pain(15).

Research published in the Free Radical Biology & Medicine Journal by George Booz of the University of Mississippi Medical Center showed that CBD, which may interact with the endocannabinoid system, is a promising prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development(16).

CBD Oil and Brain Health

CBD research, conducted on animal models and humans and published in the Surgical Neurology International in 2018, has shown numerous therapeutic properties for brain function and protection, both by its effect on the endocannabinoid system directly and by influencing endogenous cannabinoids(17).

Researchers in a study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology noted a possible effect of CBD in improving the quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease without adverse outcomes(18).

Studies analyzed in a 2017 review conducted by experts from the Western Sydney University in Australia also provided proof of principle for the therapeutic benefits that CBD and possibly CBD-THC combinations may provide(19).

Data suggest that these combinations may help with the therapy of Alzheimer’s disease.

CBD Oil’s Antifungal Effects

A 2011 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology showed that certain cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabichromene (CBC), have moderate antifungal properties(20).

The study mostly examined the therapeutic benefits of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the cannabinoid that induces psychoactive effects on the user, and not CBD.

Still, the researchers noted that the three cannabinoids CBD, CBG, and CBC might boost the effects of an extremely potent antifungal, caryophyllene oxide.

Caryophyllene oxide is the oxidized form of beta-caryophyllene, one of the primary terpenes found in cannabis, basil, hops, pepper, and rosemary.

Terpenes, or isoprenoids, which are similar to essential oils, provide the cannabis plant its distinctive aroma and flavor. Many of the terpenes have also been found to possess antifungal properties, as a study published in the Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Journal in 2018 indicated(21).

CBD Oil for Nausea and Vomiting

Results of a study published in Neuroreport suggest that cannabinoids without psychoactive side-effects may have therapeutic value in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea(22).

A 2011 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology revealed the antiemetic effects of cannabinoids in response to a toxic challenge. Cannabidiol (CBD), the primary non-psychoactive compound in cannabis, was shown to suppress nausea and vomiting within a limited dose range(23).

CBD Oil for Anxiety

In a 2019 study published in The Permanente Journal, sleep and anxiety scores were measured in human subjects, and the findings showed that CBD could hold benefits for anxiety-related disorders(24).

A study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology found that CBD decreases anxiety levels in individuals with a social anxiety disorder (SAD), where results indicated that, relative to placebo, CBD was associated with significantly decreased subjective anxiety(25).

In the said study, the brain scans showed that CBD regulates chemical uptake and blood flow in the brain. CBD can help people with anxiety disorders by impacting the CB1 receptors in the brain and modifying the signaling process of serotonin receptors.

In another study, which was published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine in 2019, CBD was shown to help in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)(26).

CBD Oil for Depression

CBD is a Cannabis sativa constituent with great psychiatric potential for treating symptoms of depression, including uses as an anxiolytic-like and an antidepressant-like compound, as a 2014 study which was published in CNS and Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets suggest(27).

In one study, results showed that CBD could induce rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhance neurotransmission(28). Neurotransmission is the process of communication between nerve cells.

CBD Oil and Heart Health

In a 2015 study conducted by researchers from the University of Nottingham Royal Derby Hospital in the UK, CBD was shown to be a potent vascular relaxant to human arteries, suggesting its potential benefits to dilate blood vessels and increase blood flow(29).

A study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology in 2013 has shown how CBD allows blood flow in the vessels to maintain healthy blood pressure(30).

The review has also presented evidence of the positive effects of CBD in the cardiovascular system.

Data from the said study illustrate that CBD potentially provides neuroprotective effects, which may help protect the heart against any cardiovascular conditions and stroke.

The findings also suggest that CBD can induce a healthy heart rhythm after an ischemic attack, which is caused by a build-up or blockage in the arteries. Thus, CBD was shown to improve heart performance immediately after a heart attack.

Although the results demonstrate that the cardiovascular system is a valid therapeutic target for CBD, the target sites of action for CBD remain to be established for most of the responses.

As more and more studies and clinical trials are conducted, CBD oil’s efficacy in treating high blood pressure would become more explicit.

CBD Oil for Cancer

Results of a study that examined the anti-tumor effects of cannabidiol exhibited CBD’s properties that make it effective at suppressing tumor growth and destroying cancer cells(31).

A 2016 research published in the Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network provided some evidence that CBD could potentially help stop harmful cell growth in tumors(32).

CBD Oil for Weight Loss

CBD oil may help make it easier for an individual to stick to a fasting schedule. In a 2008 animal study published in the PLOS One Journal, it was shown that CBD inhibits a receptor in the brain so that ghrelin, which stimulates the appetite, is unable to act(33).

Overstimulation of the CB1 receptors in the fat tissues in the body could promote weight gain. CBD inhibits the activation of CB1 receptors, which then results in a reduced risk of obesity, as research suggests(34).

Results of the said research, which was published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences in 2018, also showed that the endocannabinoid system and CBD could help combat obesity by regulating lipid and glucose metabolism and converting fat tissue into caloric expenditure.

CBD vs. Autism Spectrum Disorder

An Israeli study examined the effect of medical cannabis therapy on children on the autistic spectrum(35).

The study, led by Dr. Adi Aran, director of the pediatric neurology unit at Shaare Zedek Hospital in Jerusalem, found that cannabis treatment with an increased concentration of CBD improved the condition of 80% of the children in the study.

The said research, which was published in Neurology in 2018, demonstrated that CBD helped with resolving communication and behavioral problems, as well as anxiety and stress, in children with ASD.

CBD Oil as Antibiotic

CBD may also be the next antidote for resistant infections, a 2019 study published by the American Society for Microbiology suggests, calling cannabidiol “a powerful new antibiotic.”(36).

This piece of information is useful, as antibiotic resistance reaches alarmingly high levels, according to the World Health Organization(37).

In the said 2019 study, the researchers, led by Dr. Mark Blaskovich, examined CBD against different types of bacteria, including those bacteria that have become resistant to the commonly used antibiotics.

Dr. Mark Blaskovich, a research officer at the Centre for Superbug Solutions at the Institute for Molecular Bioscience in Australia, explained CBD’s appeal in an article published by the Institute for Molecular Bioscience of the University of Queensland.

“Given cannabidiol’s documented anti-inflammatory effects, existing safety data in humans, and potential for varied delivery routes, it is a promising new antibiotic worth further investigation,” said Dr. Blaskovich(38).

Ways to Use CBD Oil

The delivery method an individual chooses for taking CBD depends on one’s preference and lifestyle.

  • CBD Oil Capsules and Edibles

CBD oil capsules and edibles, such as brownies, gummies, and lozenges, are a convenient and straightforward way to take CBD oil, especially for beginners.

This format is easy to work into a routine, and the dose is consistent. Depending on the metabolism of an individual, the effects can last between 6 and 12 hours. Thus, one dose is probably all that is needed during the day.

However, consuming CBD oil can delay its effects as it has to pass through the digestive system before it gets absorbed into the bloodstream. Given that the effects of the CBD oil could take at least 20 minutes to an hour to appear, CBD oil capsules and edibles do not provide immediate relief.

  • CBD Oil Tinctures or Drops

CBD oil tinctures or drops are a practical option for those who seek fast results and maximum dosage control.

Tinctures and drops may be administered sublingually (under the tongue), through which the CBD oil is absorbed directly into the bloodstream.

According to studies, CBD oil has a sublingual bioavailability of 13% to 19%, with some studies putting it as high as 35%(39).

Place the desired quantity of drops under the tongue using a dropper, and then let the CBD oil stay in place for at least 60 seconds. Once 60 seconds have passed, swallow the CBD oil.

Sublingual application allows for results to be experienced within 30 to 60 minutes after its use, and the effects can be felt for 4 to 6 hours.

Since tinctures and drops are convenient and easy to store and travel with, they can be effortlessly administered when needed.

CBD tinctures can come in varied sizes and mg of CBD. There can also be many flavors to choose from, like chocolate mint, orange, berry, and natural.

However, one significant drawback to CBD oil tinctures and drops is the taste, as not everyone appreciates the natural, earthy, and sometimes bitter flavor of hemp.

Although some products come in various flavors to compensate for the unpleasant taste, the addition of sugar and chemicals may be something that one wants to avoid.

  • CBD Topicals: Sprays, Creams, Salves, Balms, Roll-Ons, and Lotions

CBD-infused topicals are primarily used to provide pain relief in isolated areas of the body. Many CBD products also contain other ingredients, such as menthols or essential oils, like peppermint, bergamot, chamomile, lavender, lemon-lime, and eucalyptus.

These topicals may also be used to treat some skin conditions, like acne, eczema, and psoriasis(40). The CBD goes to work instantly after rubbing the product onto the affected area, and relief can be felt in about 15 minutes.

One option is to take CBD oil topically alone or combined with lotion or cream(41).

Research published in the European Journal of Pain studied the advantage of this approach and found that “topical CBD application has therapeutic potential for relief of arthritis pain-related behaviours and inflammation without evident side-effects.”(42)

For topical products, look for keywords on the product labels that indicate that the product uses nanotechnology, encapsulation, or micellization of CBD. These words indicate that their solution can carry CBD through the dermal layers, rather than just staying on the skin.

  • CBD Patches

CBD patches are an excellent way to maximize the powerful healing benefits of CBD. Applied to the skin, they deliver CBD transdermally, which bypasses the digestive system(43). Thus, the patches make CBD more bioavailable than some other methods.

As the body heat warms the patch, a small amount of CBD is released through the skin to give the user a consistent and ongoing dose. The patches are portable, discreet, and can be cut with scissors to customize their potency to one’s needs.

Ideal for fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain, seizure control, transdermal patches may be a perfect remedy for some people(44).

  • CBD Oil Vapes

CBD oil vapes are one of the quickest ways to get CBD into the body since it enters the bloodstream through the lungs, without going through the digestive system.

When vaping CBD oil, effects can be felt in minutes. However, the effects last only for 30 minutes to an hour or two.

With vaping, it is also challenging to determine precisely how much CBD is in each draw.

As a 2018 study published in Molecules indicated, the primary limitations of inhaling are the variability in individuals’ inhalation techniques and respiratory tract irritation during inhalation(45).

Although labels for CBD oil vape products usually indicate the amount per inhale, the amount may vary in individuals. Thus, getting the dose right requires a bit of experimentation at first.

Note that vaping is not for everyone, as some people may not be comfortable with this method.

Experts are not sure if vaping can lead to lung problems but believe the most likely cause is a contaminant, which may include irritation or allergic reactions to chemicals in the inhaled vapors(46).

Thus, individuals contemplating vaping CBD for the first time must proceed with caution and first consult with a doctor experienced in cannabis use.

Meanwhile, vaping enthusiasts may want to try MGCBD, whose CBD e-liquids are nicotine-free and THC-free. Their Love Hemp CBD Infused E-Liquid comes in five fruity flavors and three different strengths.

  • CBD Soaks or Bath Salts

Soaks are CBD infused bath salts that induce soothing and calming effects. They are often infused with aromatic essential oils to make a bath experience even more enjoyable.

Understanding CBD

Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is a type of cannabis that is one of the most recognized ancient plants. Sativa is Latin for “useful”, and it is a term that is commonly used in plant names.

Cannabis oil products include hemp oil and marijuana concentrates.

CBD oil may be derived from either a hemp plant or marijuana plant, although most CBD oil products in the market are hemp-derived.

CBD is non-psychoactive, making it favorable to those who want to experience its health benefits without the ‘high’ induced by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In general, a level of about 1% THC is considered the threshold for cannabis to have an intoxicating effect(47).

A hemp plant and a marijuana plant both belong to the plant genus cannabis. Cannabis is classified as a Schedule I drug in the United States but is legally accepted in 16 states and the District of Columbia for therapeutic purposes.

CBD comes from cannabis and is naturally found in hemp plants. CBD is one of more than 100 cannabinoids that occur naturally within the plant. This compound is also commonly used to produce CBD hemp oil supplements.

CBD oil is extracted from the cannabis plant’s flowers, stalks, and leaves. The extraction process involves the use of either ethanol or CO2. On the other hand, hemp oil (also called hemp seed oil) is extracted by cold-pressing the seeds of the hemp plant.

CBD is non-intoxicating and non-addictive. CBD derived from extracted from hemp is legal under U.S. federal law(48).

One of the primary differences between CBD and THC lies in how they affect an individual who consumes them.

Although CBD and THC are similar in chemical structure, they do not share the same psychoactive effects. THC binds with the cannabinoid 1 or CB1 receptors in the brain and produces a sense of euphoria. It is the cannabinoid that is mostly associated with marijuana or weed.

CBD, however, binds inadequately to CB1 receptors. CBD can even disrupt the binding of THC and suppress its psychoactive effect, as researchers of a 2018 study published in the Neuropsychopharmacology Journal suggest. CBD, a non-psychoactive compound, does not induce the “high” associated with THC(49).

THC and CBD are both found in the flowers, seeds, and stalks of both hemp and marijuana. Both cannabinoids naturally exist in cannabis plants in a broad range of proportions.

THC is most abundant in marijuana, while CBD is found in substantial quantities in hemp. The CBD oil ingredient that is found in most CBD oil products is extracted from the hemp plant.

CBD and the Immune System

The endocannabinoid system is interrelated with the immune system. To comprehend how CBD affects the body’s immune system, one must understand how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) works.

A study published in the Pharmacological Reviews Journal explored the endocannabinoid system and its regulatory functions in health and disease(50).

The ECS is found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is a network of cannabinoids and CB1 and CB2 receptors, and it regulates most functions in the human body.

The ECS also acts as an immuno-cannabinoid modulator as it gathers and interprets signals from cannabinoids.

The body is capable of producing some cannabinoids on its own, which are called endocannabinoids. The ECS helps to manage functions such as immune-system responses, sleep, and pain, influencing a person’s physiology, mood, and everyday experience.

Cannabinoids and terpenes work together to develop a cannabis strain’s distinctive flavor, resulting in a phenomenon known as the entourage effect.

The neurotransmitters in the brain provide instructions for the body’s immune system and signal it when to activate its line of defense, where to engage it, and how strongly to involve it.

How CBD Oil Works

Cannabinoids are complex chemical compounds found within the Cannabis sativa plant. Similar to the hemp plant, which produces more than 100 different cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), the human body also naturally produces cannabinoids (endocannabinoids).

Of all the different phytocannabinoids in the hemp plant, the two most prominent are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

THC has been known for its psychoactive effects, which result in the user feeling a euphoric high. Meanwhile, CBD has gained attention due to its non-psychoactive, therapeutic effects.

When phytocannabinoids like CBD and THC are inhaled or ingested, along with other plant-based molecules like terpenes and flavonoids, a synergistic effect ensues, leading to enhanced, therapeutic benefits.

The ECS is comprised of two primary endocannabinoid receptors: CB1 (mostly found in the brain, the nervous system, and surrounding organs and tissues), and CB2 (mostly found in tonsils, white blood cells, and spleen).

Although CBD has a low affinity for either receptor, it does interact with other receptors with remarkable effects, as many of the therapeutic benefits of CBD are created through indirect actions.

These actions include activating TRPV1 receptors, which are involved in regulating pain, body temperature, and inflammation(51).

Full-Spectrum, Broad-Spectrum, or CBD Isolate?

Full-spectrum CBD is an extract that contains all compounds found naturally occurring in the plant.

The full spectrum of cannabinoids, essential oils, and terpenes all work together to magnify the therapeutic benefits of each individual cannabinoid. This occurrence is called the “entourage effect.”

It was previously believed that a CBD isolate was more effective than full-spectrum CBD. However, this theory was invalidated in 2015 by a study from the Lautenberg Center for General Tumor Immunology in Jerusalem(52).

In the study, researchers found that subjects given full-spectrum CBD experienced higher levels of relief, compared to subjects administered with CBD isolate.

In addition, the results showed that full-spectrum CBD provided enhanced effects with high dosages, while the effects of CBD remained consistent with increased dosages.

Full-spectrum CBD may be best for those with severe health conditions that require the maximum benefits of all the cannabinoids contained in the cannabis plant, including THC. However, note that the allowable THC content varies among the different states.

Spruce is one of the CBD companies that highlight the strength of their full-spectrum CBD, which is also vegan, unflavored, and gluten-free.

CBDistillery, Lazarus Naturals, and Fab CBD also use full-spectrum CBD.

Isolate CBD is pure CBD. This type contains only CBD, without the other types of cannabinoids; hence, no entourage effect.

A CBD isolate is molecularly separated from the rest of the cannabis compounds. Thus, there is no risk of THC intake, which is crucial if one is allergic to this cannabinoid.

A CBD isolate is typically extracted from hemp, due to its low to non-existent THC-content. Without flavonoids and terpenes, CBD isolates are unflavored or have a light flavor, which is ideal for those using CBD for the first time.

CBD isolate is best for individuals who need to take higher doses of CBD than usual and are sensitive to THC or other cannabinoids.

Also, for those who regularly undergo drug tests or living in states that have strict THC-laws, CBD isolate is an excellent option.

Fab CBD Chews are made with CBD isolate, and so is the Crystalline Powder sold by CBDistillery.

Meanwhile, broad-spectrum CBD is a mix between full-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate.

Broad-spectrum CBD contains terpenes, essential oils, and other cannabinoids from the plant except for THC.

Because broad-spectrum CBD contains multiple cannabinoids, it can still provide the enhanced benefits of the entourage effect, with no risk of psychoactive effects of THC.

Broad-spectrum CBD is best for individuals who still want the benefits of the other cannabinoids but are sensitive to THC.

Broad-spectrum CBD would also benefit those with conditions that CBD isolates alone could not alleviate.

Medterra sells broad-spectrum tinctures that contain CBD, along with additional beneficial compounds such as CBG, CBN, CBC, CBDV, and natural terpenes.

No CBD oi type is better than the others. The type of CBD to use depends on an individual’s needs and preferences.

How CBD Oil is Made: CBD Extraction Methods

Extraction is done to make CBD and other beneficial plant components (such as terpenes and flavonoids) available in a highly concentrated form. Some methods are more effective and safer than others.

Still, it is crucial to start with CBD-rich plant material to make high-quality CBD oil.

Given that cannabinoids are oily by nature, separating CBD from the plant material produces a thick, potent oil. The texture and purity of the oil mostly depend on the method of extraction.

CBD and other plant cannabinoids are classified as terpenophenolic compounds, which means they are soluble in both oil and alcohol(53).

Thus, the process of extracting CBD oil often entails the use of a solvent that works well at dissolving an alcohol-based or oil-based compound.

Solvents commonly used to extract CBD from cannabis include CO2, ethanol, hydrocarbons (such as butane), and olive oil.

At the end of the process, one should be left primarily with CBD oil after the solvent is removed.

The extracted substance (hemp extract) is then mixed with a carrier oil, such as hemp seed oil, coconut oil, MCT oil, or olive oil, so the body can more easily absorb it(54).

Finally, the CBD oil is refined and formulated into different consumable products, such as tinctures, gel caps, topicals, vape oil cartridges, edibles, and beverages.

Here are some of the CBD extraction methods commonly used:

  • CO2 Extraction of CBD Oil

CO2 extraction is the most common and safest commercial method of separating CBD and other cannabinoids from cannabis biomass (organic material).

Carbon dioxide is a gas at room temperature. However, under intense pressure and fluctuating temperature, CO2 liquefies while it maintains the fluid dynamics of a gas.

In this supercritical state, CO2 works like a solvent, which flushes out the active ingredients from the plant matter. The plant waxes, which are not suitable to be included in the products, are filtered out, resulting in a safe, clean, CBD-rich oil that is free of chlorophyll(55).

Supercritical CO2 extraction requires expensive, high-quality equipment and a steep operational learning curve. However, this process is regarded as safe, non-reactive, non-toxic, non-polluting, and non-flammable(56).

Researchers of a study indicated that the SC-CO2 process is recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in pharmaceutical manufacturing(57).

  • Ethanol Extraction of CBD Oil

Ethanol extracts available in medical cannabis dispensaries are typically referred to as Rick Simpson Oil (RSO) or full-extract cannabis oil (FECO).

RSO oil is named after the Canadian engineer who developed this method of extraction. In a study on cannabis extract and leukemia, the authors mentioned that Rick Simpson had treated several cancers with hemp oil, a cannabis extract(58).

Making RSO or FECO requires soaking the cannabis flower in ethanol, agitated, and strained. Then, the residual oil is gently heated until all that remains is a thick and sticky, highly concentrated matter infused with cannabinoids(59).

As the viscous extract is difficult to dose, it is sold in plastic needleless syringes to make dosing and administration easy.

RSO contains the full spectrum of cannabinoids extracted from the plant, which means a small amount of THC is also present in the CBD-rich ethanol extraction. Thus, consumers are cautioned not to ingest a dose more significant than a small grain of rice. With this type of cannabis oil, it is best to start with a low dose and go slow in increasing it(60).

  • Hydrocarbon Extraction of CBD Oil

When properly implemented, this extraction technique using hydrocarbon solvents, such as butane, hexane, and propane, is very effective at separating cannabinoids and terpenes from unwanted cannabis components (like chlorophyll), while preserving the unique scent and significant therapeutic attributes of the plant.

Potent cannabis concentrates made with hydrocarbons may resemble tree sap, ear wax, or brittle candy in texture. This product, known as shatter, is so named because of its glass-like appearance and the manner in which it breaks. Shatter is consumed via inhalation using a dab rig or a high-temperature vaporizer.

Butane and other hydrocarbons are highly flammable, toxic solvents, and when not fully purged from the CBD extract, their consumption can be harmful. Also, unsafe manufacturing processes using hydrocarbons have been known to cause deadly explosions.

  • Olive Oil Extraction of CBD

A 2013 study by Luigi Romano and Arno Hazekamp, published in Cannabinoids 2013, evaluated the purity and efficacy of five cannabis extraction solvents, including petroleum ether, ethanol, naphtha (an industrial toxin), and olive oil(61).

The authors found comparable efficiency between all the solvents but noted that olive oil, a non-toxic solvent, was better at extracting terpenes along with the cannabinoids.

“Olive oil is cheap, not flammable or toxic, and the oil needs to be heated up only to the boiling point of water,” the authors added.

A CBD tincture is created by steeping cannabis flowers or isolates in a solvent, then applying low heat for a specific amount of time.

This heating process allows active compounds in cannabis to infuse into the solvent, much of which is removed through vaporization. The result is a potent liquid that provides the effects of the cannabinoid molecules without any smoking or other forms of combustion.

FAQs on CBD

Is CBD safe?

Side effects of CBD include fatigue, nausea, and irritability. CBD can intensify the level of the blood thinner coumadin in the bloodstream, and it can raise levels of certain other medications in the system.

Another significant safety concern with CBD is that it is primarily marketed and sold as a supplement, not a medication(62).

Currently, the FDA does not regulate the purity and safety of dietary supplements. Thus, consumers cannot know for sure that the product they are buying has active ingredients at the dose printed on the label. The product may also contain other unknown elements.

Although the World Health Organization says that CBD is safe and well-tolerated, it is not clear how much to take or how often a person should use it for any particular problem. High doses of CBD may interact with other medications, such as blood thinners, antidepressants, and immune suppressors(63).

CBD is readily obtainable in many parts of the United States, although its exact legal status continually changes.

In December 2015, the FDA eased the regulatory stipulations to allow researchers to conduct CBD investigations and trials. Currently, many people are able to get CBD online without a medical cannabis license(64).

The government’s position on CBD is confusing, and it depends in part on whether the CBD comes from hemp or marijuana(65).

The legality of CBD is expected to change. Currently, there is a bipartisan consensus in Congress to make the hemp crop legal, which would make CBD difficult to prohibit, says Dr. Peter Grinspoon, the author of Free Refills: A Doctor Confronts His Addiction, in a 2019 article published by Harvard Health(66).

Many states and Washington, D.C., have passed cannabis-related laws, making medical marijuana with high levels of THC legal. Still, marijuana may require a prescription from a licensed physician(67).

Also, several states have made recreational use of marijuana and THC legal. One should be able to buy CBD in states where marijuana is legal for recreational or medical purposes.

To get more information on state laws and penalties, click here(68).

Individuals who possess cannabis-related products in a state where they are illegal or do not have a medical prescription in states where the products are legal for medical treatment could face legal penalties.

For a complete list of legal medical marijuana states and D.C., including the corresponding laws, fees, and possession limits, click here(69).

What does a Farm Bill have to do with CBD?

The 2018 Farm Bill legalized industrial hemp and hemp-derived products at the federal level, removing them from the jurisdiction of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

Since hemp is no longer categorized under controlled substances, it is now the job of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to regulate the crop as it does other agricultural commodities.

The law defined “agricultural hemp” as cannabis strains that contain less than 0.3% THC. Additionally, the Farm Bill explicitly legalized the “extracts, cannabinoids, and derivatives” of hemp.

How is CBD different from marijuana?

CBD is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana).

While CBD is an essential element of medical marijuana, it is extracted directly from the hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. However, although CBD is a component of marijuana, by itself, it does not cause a “high.”

According to a report from the World Health Organization, “In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential… To date, there is no evidence of public health-related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.”(70)

Does CBD show up on a drug test?

CBD products from hemp sold online and in retail stores are not supposed to contain over 0.3 percent THC, the compound in marijuana that can get the user high.

However, sometimes, CBD products contain more THC than the amount printed on the label, says Barry Sample, senior director of science and technology at Quest Diagnostics, the largest administrator of drug tests in the U.S.(71).

It is also possible that, eventually, the trace amounts of THC allowed in CBD products could accumulate in the body to detectable levels, Sample explains.

THC is fat-soluble, adds Norbert Kaminski, Ph.D., professor of pharmacology and toxicology at Michigan State University in East Lansing. Thus, THC that is not immediately metabolized by the body is stored in fat tissues(72).

Over time, THC and THC metabolites (substances made when the body breaks down chemicals) are slowly released,” Kaminski says. As a result, it is possible to test positive for THC and not pass a drug test, even after one has stopped taking the product.

Are there other regulatory licenses and manufacturing certifications that CBD manufacturers must have?

Regulatory licenses vary from state to state, and manufacturers should be clear about the regulatory licenses they carry.

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an independent, non-governmental organization that develops standards to ensure that all consumer products and services are safe, reliable, and of good quality.

CBD manufacturers certified by this quality management system can be trusted to deliver consistent quality to their clients while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements related to CBD.

Another certification that top CBD manufacturers would likely hold is the Good Manufacturing Process (GMP) certification.

This certification requires a quality approach to manufacturing, enabling companies to eliminate or minimize instances of contamination, mixups, and errors(73).

Conclusion

Increasingly, products containing CBD are proliferating the market. Regarded for its potential therapeutic effects and legality when derived from hemp, CBD can now be found in a wide variety of products, from dog treats to lotions to vapes.

Far-reaching medical claims promote CBD as a natural alternative to the treatment of various medical conditions, such as pain, anxiety, acne, sleep problems, and arthritis.

However, the most substantial scientific evidence is for CBD’s effectiveness in treating some epilepsy syndromes, like Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), which typically do not respond to antiseizure medications(74).

Epidiolex, which contains CBD, was the first drug ever approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for those conditions(75).

More longitudinal and comprehensive studies are needed to substantiate the claims and come up with high-quality evidence. Until then, the best course of action for individuals, who are contemplating on using CBD for the first time or wanting to include CBD in their regimen, is to consult with a doctor experienced in cannabis use.


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  26. Elms L, Shannon S, Hughes S, Lewis N. Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series. J Altern Complement Med. 2019;25(4):392–397. doi:10.1089/acm.2018.0437.
  27. de Mello A et al. “Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis sativa”, CNS & Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets (2014) 13: 953. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871527313666140612114838.
  28. Linge R et al. Cannabidiol induces rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhances cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission: role of 5-HT1A receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2016 Apr;103:16-26. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.12.017. Epub 2015 Dec 19.DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.12.017.
  29. Stanley CP, Hind WH, Tufarelli C, O’Sullivan SE. Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;107(4):568–578. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvv179.
  30. Stanley CP, Hind WH, O’Sullivan SE. Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75(2):313–322. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04351.x.
  31. Massi P, Vaccani A, […], and Parolaro D. Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics March 2004, 308 (3) 838-845; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.061002.
  32. Davis, Mellar P. Cannabinoids for Symptom Management and Cancer Therapy: The Evidence. Volume/Issue: Volume 14: Issue 7. Jul 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2016.0094.
  33. Kola B, Farkas I, Christ-Crain M, Wittmann G, Lolli F, Amin F, et al. (2008) The Orexigenic Effect of Ghrelin Is Mediated through Central Activation of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System. PLoS ONE 3(3): e1797. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001797.
  34. Rossi F, Punzo F, Umano GR, Argenziano M, Miraglia Del Giudice E. Role of Cannabinoids in Obesity. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(9):2690. Published 2018 Sep 10. doi:10.3390/ijms19092690.
  35. Aran A, Cassuto H, Lubotzky A. Cannabidiol Based Medical Cannabis in Children with Autism- a Retrospective Feasibility Study (P3.318). First published April 9, 2018. Retrieved from https://n.neurology.org/content/90/15_Supplement/P3.318.
  36. The University of Queensland. Institute for Molecular Bioscience. Retrieved from https://imb.uq.edu.au/article/2019/06/cannabis-compound-could-be-powerful-new-antibiotic.
  37. WHO. Antibiotic resistance. (2018, Feb 5). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance.
  38. (Institute for Molecular Bioscience. Retrieved from https://imb.uq.edu.au/article/2019/06/cannabis-compound-could-be-powerful-new-antibiotic.
  39. Mechoulam R, Parker LA, Gallily R. Cannabidiol: an overview of some pharmacological aspects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Nov;42(S1):11S-19S. DOI: 10.1002/j.1552-4604.2002.tb05998.x; Russo EB. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(1):245–259. doi:10.2147/tcrm.s1928.
  40. Eagleston LRM et al. (2018 Jun 15). Cannabinoids in dermatology: a scoping review. Dermatol Online J. 24(6). pii: 13030/qt7pn8c0sb. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7pn8c0sb.
  41. Freeman, J. (2019, Oct 4). Does CBD Oil Really Help Treat Arthritis Pain? Retrieved from https://www.rheumatoidarthritis.org/cbd-oil/.
  42. Hammell DC, Zhang LP, Ma F, et al. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. Eur J Pain. 2016;20(6):936–948. doi:10.1002/ejp.818.
  43. Bruni N, Della Pepa C, Oliaro-Bosso S, Pessione E, Gastaldi D, Dosio F. Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules. 2018;23(10):2478. Published 2018 Sep 27. doi:10.3390/molecules23102478.
  44. Zynerba Pharmaceuticals Initiates ZYN001 Phase 1 Clinical Program. EX-99.1 2 a17-15709_1ex99d1.htm EX-99.1. Retrieved from https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1621443/000110465917041381/a17-15709_1ex99d1.htm.
  45. Bruni N et al. op. cit.
  46. Shmerling, R. (2019, Dec 10). Can vaping damage your lungs? What we do (and don’t) know. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/can-vaping-damage-your-lungs-what-we-do-and-dont-know-2019090417734.
  47. Small E. and Marcus D. “Hemp: A New Crop with New Uses for North America,” in Trends in New Crops and New Uses, ed. J. Janick and A. Whipkey (Alexandria, VA: American Society for Horticultural Science Press, 2002. Retrieved from https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu02/v5-284.html.
  48. US FDA. (2020, Feb 13). FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd.
  49. Boggs DL, Nguyen JD, Morgenson D, Taffe MA, Ranganathan M. Clinical and Preclinical Evidence for Functional Interactions of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018;43(1):142–154. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.209.
  50. Pacher P, Bátkai S, Kunos G. The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58(3):389–462. doi:10.1124/pr.58.3.2.
  51. Jara-Oseguera A, Simon SA, Rosenbaum T. TRPV1: on the road to pain relief. Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2008;1(3):255–269. doi:10.2174/1874467210801030255.
  52. Gallily R, Yekhtin Z, Ondřej Hanuš L. Overcoming the Bell‐Shaped Dose‐Response of Cannabidiol by Using Cannabis Extract Enriched in Cannabidiol. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 2015, 6, 75‐85. Published Online February 2015 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/pp. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/pp.2015.62010. Retrieved from https://file.scirp.org/pdf/PP_2015021016351567.pdf.
  53. Sigman, Z. CBD Oil: An Introduction. Retrieved from https://www.projectcbd.org/cbd-101/what-is-cbd-oil.
  54. Stephens, B. Why Is MCT Oil so Important in CBD Tinctures? Retrieved from https://echoconnection.org/about/
  55. Sigman, Z. CBD Oil: An Introduction. op. cit.
  56. Kalani M, Yunus R. Application of supercritical antisolvent method in drug encapsulation: a review. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:1429–1442; Kankala RK, Zhang YS, Wang SB, Lee CH, Chen AZ. Supercritical fluid technology: an emphasis on drug delivery and related biomedical applications. Adv Healthc Mater. 2017;6(16):1700433.
  57. Kankala RK, Chen BQ, Liu CG, Tang HX, Wang SB, Chen AZ. Solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids: an ecofriendly nanonization approach for processing biomaterials and pharmaceutical compounds. Int J Nanomedicine. 2018;13:4227–4245. Published 2018 Jul 23. doi:10.2147/IJN.S166124; Djerafi R, Masmoudi Y, Crampon C, Meniai A, Badens E. Supercritical anti-solvent precipitation of ethyl cellulose. J Supercrit Fluids. 2015;105:92–98.
  58. Singh Y, Bali C. Cannabis extract treatment for terminal acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a Philadelphia chromosome mutation. Case Rep Oncol. 2013;6(3):585–592. Published 2013 Nov 28. doi:10.1159/000356446.
  59. Sigman, Z. CBD Oil: An Introduction. op. cit.
  60. ibid.
  61. Romano L, Hazekamp A. Cannabis Oil: chemical evaluation of an upcoming cannabis-based medicine. IACM Journal. Cannabinoids 2013. Retrieved from http://cannabis-med.org/data/pdf/en_2013_01_1.pdf.
  62. Grinspoon, P. op.cit.
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  64. Grinspoon, P. op. cit.
  65. Rosenberg, C. (2016, Dec 7). Federal Register. Establishment of a New Drug Code for Marihuana Extract. Retrieved from https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2016/12/14/2016-29941/establishment-of-a-new-drug-code-for-marihuana-extract.
  66. Grinspoon, P. op. cit.
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  68. State Laws. Retrieved from https://norml.org/laws.
  69. ProCon.org. op.cit.
  70. Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. op. cit.
  71. Gill, L. (2019, May 15). Can You Take CBD and Pass a Drug Test? Retrieved from https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/can-you-take-cbd-and-pass-a-drug-test/.
  72. Ibid.
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  74. Grinspoon, P. op. cit.
  75. FDA News. (2018, June 25). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-drug-comprised-active-ingredient-derived-marijuana-treat-rare-severe-forms.

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Glyceryl Monostearate

Glyceryl monostearate is a white or cream colored, waxy solid with faint odor. Glyceryl monostearate is COMBUSTIBLE DUST and can form explosive dust-air mixtures. Glyceryl monostearate is essentially non-toxic.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation: There is no human or animal information available. However, glyceryl monostearate is probably non-toxic. High concentrations of dust may cause coughing and mild, temporary irritation.

Skin Contact: Patch tests (24-hour) using undiluted glyceryl stearate resulted in some skin irritation in 6 out of 140 people. A number of human studies have been conducted, both on normal subjects and patients with eczema. In each case, glyceryl stearate was found to be essentially non-irritating or mildly irritating, at worst. Animal evidence shows that glyceryl monostearate is non-irritating to mildly irritating. Glyceryl monostearate is probably not absorbed through the skin to a significant extent.

Eye Contact: No human information is available. Based on animal information, the dust is not irritating to eyes except as a “foreign object.” Some tearing, blinking and mild temporary pain may occur as particles are rinsed from the surface of the eye.

Ingestion: No human information is available. Based on animal information, glyceryl stearate is practically non-toxic by ingestion.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Inhalation: Long industrial experience with this material has shown that it causes only minor, reversible health effects on the lungs. Long-term exposures to high concentrations of dust may cause increased mucous flow in the nose and respiratory system airways. This condition usually disappears after exposure ceases.

Skin Sensitization: No cases of skin sensitization were seen in 1206 patients with eczema that were tested with 20% glyceryl stearate.

Carcinogenicity: No human information is available. Animal studies suggest that glyceryl monostearate is not carcinogenic. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as not classifiable as a human carcinogen. The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity: No teratogenic or embryotoxic effects are expected. Specific human information is not available, but no teratogenic or embryotoxic effects were seen over 3 generations in an animal study using very large doses (15-25% in the diet).

Reproductive Toxicity: No reproductive toxicity is expected. No human information is available, but no reproductive effects were seen over 3 generations in an animal study using very large doses (15-25% in the diet).

Potential for Accumulation: Glyceryl monostearate does not accumulate. Glyceryl monostearate occurs naturally in the body in small amounts. It is broken down (metabolized) to glycerine and stearic acid which also have very low toxicity.

First Aid Measures

All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a physician familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.

Inhalation: If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air and obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact: No health effects expected. If irritation does occur, quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed.

Eye Contact: Do not allow victim to rub eye(s). Let the eye(s) water naturally for a few minutes. Have victim look right and left, and then up and down. If the particle/dust does not dislodge, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until particle/dust is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention. DO NOT attempt to manually remove anything stuck to the eye(s).

Ingestion: No health effects expected. If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice immediately.

Incompatibility – Materials to Avoid:

  1. Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.
  2. Oxidizing Materials – increased risk of fire and explosion.

n-Hexane

n-Hexane is a clear, colorless, fairly volatile liquid with a faint gasoline-like odor. n-Hexane is an extremely flammable liquid and vapor. n-Hexane can accumulate static charge. Vapor is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flash back are possible. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and spread fire. Mild central nervous system depressant. High vapor concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination, and unconsciousness. High vapor concentrations can displace oxygen in the air and life-threatening asphyxiation (suffocation) may result. Long-term exposure may cause damage to the nervous system of the extremities (the hands, arms, legs and feet). Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration (breathing) into the lungs.

Uses and Occurrences:

In most cases, n-hexane is used in a mixture with other hexane isomers and various solvents. It is used to extract vegetable oil from soybeans and other oil seeds; as a special-purpose solvent and cleaning agent (degreaser) in the printing, textile, furniture and shoemaking industries; as a solvent and reaction medium in the manufacture of polyolefins, synthetic rubber and some pharmaceuticals; as a solvent in chemical reactions; as a component of adhesives, rubber cement, sealants, leather dressing preparations, paints, lacquers, cements and gasoline; as a carrier solvent for cedar oil, beeswax, or lanolin dressings; as a carrier or aerosol agent in some perfumes; in some typeover correction (whiteout) fluids; in low-temperature thermometers; and as an alcohol denaturant. Pure n-hexane is used as a laboratory reagent and in calibrating instruments used for analysis. n-Hexane occurs naturally in natural gas and in crude oil.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure on the Nervous System:

Damage to the nervous system of the extremities (the hands, arms, legs and feet) has been observed in people occupationally exposed to n-hexane. This condition is referred to as peripheral neuropathy. The majority of occupational cases have occurred in small industries where there was exposure to relatively high concentrations, usually for more than 8 hours/day. Very few cases have been reported since 1980 when the hazards of n-hexane became well known and improved hazard control measures were implemented.

The first signs of peripheral neuropathy are sensations of numbness, pricking or tingling and weakness in the toes and fingers, which may gradually increase. The lower extremities are normally affected first. Eventually, the hands, feet, arms and legs are affected. Other symptoms include sensory impairment to touch, pain, vibration and temperature, muscular weakness of the limbs, blurred vision, coldness of extremities, loss of body weight, and loss of reflexes. In some cases, paralysis has been reported. Recovery is slow, but often complete. Some affected individuals have still had symptoms from 18 months to 4 years after exposure stopped. In severe cases, signs of neuropathy have persisted for 7-8 years.

It is difficult to establish exactly what exposure concentrations produce peripheral neuropathy since many of the available studies do not report air concentrations, the reported values are of questionable accuracy, and/or it is not clear if exposure was specifically to n-hexane, mixtures of hexane isomers or complex mixtures of other chemicals. In general, peripheral neuropathy has been observed following occupational exposure to n-hexane levels of 30 to 2500 ppm. The duration of exposure before the onset of obvious neuropathy ranges from 2 months to 5 years. When effects have been observed at lower concentrations, it is likely that daily exposures exceeded 8 hours.

Some people with peripheral neuropathy have also developed central nervous system (CNS) injury. Symptoms may include headache, weariness, loss of appetite, sleepiness, dizziness, giddiness, light-headedness. Some of these symptoms may precede or coincide with the development of neuropathy.

Arum Species

Arum is a genus comprising 27 species. Its common names are spotted arum, veal, snake flower, and spotted gouet. The plants that belong to the Arum species are ornamental but occasionally used in traditional medicine and as an aphrodisiac; this last use is due to the phallic form of its inflorescence and without relationship with a pharmacological effect. (Boyce, 1993)

The plants that belong to the Arum species produce pretty orange red berries, attractive to the children who eat them accidentally. Oral ingestion is this is the most common mode of intoxication, especially as regards the orange-red berries, attractive for the children. Chewing leaves or fruit causes severe local oral and pharyngeal irritation with hypersalivation, and their ingestion causes vomiting and diarrhea.

Calcium oxalate, present in large quantities in the plants that belong to the Arum species, is little absorbed because of its insolubility. Of more during ingestion, pain caused by contact of the plant with the digestive mucosa interrupts quickly the consumption.

The phenomena of irritation are due to the crystals of calcium oxalate whose plant is very rich (Kingsbury, 1964). These events are common to most araceae (Dieffenbachia, Philodendron, …). These would appear to be, as with all araceae, insoluble crystals of calcium oxalate. These crystals a sharp shape that contributes to the local toxicity of these plants under the Arum species. The traumatic effect of crystals on the mucous membranes allows the penetration of other toxic components. Symptomatology manifests immediately after ingestion by local irritation, which usually stop further ingestion. So there is most often no systemic poisoning as one can see it with other plants containing oxalates in small amount (rhubarb). Saponoside aroine or aronine, volatile, acts directly on the CNS (Cooper & Johnson, 1984).

Acute Poisoning Through Ingestion

Chewing leaves or fruits of plants under the Arum species immediately causes a burning sensation pharyngeal. This is accompanied by hypersalivation and local edema, or even hemorrhagic stinging. Edema may be important enough to interfere with swallowing and ventilation. In the case of ingestion the disorders mentioned are accompanied digestive pain, vomiting and diarrhea. Ingestion of large quantities is exceptional because of the pain caused by local irritation. Cases of massive ingestion may be complicated by a hemorrhagic syndrome digestive and systemic disorders (paraesthesia, drowsiness, convulsions, mydriasis, rhythm disorders cardiac), but are exceptional (Jouglard, 1977). Cramps, dizziness, coma and death have been described (Cooper & Johnson, 1984).

Decontamination is to be initiated immediately, with eviction of plant debris persisting in the cavity oral. To calm the pain one can administer liquids cold or suck an ice cube. Vomiting is to be respected as long as it contributes to the elimination of the toxic. Their persistence requires the administration of an antivomitif. Correct possible hydroelectrolytic disorders. Monitoring of oral and pharyngeal edema is necessary in to detect any respiratory complications. Hospitalization is necessary.

Monitoring of oral and pharyngeal edema is necessary to detect possible complications respiratory. Treat convulsions and correct acid disorders basic and hydroelectrolytic. To calm the pain one can administer liquids cold or suck an ice cube. Oral, dermal or ocular decontamination should to be quickly undertaken; vomiting must be respected initially. Repeated rinsing of the oral cavity without swallow. Evolution is in the vast majority of cases favorable, with the disappearance of the symptomatology painful within 6 hours of ingestion. However, monitoring is necessary because edema, if it is important, may cause respiratory discomfort manifest.

Other Sources of Toxins

Benzoic Acid

Benzoic acid is white powder or crystals with a faint, pleasant, slightly aromatic odor, and it can burn if strongly heated. Benzoic acid is combustible dust. It can form explosive dust-air mixtures. Benzoic acid is also an eye irritant. It causes severe eye irritation, as well as redness, swelling, and itching (hives) at the point of skin contact.

Benzoic acid is available in industrial (97.5% minimum) and technical (99.0% minimum) grades and in grades meeting specifications of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) for pharmaceutical and food additive uses respectively (99.5% and greater). Trace impurities present in commercial benzoic acid include methyl diphenyls and phthalic acids. Industrial and technical grades are available in both molten and solid forms, while USP and FCC grades are available in solid forms (crystals or powder).

The largest use for benzoic acid is as a chemical raw material in the production of phenol, caprolactam, glycol dibenzoates used as plasticizers, sodium and potassium benzoates and other benzoic acid derivatives such as benzoyl chloride and benzoic acid esters. It is also used as a preservative in foods, juices, fats and oils; in alkyd resins; as a down-hole drilling mud additive; for pharmaceutical and medicinal uses; in the synthesis of dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, perfumes and herbicides; in flavors and cosmetic preparations; as a corrosion inhibitor; as a laboratory reagent; as a standard in analytical chemistry; and an ingredient of antiseptic ointments for the treatment of fungal infections of the skin.

Benzoic acid in the free state and in the form of simple derivatives is widely distributed in nature. Appreciable amounts are found in gum benzoin and in most berries, such as cranberries. The free acid is found in natural products such as prunes, ripe cloves and oil of anise seeds.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation: In general, high concentrations of dust may cause coughing and mild, temporary irritation. Very high concentrations of benzoic acid dust have caused irritation of the nose, throat and upper respiratory passages in animals. There is no human information available.

Skin Contact: Benzoic acid is a very mild to mild irritant based on unconfirmed animal information. However, benzoic acid can cause redness and swelling with itching (non-immunological contact urticaria or hives) in most people at the site of application. Individuals can react without having been previously exposed to benzoic acid. The strength of the reaction is dose dependent, ranging from slight redness to extensive redness and swelling with tingling, burning or itching.

A non-allergic hive reaction (reddening, patchy swelling, “burning” sensation and itching) was observed in humans within 30 minutes following application of 0.25% benzoic acid in water or 5% benzoic acid in petrolatum.(2) An immediate non-allergic skin reaction (redness or swelling) was observed in 12 volunteers following application of 15-250 millimolar solutions of benzoic acid in water. Washing the skin twice a day with soap and water intensified the reaction.

Acrolein

Acrolein is a volatile, highly flammable, lacrimatory liquid at ordinary temperature and pressure. Its odor is described as burnt sweet, pungent, choking, and disagreeable (Hess et al., 1978; Hawley, 1981). The compound is highly soluble in water and in organic solvents such as ethanol and diethylether. The extreme reactivity of acrolein can be attributed to the conjugation of a carbonyl group with a vinyl group within its structure.

Reactions shown by acrolein include Diels-Alder condensations, dimerization and polymerization, additions to the carbon-carbon double bond, carbonyl additions, oxidation, and reduction. In the absence of an inhibitor, acrolein is subject to highly exothermic polymerization catalyzed by light and air at room temperature to an insoluble cross-linked solid. Highly exothermic polymerization also occurs in the presence of traces of acids or strong bases even when an inhibitor is present. Inhibited acrolein undergoes dimerization above 150 °C.

The principal use of acrolein is as an intermediate in the synthesis of numerous chemicals, in particular acrylic acid and its lower alkyl esters and DL-methionine, an essential amino acid used as a feed supplement for poultry and cattle. In the USA, in 1983, 91 to 93% of the total quantity of acrolein produced was converted to acrylic acid and its esters, and 5% to methionine (Beauchamp et al., 1985).

Among the direct uses of acrolein, its application as a biocide is the most significant one. Acrolein at a concentration of 6-10 mg/litre in water is used as an algicide, molluscicide, and herbicide in recirculating process water systems, irrigation channels, cooling water towers, and water treatment ponds (Hess et al., 1978). About 66 tonnes of acrolein is reported to be used annually in Australia to control submersed plants in about 4000 km of irrigation channels (Bowmer & Sainty, 1977; Bowmer & Smith, 1984).

Acrolein protects feed lines for subsurface injection of wastewater, liquid hydrocarbon fuels and oil wells against the growth of microorganisms, and at 0.4-0.6 mg/litre it controls slime formation in the paper industry. The substance can also be used as a tissue fixative, warning agent in methyl chloride refrigerants, leather tanning agent, and for the immobilization of enzymes via polymerization, etherification of food starch, and the production of perfumes and colloidal metals (Hess et al., 1978; IARC, 1985).

The general population can be exposed to acrolein in indoor and outdoor air. In addition, both smokers and non-smokers are exposed to acrolein as the product of pyrolysis of tobacco. An extensive database shows a delivery of 3-228 µg of acrolein per cigarette to the smoker via the gas-phase of mainstream smoke, the amount depending on the type of cigarette and smoking conditions. Non-smokers are mainly exposed to the side-stream smoke of tobacco products.

The symptoms of lung edema often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort. Rest and medical observation are therefore essential. Immediate administration of an appropriate inhalation therapy by a doctor or a person authorized by him/her, should be considered. An added stabilizer or inhibitor can influence the toxicological properties of this substance, consult an expert. The odor warning when the exposure limit value is exceeded is insufficient. The occupational exposure limit value should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure. Check for peroxides prior to distillation; render harmless if positive. Acrolein is very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Physical Dangers:

The vapor is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible. Acrolein can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its vapor, through the skin and by ingestion. A harmful contamination of the air can be reached very quickly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.

Chemical Dangers:

Acrolein can form explosive peroxides. The substance may polymerize with fire or explosion hazard. Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed. Reacts with strong acids, strong bases and strong oxidants, causing fire and explosion hazard. Because acrolein is highly flammable, avoid open flames. NO sparks and NO smoking. Use alcohol-resistant foam, powder, or carbon dioxide to extinguish flames.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Acrolein:

Tear drawing. The substance is severely irritating to the eyes the skin and the respiratory tract. Inhalation of this substance at high levels may cause lung edema (see Notes). The effects may be delayed. Medical observation is indicated.

Physical Properties of Acrolein:

Boiling point: 53°C

Melting point: -88°C

Relative density (water = 1): 0.8

Solubility in water, g/100 ml at 20°C: 20

Vapour pressure, kPa at 20°C: 29

Relative vapour density (air = 1): 1.9

Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.2

Flash point: -26°C c.c.

Auto-ignition temperature: 234°C

Explosive limits, vol% in air: 2.8-31

Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 0.9

Spillage Disposal: Evacuate danger area. Remove all ignition sources. Consult an expert! Collect leaking liquid in covered containers. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent and remove to safe place. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus.

Storage: Use fireproof container, separated from strong oxidants, strong bases, strong acids, food and feedstuffs. Storage must be cool. Provide ventilation along the floor. Store acrolein only if stabilized.

Exposure Data

Acrolein has been produced commercially since the 1940s. It is used mainly in the production of acrylic acid, a starting material for acrylate polymers. It is also used in the production of DL-methionine and as a herbicide and slimicide. Acrolein occurs naturally in foods and is formed during the combustion of fossil fuels (including engine exhausts), wood and tobacco and during the heating of cooking oils. Human exposure occurs from these sources and during its production and use.

Human Carcinogenicity Data

The available data were inadequate to form the basis for an evaluation of the carcinogenicity of acrolein to humans.

Animal Carcinogenicity Data

Acrolein was tested for carcinogenicity in one experiment in mice and in two experiments in rats by oral administration. No increase in tumor incidence was observed in mice or in rats in the one adequate study. An increased incidence of urinary bladder papillomas was observed in rats receiving intraperitoneal injections of acrolein in combination with uracil in the diet.

Other Relevant Data

Acrolein is retained irreversibly in the respiratory tract after exposure by inhalation, probably because of its high tissue reactivity. Consequently, there is little, if any, distribution to other organs. Subcutaneous and oral exposure and long-term inhalation result in some systemic distribution and urinary excretion. Acrolein reacts readily with reduced glutathione, and this is the dominant detoxification pathway.

Acrolein is an intense irritant, and its irritancy may limit exposure to this substance. Repeated inhalation results in changes in the upper and lower respiratory tract. In dogs, acute congestion, changes in bronchiolar epithelial cells and emphysema were found after inhalation of the lowest dose tested.

No data were available on the effects of acrolein on human reproduction. No reproductive toxicity was seen in rats or rabbits treated with acrolein by gavage. In single studies, acrolein did not induce DNA damage in rats or dominant lethal mutations in mice treated in vivo. In cultured mammalian cells, acrolein induced gene mutation, sister chromatid exchange and DNA damage; weak induction of chromosomal aberrations was observed in one study. Acrolein induced both somatic and germinal mutations in insects and DNA mutation and DNA damage in bacteria. DNA binding in vitro was observed in several studies.

Evaluation

There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of acrolein. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of acrolein.

Overall Evaluation

Acrolein is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

2-Methylcyclohexanol

2-Methylcyclohexanol is a viscous colorless liquid, with characteristic odor. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its vapor and by ingestion. A harmful contamination of the air will not or will only very slowly be reached on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure to 2-Methylcyclohexanol: The substance is slightly irritating to the eyes and the skin. Exposure at high levels of the vapor may result in irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract.

Effects of Long-Term or Repeated Exposure to 2-Methylcyclohexanol: Repeated or prolonged contact with skin may cause dermatitis.

Physical Properties of 2-Methylcyclohexanol:

Boiling point: 165-166°C

Melting point: -9.5°C

Relative density (water = 1): 0.93

Solubility in water: poor

Relative vapor density (air = 1): 3.9

Flash point: 58°C c.c.

Auto-ignition temperature: 296°C

Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 1.84

This substance exists in two geometrical isomers (cis, trans) and can have an optical configuration. Other melting points: 7°C (cis, dl), -4°C (trans, dl). Other boiling points: 165°C (cis, dl), 167.5°C (trans, dl).

When exposed to fire, 2-Methylcyclohexanol is flammable. Avoid open flames, sparks, and smoking. Use AFFF, alcohol-resistant foam, dry powder, or carbon dioxide to extinguish the fire. At temperatures above 58°C, explosive vapor or air mixtures may be formed. Use a closed system or ventilation. In the case of fire, keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water.

Inhalation of 2-Methylcyclohexanol may cause symptoms like coughing and headache. To ease the symptoms, provide ventilation. Fresh air and rest are also recommended. Refer for medical attention. 2-Methylcyclohexanol causes redness of the skin when exposed to the substance. Wear protective gloves to avoid exposure to this chemical. As first aid treatment, remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap.

When the eyes get exposed to 2-Methylcyclohexanol, the eyes become red. Use safety spectacles to avoid exposure to this chemical. As first aid treatment, first rinse the affected area with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take the patient to a doctor. To prevent ingestion of 2-Methylcyclohexanol, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth, and then refer to a doctor for medical attention.

Spillage Disposal: Remove all ignition sources. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent and remove to safe place. Personal protection: filter respirator for organic gases and vapors.

Dimercaprol

Dimercaprol is a clear, colorless, or slightly yellow liquid substance. Dimercaprol is a therapeutic synthetic substance developed during World War II as an antidote against the vesicant arsenic war gases (Lewisite). The first experiments were based on the fact that arsenic products react with SH radicals. Of all the compounds originally tested, BAL was the most effective and the least toxic. The intrinsic toxicity of BAL later led to the development of its water soluble and less toxic derivatives dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) (see 10.7).

Dimercaprol is prepared in vegetable oil (peanut or arachis oil) and stabilized with benzyl benzoate (Reynolds, 1982). Dimercaprol is prepared by the bromination of allyl alcohol to glycerol di-bromine-hydrine followed by reaction with sodium hydrosulfide under pressure. It can also be prepared by hydrogenizing hydroxide propylene trisulfide (Budavari, 1989).

Dimercaprol has the alliaceous, pungent odor of mercaptan. Dimercaprol may be turbid or may contain small amount of flocculated material. This material, which develops during sterilization, is not an indication of deterioration.

Stability in light: Dimercaprol must be protected from the light. The addition of benzyl benzoate increases its stability (and solubility).

Thermal stability: Dimercaprol must be stored at between 2 and 10 °C in small vials that are hermetically sealed and completely filled (Reynolds, 1989).

In most recent studies of the use of dimercaprol it has been compared to its water-soluble analogues DMPS and DMSA. These studies suggest dimercaprol should never be the first drug of choice in any form of poisoning due to metals or metalloids. This statement is based on the better efficacy and lower toxicity of the newer antidotes referred above. The intrinsic toxicity or dimercaprol is significant and should always be considered whenever there might be an indication for its use.

However, in some countries dimercaprol may remain more readily available than DMPS and DMSA for some years, and this being the case, dimercaprol may be found useful in the treatment of poisonings due to arsenic (organic & inorganic), gold, and inorganic mercury. It should be noted that in none of these types of poisoning is the indication for the use of dimercaprol clear-cut (even if DMSA/DMPS are not available).

The recommendation for the use of dimercaprol in inorganic arsenic poisoning is based on documented reduced mortality, and significantly decreased arsenic content of body tissues, in animal studies. Increased urinary excretion has been documented in at least one human case, but other clinical data are not conclusive. However, animal data uniformly shows that dimercaprol treatment is associated with increased brain content of arsenic and its value as an antidote has therefore been questioned.

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene is a colorless liquid or white crystals, with characteristic odor. The substance decomposes on burning producing toxic fumes including hydrogen chloride. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene reacts violently with oxidants. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene is combustible, and it gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. Avoid open flames. To extinguish fire, use powder, water spray, foam, or carbon dioxide.

Physical Properties of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene:

Boiling point: 213°C

Melting point: 17°C

Relative density (water = 1): 1.5

Solubility in water: 34.6 mg/l

Vapour pressure, Pa at 25°C: 40

Relative vapour density (air = 1): 6.26

Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.002

Flash point: 105°C c.c.

Auto-ignition temperature: 571°C

Explosive limits, vol% in air: 2.5-6.6 (at 150°C)

Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 3.98

The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion.

Inhalation Risk: A harmful contamination of the air will be reached rather slowly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C; on spraying or dispersing, however, much faster.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure: The substance is irritating to the eyes the skin and the respiratory tract.

Effects of Long-Term or Repeated Exposure: The liquid defats the skin. The substance may have effects on the liver.

Prevent generation of mists to avoid exposure to the substance. In the case of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene inhalation, symptoms like cough, sore throat, or burning sensation may manifest. Ventilation, local exhaust, or breathing protection may prevent inhalation of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments. Refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention.

Skin exposure to 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene causes dry skin, skin redness, and skin roughness. Wear protective gloves to avoid skin exposure. Upon contamination due to skin exposure, remove contaminated clothes, and rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention.

Exposing the eyes to 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene may cause redness and pain. Wear safety goggles or eye protection in combination with breathing protection to avoid exposure. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Ingestion of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene may cause symptoms that include abdominal pain, sore throat, and vomiting. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth, and give plenty of water to drink. Refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention.

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene is toxic to aquatic organisms. Bioaccumulation of this chemical may occur in fish. The occupational exposure limit value should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure.

1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene

1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene is a substance that comes in the form of white crystals, with characteristic odor. 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene decomposes on burning producing toxic and corrosive fumes including hydrogen chloride. 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene reacts with strong oxidants. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol and by ingestion. A harmful contamination of the air will be reached rather slowly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C; on spraying or dispersing, however, much faster.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure to 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene: The substance is irritating to the eyes and the respiratory tract.

Physical Properties of 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene:

Boiling point: 218.5°C

Melting point: 53.5°C

Density: 1.45 g/cm³

Solubility in water: very poor

Vapor pressure, Pa at 25°C: 17.3

Relative vapor density (air = 1): 6.26

Flash point: 112.7°C c.c.

Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 4.05

The substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms. Bioaccumulation of this chemical may occur in fish.

1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene is combustible, and it gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. Avoid open flames. To extinguish fire, use dry powder, water spray, foam, or carbon dioxide.

In the case of 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene inhalation, symptoms like cough and sore throat may manifest. Local exhaust or breathing protection may prevent inhalation of 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments. Refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention.

Wear protective gloves to avoid skin exposure to 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene. Upon contamination due to skin exposure, remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap.

Exposing the eyes to 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene may cause redness and pain. Wear safety goggles to avoid exposure. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Ingestion of 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene may cause symptoms that include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth, and give plenty of water to drink. Refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention.

Spillage Disposal: Sweep spilled substance into covered containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. (Extra personal protection: P2 filter respirator for harmful particles.)

Storage: Keep 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene separated from strong oxidants. Keep the substance in a well-ventilated room.

Packaging and Labelling: EU Classification, UN Classification, UN Hazard Class: 9

2-Heptanol

2-Heptanol is a colorless liquid substance that reacts with strong oxidants. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion. No indication can be given about the rate in which a harmful concentration in the air is reached on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.

Physical Properties of 2-Heptanol:

Boiling point: 158-160°C

Relative density (water = 1): 0.82

Solubility in water, g/100 ml: 0.35

Vapor pressure, kPa at 20°C: 0.133

Relative vapor density (air = 1): 4

Relative density of the vapor/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1

Flash point: 71°C c.c.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure: 2-Heptanol is severely irritating to the eyes, is irritating to the respiratory tract and is mildly irritating to the skin. If this liquid is swallowed, aspiration into the lungs may result in chemical pneumonitis.

Effects of Long-Term or Repeated Exposure: The liquid defats the skin.

2-Heptanol is combustible, so avoid open flames. To extinguish fire, use alcohol-resistant foam, dry powder, or carbon dioxide. At temperatures above 71°C, explosive vapor or air mixtures may be formed. Use a closed system or ventilation. In case of fire, keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water.

In the case of 2-Heptanol inhalation, symptoms like cough and sore throat may manifest. Ventilation, local exhaust, or breathing protection may prevent inhalation of 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments.

Wear protective gloves to avoid skin exposure to 2-Heptanol. Dry skin is a symptom of skin exposure. Upon contamination, rinse and then wash skin with water and soap.

Exposing the eyes to 2-Heptanol may cause redness and pain. Wear safety goggles to avoid exposure. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Ingestion of 2-Heptanol may cause a burning sensation. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth, but do not induce vomiting. Give the patient plenty of water to drink, and refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention.

Spillage Disposal: Collect leaking liquid in covered containers. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent and remove to safe place. (Extra personal protection: filter respirator for organic gases and vapors). 2-Heptanol must be stored separated from strong oxidants.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

1,1,1-Trichloroethane is a colorless liquid, with characteristic odor. The vapor is heavier than air. The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing toxic and corrosive fumes including phosgene and hydrogen chloride. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane reacts violently with aluminium, manganese and their alloys, alkalis, strong oxidants, acetone and zinc. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane attacks natural rubber. Mixtures of 1,1,1-trichloroethane with potassium or its alloys are shock sensitive. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane reacts slowly with water releasing corrosive hydrochloric acid.

The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its vapor and by ingestion. A harmful contamination of the air can be reached rather quickly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane is a combustible substance under specific conditions. Heating will cause rise in pressure with risk of bursting. Combustible vapor/air mixtures difficult to ignite, may be developed under certain conditions. The substance burns only in excess oxygen or if a strong source of ignition is present. Use of alcoholic beverages enhances the harmful effect.

Depending on the degree of exposure, periodic medical examination is suggested. An added stabilizer or inhibitor can influence the toxicological properties of this substance, consult an expert. Do NOT use in the vicinity of a fire or a hot surface, or during welding. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. In case of fire in the surroundings, use appropriate extinguishing media. In case of fire during an explosion, keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water. Prevent generation of mists to avoid 1,1,1-Trichloroethane contamination.

In the case of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane inhalation, symptoms like headache, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, ataxia, and unconsciousness may manifest. Ventilation, local exhaust, or breathing protection may prevent inhalation 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments. Artificial respiration may be needed. Refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention.

Wear protective gloves to avoid skin exposure to 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. Dry skin and skin redness are symptoms of skin exposure. Upon contamination, remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap.

Exposing the eyes to 1,1,1-Trichloroethane may cause redness. Wear safety goggles or eye protection in combination with breathing protection to avoid exposure. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Ingestion of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane may cause diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth, but do not induce vomiting. Give a slurry of activated charcoal in water to drink. Refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane has a sweetish odor similar to that of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride. The odor of 1,1,1-trichloroethane is considered distinctive or powerful enough to provide satisfactory warning of exposure, however, it is usually noticeable at about 100ppm which is below the level required to cause acute toxic effects (Clayton and Clayton, 1981).

Important Chemical Interactions

A mixture of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and potassium may explode on light impact. Violent decomposition with evolution of hydrogen chloride may occur when 1,1,1-trichloroethane comes into contact with aluminium, magnesium or their alloys (Bretherick, 1981). 1,1,1-trichloroethane reacts violently with dinitrogen tetroxide, oxygen, liquid oxygen, sodium, sodium hydroxide and sodium potassium alloy (Sax, 1984). Phosgene is produced when 1,1,1-trichloroethane comes into contact with iron, copper, zinc or aluminium at high temperatures (Carchman et al, 1984).

Analytical grade 1,1,1-trichloroethane has a purity of >99.0% and contains no added stabilizers. Commercially available technical and solvent grade 1,1,1-trichloroethane has a purity of 90-95% and usually contains 3-8% of stabilizers, mainly to prevent the generation of hydrochloric acid and to avoid corrosion of metal parts. The stabilizers (usually a mixture) are nitromethane, N-methyl pyrole, 1,4-dioxane, butylene oxide, 1,3-dioxolane, nitroethane, toluene, di-isopropylamine, methyl ethyl ketone, iso-butyl alcohol and 2-butanol (IARC Monograph 1979; Carchman et al, 1984; Fielder et al, 1984).

Reactivity

A mixture of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and potassium may explode on light impact. Violent decomposition with evolution of hydrogen chloride may occur when 1,1,1-trichloroethane comes into contact with aluminium, magnesium or their alloys (Bretherick, 1981). It reacts violently with dinitrogen tetroxide, oxygen, liquid oxygen, sodium, sodium hydroxide and sodium potassium alloy (Sax, 1984). Phosgene is produced when 1,1,1-trichloroethane comes into contact with iron, copper, zinc or aluminium at high temperatures (Carchman et al, 1984).

Uses

1,1,1-Trichloroethane is used industrially and domestically as a degreaser, dry cleaning agent, and solvent in paints, glues and aerosol products. A common source is typewriter correction fluid, and correction fluid thinners, in commercial products such as Tipp-ex (TM) and Liquid paper (TM).

1,1,1-Trichloroethane has rapid anaesthetic action and was used for this purpose medically but was abandoned with the advent of safer agents. It is an important chemical intermediate, and is used as an additive to raise the flash point of many flammable solvents.

Absorption

1,1,1-Trichloroethane is rapidly absorbed through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. Absorption through skin also occurs (Stewart and Dodd, 1964), but is of minor significance compared to uptake via inhalation. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane has a relatively low blood/air partition coefficient, therefore steady state tissue levels are attained slowly and the vapor is eliminated relatively rapidly in expired air after exposure.

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

1,1,2-Trichloroethane is a is a colorless liquid, with characteristic odor. The vapor is heavier than air. On contact with hot surfaces or flames this substance decomposes forming hydrogen chloride, phosgene, and other toxic gases. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane reacts with strong oxidants, strong bases and metals such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and powdered aluminium. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane attacks many plastic, rubber, steel and zinc. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its vapor, through the skin and by ingestion. A harmful contamination of the air can be reached rather quickly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure: The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system, kidneys, liver, resulting in central nervous depression, liver impairment and kidney impairment. Exposure at high levels may result in unconsciousness.

Effects of Long-Term or Repeated Exposure: The liquid defats the skin.

1,1,2-Trichloroethane is combustible under specific conditions. Heating will cause rise in pressure with risk of bursting. Avoid open flames and contact with hot surfaces. Use powder, water spray, foam, or carbon dioxide to extinguish fire.

Prevent generation of mists to avoid exposure to 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. In the case of inhalation, symptoms like dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, shortness of breath, and unconsciousness may manifest. Ventilation, local exhaust, or breathing protection may prevent inhalation of 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments.

1,1,2-Trichloroethane may be absorbed by the skin. Wear protective gloves and protective clothing to avoid skin exposure. Dry skin is a symptom of skin exposure. Upon contamination, remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. Refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention.

Wear safety goggles or face shield to avoid eye exposure. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor. To prevent ingestion of 1,1,2-Trichloroethane, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth. Induce vomiting only in conscious persons. Refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention.

The substance is harmful to aquatic organisms. Flash point unknown in literature. Combustible vapor/air mixtures difficult to ignite, may be developed under certain conditions. Use of alcoholic beverages enhances the harmful effect. The relation between odor and the occupational exposure limit cannot be indicated. Do NOT use in the vicinity of a fire or a hot surface, or during welding.

Spillage Disposal: Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent and remove to safe place. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Personal protection: self-contained breathing apparatus.

2-Nitronaphthalene

2-Nitronaphthalene is a colorless to yellow solid in various forms. 2-Nitronaphthalene decomposes on burning producing toxic fumes. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation and by ingestion. Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly when dispersed, especially if powdered.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure: The substance may cause effects on the blood, resulting in the formation of methemoglobin. Medical observation is indicated. The effects may be delayed.

Specific treatment is necessary in case of poisoning with this substance; the appropriate means with instructions must be available. Insufficient data are available on the effect of this substance on human health, therefore utmost care must be taken. Similar substances cause bladder tumors in humans.

Physical Properties of 2-Nitronaphthalene:

Boiling point: 304°C

Melting point: 79°C

Solubility in water, g/100 ml at °C: very poor

Vapor pressure, kPa at 25°C: 0.000032

Relative vapor density (air = 1): 5.89

Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 2.78

2-Nitronaphthalene is combustible. Avoid open flames. Use water in large amounts, foam, alcohol-resistant foam, or carbon dioxide to extinguish fire. Prevent dispersion of dust to avoid exposure to 2-Nitronaphthalene.

Ingestion of 2-Nitronaphthalene may cause blue lips or fingernails, blue skin, confusion, convulsions, dizziness, headache, nausea, and unconsciousness. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth. Give a slurry of activated charcoal in water to drink. Refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention.

Local exhaust or breathing protection may prevent 2-Nitronaphthalene inhalation. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments. Refer the patient to a doctor for medical attention. Wear protective gloves to avoid skin exposure to 2-Nitronaphthalene. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. Wear safety goggles to avoid eye exposure. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Spillage Disposal: Sweep spilled substance into containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. (Extra personal protection: P2 filter respirator for harmful particles). Keep the storage container for 2-Nitronaphthalene well-closed.

2-Octanol

2-Octanol is a colorless oily liquid, with characteristic odor that reacts with strong oxidants. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion. No indication can be given about the rate in which a harmful concentration in the air is reached on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure: The substance is irritating to the eyes and the respiratory tract and is mildly irritating to the skin. If this liquid is swallowed, aspiration into the lungs may result in chemical pneumonitis.

Effects of Long-Term or Repeated Exposure: The liquid defats the skin.

Physical Properties of 2-Octanol:

Boiling point: 178.5°C

Melting point: -38.6°C

Relative density (water = 1): 0.82

Solubility in water: none (0.096 ml/100 ml)

Vapor pressure, Pa at 25°C: 32

Relative vapor density (air = 1): 4.5

Relative density of the vapor/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.0

Flash point: 76°C

Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 2.72

2-Octanol is combustible. Avoid open flames. Use alcohol-resistant foam, dry powder, or carbon dioxide to extinguish fire. At temperatures above 76°C, explosive vapor or air mixtures may be formed. Use a closed system, ventilation, and explosion-proof electrical equipment. In case of fire, keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water.

In the case of inhalation, symptoms like cough and sore throat may manifest. Ventilation, local exhaust, or breathing protection may prevent inhalation of 2-Octanol. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments. Ingestion of 2-Octanol may cause a burning sensation. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Give plenty of water to drink.

Wear protective gloves to avoid skin exposure to 2-Octanol which may cause dry skin. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. Wear safety goggles to avoid eye exposure to 2-Octanol which may cause redness and pain. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Spillage Disposal of 2-Octanol: Collect leaking liquid in covered containers. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent and remove to safe place. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. (Extra personal protection: filter respirator for organic gases and vapors.)

Storage of 2-Octanol: Keep 2-Octanol separated from strong oxidants. Provide ventilation along the floor.

Acetonitrile

Acetonitrile (Ch2CN) is a by-product of acrylonitrile manufacture. It may also be formed by the combustion of wood and vegetation. It is a liquid with an ether-like odor. Acetonitrile is a volatile, highly polar solvent used to extract fatty acids and animal and vegetable oils. It is used in the petrochemical industry in extractive distillation based on its selective miscibility with organic compounds. It is used as a solvent for spinning synthetic fibers and in casting and molding plastics. In laboratories, it is widely used in high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis and as a solvent for DNA synthesis and peptide sequencing. The most widely used analytical technique for acetonitrile is gas chromatography.

Acetonitrile volatilizes from water and would also volatilize from soil surfaces. It is readily biodegraded by several strains of bacteria common in sewage sludge, natural waters and soil. Acclimatization of bacteria to acetonitrile or petroleum wastes increases the rate of degradation. Anaerobic degradation appears to be limited or absent.

Acetonitrile has low toxicity to microorganisms (bacteria, cyanobacteria, green algae and protozoans) with thresholds at 500 mg/liter or more. Freshwater invertebrates and fish acute LC50s are 700 mg/liter or more. Acute tests have been conducted under static conditions without analytical confirmation of concentrations. Similar results obtained from 24- and 96-h tests suggest volatilization of acetonitrile.

Acetonitrile induces toxic effects similar to those observed acute cyanide poisoning, although the onset of symptoms is some-what delayed compared to inorganic cyanides or other saturated nitriles. The 8-h inhalation LC50 in male rats is 13 740 mg/m3 (7500 ppm). The oral LD50 in the rat varies from 1.7 to 8.5 g/kg depending on the conditions of the experiment. Mice and guinea-pigs appear to be more sensitive, with an oral LD50 in the range of 0.2-0.4 g/kg. The main symptoms in animals appear to be prostration followed by seizures. Dermal application of acetonitrile causes systemic toxicity in animals and has been implicated in the death of one child. The percutaneous LD50 in rabbits is 1.25 ml/kg.

Subchronic exposure of animals to acetonitrile produces effects similar to those seen after acute exposures. The levels causing toxicity in man are unknown but are probably in excess of 840 mg/m3 (500 ppm) in air. Symptoms and signs of acute acetonitrile intoxication include chest pain, tightness in the chest, nausea, emesis, tachycardia, hypotension, short and shallow respiration, headache, restlessness, semiconsciousness, and seizures. Other non-specific symptoms may be due to the irritant effects of the compound.

Acetonitrile can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its vapor, through the skin and by ingestion. A harmful contamination of the air can be reached rather quickly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.

Acetonitrile is highly flammable and gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. There should be NO open flames, NO sparks, and NO smoking. NO contact with oxidants. Alcohol-resistant foam, dry powder, or carbon dioxide may be used to extinguish fire. Vapor/air mixtures are explosive. Risk of fire and explosion on contact with oxidants. There should be closed system, ventilation, explosion-proof electrical equipment and lighting to prevent explosion. Do NOT use compressed air for filling, discharging, or handling. In case of fire: keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water.

Prevent exposure to Acetonitrile by practicing strict hygiene. In all cases consult a doctor. In the case of inhalation, symptoms like sore throat, weakness, abdominal pain, labored breathing, convulsions, unconsciousness, and vomiting may manifest. Ventilation, local exhaust, or breathing protection may prevent inhalation of acetonitrile. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments. Artificial respiration may be needed. Refer for medical attention.

Wear protective gloves to avoid skin exposure to acetonitrile which may redness. Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer for medical attention. Wear a face shield or eye protection in combination with breathing protection to avoid eye exposure to acetonitrile which may cause redness and pain. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor. To prevent ingestion of acetonitrile, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth. Induce vomiting (only in conscious persons). Give plenty of water to drink. Refer for medical attention.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure: The substance is irritating to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. The substance may cause effects on the cellular respiration (inhibition), resulting in convulsions and respiratory failure. Exposure far above the OEL may result in death. The effects may be delayed. Medical observation is indicated.

Spillage Disposal of Acetonitrile: Ensure ventilation. Remove all ignition sources. Collect leaking liquid in sealable containers. Absorb remaining liquid in dry sand or inert absorbent and remove to safe place. Do NOT wash away into sewer. Personal protection: complete protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus.

Safe Storage: Container should be fireproof, separated from acids, bases and oxidants, cool, and well-closed.

Acrylic Acid

Acrylic acid is a colorless liquid, with an irritating acrid odor, at room temperature and pressure. The odor threshold of acrylic acid is low (0.20-3.14 mg/m3). It is miscible with water and most organic solvents. Acrylic acid is commercially available in two grades; technical grade and glacial grade. Acrylic acid polymerizes easily when exposed to heat, light or metals, and a polymerization inhibitor is therefore added to commercial products.

The worldwide production of acrylic acid in 1994 was estimated to be approximately 2 million tons. It is used primarily as a starting material in the production of acrylic esters as a monomer for polyacrylic acid and salts and as a co-monomer with acrylamide for polymers used as flocculants, with ethylene for ion-exchange resin polymers, with methyl ester for polymers, and with itatonic acid for other co-polymers.

Acrylic acid residues in air and other media can be quantified by means of gas chromatographic, high performance liquid chromatographic and polarographic techniques. The detection limits of these methods are 14 ppm in air and 1 ppm in other media. Acrylic acid has been reported to occur naturally in marine algae and has been found in the rumen fluid of sheep. Being miscible with water, acrylic acid would not be expected to adsorb significantly to soil or sediment. Under soil conditions, chemicals with low Henry’s Law constants are essentially non-volatile. However, the vapor pressure of acrylic acid suggests that volatilizes from surface and dry soil.

Acrylic acid emitted into the atmosphere will react with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals and ozone, resulting in rapid degradation. There is no potential for long-range atmospheric transport of acrylic acid because it has an atmospheric lifetime of less than one month. Acrylic acid may be formed by hydrolysis of acrylamide monomer from industrial waste in soil, especially under aerobic conditions.

The toxicity of acrylic acid to bacteria and soil microorganisms is low. Inhalation and contact with skin are important routes of occupational exposure. When released into water, acrylic acid readily biodegrades. The fate of acrylic acid in water depends on chemical and microbial degradation. Acrylic acid is rapidly oxidized in water and can therefore potentially deplete oxygen if discharged in large into a body of water. Acrylic acid has been shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Because acrylic acid toxicity occurs at the site of contact, separate guidance values are recommended for oral and inhalation exposure. Guidance values of 9.9 mg/litre for drinking-water and 54 µg/m3 for ambient air for the general population are proposed.

Acrylic Acid is flammable. Many reactions may cause fire or explosion. Acrylic Acid gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. NO open flames, NO sparks, and NO smoking. Water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, powder, or carbon dioxide may extinguish fire.

At temperatures above 54°C, explosive vapor/air mixtures may be formed. Use a closed system, ventilation, and explosion-proof electrical equipment to prevent explosion. Vapors will be uninhibited and may polymerize in exhaust or ventilation facilities with risk of breakdown. In case of fire: keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water. Combat fire from a sheltered position.

Physical Properties of Acrylic Acid:

Boiling point: 141°C

Melting point: 14°C

Relative density (water = 1): 1.05

Solubility in water: miscible

Vapor pressure, Pa at 20°C: 413

Relative vapor density (air = 1): 2.5

Flash point: 54°C c.c.

Auto-ignition temperature: 360°C

Explosive limits, vol% in air: 2.4-8

Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 0.36 (estimated)

The substance polymerizes readily due to heating, under the influence of light, oxygen, oxidizing agents such as peroxides or other activators (acid, iron salts), with fire or explosion hazard. Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed. The substance is a medium strong acid. Reacts violently with strong bases and amines. Attacks many metals, including nickel and copper. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation and through the skin and by ingestion.

Acrylic acid is corrosive to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. Corrosive on ingestion. Inhalation of the substance may cause lung edema. Low oxygen content can diminish the effectiveness of inhibitor, posing hazardous polymerization situation. The symptoms of lung edema often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort. Rest and medical observation are therefore essential. Immediate administration of an appropriate inhalation therapy by a doctor or a person authorized by him/her, should be considered. Do not remelt after solidification, as the substance may be unstable. An added stabilizer or inhibitor can influence the toxicological properties of this substance, consult an expert. The effects may be delayed.

Spillage Disposal: Evacuate danger area. Consult an expert if large spill. Provide ventilation. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable labelled containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent and remove to safe place. Do NOT wash away into sewer. Personal protection: complete protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus.

Storage container must be fireproof, separated from strong oxidants, strong bases, strong acids, food and feedstuffs. Keep in the dark, in a well-ventilated room. Do not allow to solidify. Store only if stabilized.

Emergency Overview:

Acrylic acid is a clear, colorless liquid with a sharp, sweet, acrid, rancid, unpleasant odor. Acrylic acid is a combustible liquid and vapor. It is a confined space hazard and dangerously reactive. Vapor or uninhibited liquid may polymerize explosively, if heated or exposed to sunlight (ultraviolet light) or incompatible materials, or if the product is improperly thawed after freezing. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated. Acrylic acid is very toxic. May be fatal if inhaled or ingested and harmful if absorbed through the skin. Mist or vapor can be extremely irritating to the respiratory tract. May cause lung injury–effects may be delayed. Acrylic acid is corrosive to the eyes and skin. Can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness, or permanent scarring of the skin.

Carcinogenicity:

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is no relevant human information for the assessment of carcinogenicity. Acrylic acid has been shown to be non-carcinogenic in three animal studies, and one other study cannot be evaluated due to lack of statistical analysis of the data.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as not classifiable as a human carcinogen (A4). The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Stability:

The liquid is stable in the presence of an inhibitor. The vapor may polymerize explosively. May form dimers at increased temperatures and is solvent dependent; this reaction cannot be controlled by inhibitors.

Hazardous Polymerization: Uninhibited acrylic acid or material that is depleted of inhibitor can polymerize violently when exposed to elevated temperatures, sunlight (ultraviolet light), the presence of incompatible materials, or if the product is improperly thawed after freezing. Moisture may cause rust-initiated polymerization.

Incompatibility – Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.

Conditions to Avoid: Heat, sparks, open flames, other ignition sources, sunlight, low inhibitor concentration, oxygen-free atmospheres, oxygen depletion, moisture, corrosion of storage containers, improper thawing.

Acrylic acid is corrosive to many metals, including iron, carbon steels, copper alloys and lead compounds. Not corrosive to types 304 and 316 stainless steels, to nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum alloys or to aluminum.

Allyl Alcohol

Allyl alcohol is a colorless liquid with pungent odor. Allyl alcohol reacts with carbon tetrachloride, nitric acid, chlorosulphonic acid causing fire and explosion hazard. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its vapor, through the skin and by ingestion. A harmful contamination of the air can be reached very quickly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C. Depending on the degree of exposure, periodic medical examination is suggested. The odor warning when the exposure limit value is exceeded is insufficient. Allyl alcohol is very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure: Lachrymation. The substance is irritating to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. The substance may cause effects on the muscles, resulting in local spasm and aching. The effects may be delayed. The substance may cause effects on the kidneys and liver.

Spillage Disposal of Allyl Alcohol: Remove all ignition sources. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent and remove to safe place. Personal protection: complete protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment.

Storage of Allyl Alcohol: Container should be fireproof and separated from strong oxidants, food and feedstuffs.

Allyl alcohol is flammable. Avoid open flames, sparks, and smoking. Use powder, alcohol-resistant foam, water in large amounts, or carbon dioxide to extinguish fire. At temperatures above 21°C, explosive vapor or air mixtures may be formed. Use a closed system, ventilation, and explosion-proof electrical equipment. In case of fire, keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water. To prevent exposure to allyl alcohol, employ strict hygiene. Also, prevent generation of mists.

In the case of allyl alcohol inhalation, symptoms like headache, nausea, and vomiting may manifest. Ventilation, local exhaust, or breathing protection may prevent inhalation of allyl alcohol. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments. Ingestion of allyl alcohol may cause abdominal pain and unconsciousness. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Wash hands before eating. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth. Give plenty of water to drink. Induce vomiting (only in conscious persons). Rest. Refer for medical attention.

Allyl alcohol may be absorbed by the skin. Symptoms include aching, blisters, and pain. Wear protective gloves and protective clothing to avoid skin exposure. Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. Wear face shield or eye protection in combination with breathing protection to avoid eye exposure to allyl alcohol. Symptoms of exposure may include redness, pain, blurred vision, temporary loss of vision, severe deep burns, and sensitivity to light. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Allyl Isothiocyanate

Allyl isothiocyanate is a colorless to pale yellow, oily liquid with pungent odor. An added stabilizer or inhibitor can influence the toxicological properties of this substance, consult an expert. Mustard oil is a commonly used name. The substance decomposes on heating, on burning or on contact with acids producing highly toxic fumes including nitrogen oxides or sulfur oxides. Allyl isothiocyanate reacts with strong oxidants. Allyl isothiocyanate can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its vapor, through the skin and by ingestion. No indication can be given about the rate in which a harmful concentration in the air is reached on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure: Tear drawing. The substance is irritating to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract.

Effects of Long-Term or Repeated Exposure: Repeated or prolonged contact with skin may cause dermatitis. Repeated or prolonged contact may cause skin sensitization. The substance may have effects on the liver, kidneys, stomach, thyroid and bladder.

Allyl isothiocyanate is flammable and gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. Avoid open flames, sparks, and smoking. Use powder, AFFF, foam, or carbon dioxide to extinguish fire. Above 46°C explosive vapor/air mixtures may be formed. Above 46°C use a closed system, ventilation, and explosion-proof electrical equipment. In case of fire: keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water. To avoid exposure to allyl isothiocyanate, prevent generation of mists and practice strict hygiene.

In case of inhalation, symptoms like cough and sore throat may manifest. Ventilation, local exhaust, or breathing protection may prevent inhalation of allyl isothiocyanate. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments. Refer for medical attention. Ingestion of allyl isothiocyanate may cause sore throat and burning sensation. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth. Induce vomiting (only in conscious persons). Refer for medical attention.

Wear protective gloves and protective clothing to avoid skin exposure to allyl isothiocyanate which may cause redness and pain. Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer for medical attention. Wear safety goggles or eye protection in combination with breathing protection to avoid eye exposure to allyl isothiocyanate which may cause redness and pain. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Spillage Disposal of Allyl Isothiocyanate: Evacuate danger area! Ventilation. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent and remove to safe place. Personal protection: complete protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus.

Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonium nitrate is a colorless, hygroscopic to white solid in various forms. Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion. The substance decomposes on heating or producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides.) The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol. Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly.

EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE: The substance is irritating to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. The substance may cause effects on the blood, resulting in formation of methemoglobin. Medical observation is indicated. The effects may be delayed.

This substance may be hazardous to the environment; special attention should be given to water quality. Ammonium nitrate becomes shock-sensitive when mixed with organic materials. Rinse contaminated clothes (fire hazard) with plenty of water. Depending on the degree of exposure, periodic medical examination is suggested. Specific treatment is necessary in case of poisoning with this substance; the appropriate means with instructions must be available.

Ammonium nitrate is not combustible but enhances combustion of other substances. Ammonium nitrate is explosive and gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. Avoid contact with combustibles or reducing agents. In case of fire, use water in large amounts. Avoid other extinguishing agents. In case of fire in the surroundings, use flooding amounts of water in the early stages.

There is risk of fire and explosion under confinement and high temperatures. Evacuate danger area! In case of fire: keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water. Combat fire from a sheltered position.

Prevent dispersion of dust to avoid exposure to ammonium nitrate. When inhaled, symptoms like cough, headache, and sore throat may manifest. Local exhaust or breathing protection may prevent inhalation. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments. Refer for medical attention.

Ingestion of ammonium nitrate may cause abdominal pain, blue lips or fingernails, blue skin, convulsions, diarrhea, dizziness, vomiting, and weakness. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth. Refer for medical attention.

Wear protective gloves to avoid skin exposure to ammonium nitrate which may cause redness. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water, then remove contaminated clothes and rinse again. Refer for medical attention.

Wear safety goggles to avoid eye exposure to ammonium nitrate which may cause redness and pain. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Barium

Barium is one of the alkaline earth metals, having a relative atomic mass of 137.34 and an atomic number of 56. It has seven naturally occurring stable isotopes, of which 138Ba is the most abundant. Barium is a yellowish-white soft metal that is strongly electropositive. It combines with ammonia, water, oxygen, hydrogen, halogens, and sulfur, energy being released by these reactions. It also reacts strongly with metals to form metal alloys. In nature barium occurs only in a combined state, the principal mineral forms being barite (barium sulfate) and witherite (barium carbonate). Barium is also present in small quantities in igneous rocks and in feldspar and micas. It may be found as a natural component of fossil fuel and is present in air, water, and soil.

Certain barium compounds, such as acetate, nitrate, and chloride are relatively water soluble, whereas the fluoride, carbonate, oxalate, chromate, phosphate, and sulfate salts have very low solubility. With Several cases of poisoning due to the ingestion of barium compounds have been reported. Barium doses as low as 0.2-0.5 mg/kg body weight, generally resulting from the ingestion of barium chloride or carbonate, have been found to lead to toxic effects in adult humans.

Clinical features of barium poisoning include acute gastroenteritis, loss of deep reflexes with onset of muscular paralysis, and progressive muscular paralysis. The muscular paralysis appears to be related to severe hypokalaemia. In most reported most cases, rapid and uneventful recovery occurred after treatment with infused potassium salts (carbonate or lactate) and/or oral administration of sodium sulfate. The exception of barium sulfate, the water solubility of the barium salts increases with decreasing pH.

The average person (70 kg) contains approximately 22 mg of barium, most of which (91%) is localized in the bone. Trace quantities are found in various tissues such as the aorta, brain, heart, kidney, spleen, pancreas, and lung.

Total barium in human beings tends to increase with age. The levels in the body depend on the geographical location of the individual. Barium has also been found in all samples of stillborn babies, suggesting that it can cross the placenta. Several cases of poisoning due to the ingestion of barium compounds have been reported. Barium doses as low as 0.2-0.5 mg/kg body weight, generally resulting from the ingestion of barium chloride or carbonate, have been found to lead to toxic effects in adult humans.

Clinical features of barium poisoning include acute gastroenteritis, loss of deep reflexes with onset of muscular paralysis, and progressive muscular paralysis. The muscular paralysis appears to be related to severe hypokalaemia. In most reported cases, rapid and uneventful recovery occurred after treatment with infused potassium salts (carbonate or lactate) and/or oral administration of sodium sulfate.

Barium Acetate

Barium Acetate comes in the form of white crystals or powder. The substance decomposes on burning producing toxic fumes. Reacts with strong oxidants and acids. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol and by ingestion. A harmful concentration of airborne particles can be reached quickly when dispersed, especially if powdered. The substance is harmful to aquatic organisms. Specific treatment is necessary in case of poisoning with this substance; the appropriate means with instructions must be available.

Occupational Exposure Limits:

TLV: (as Ba) 0.5 mg/mł as TWA; A4 (not classifiable as a human carcinogen); (ACGIH 2004).

MAK: (as Ba) (Inhalable fraction) 0.5 mg/mł; Peak limitation category: II(2); (DFG 2004).

Physical Properties:

Density: 2.47 g/cmł

Solubility in water, g/100 ml at 20°C: 59

Effects of Short-Term Exposure: The substance may cause effects on the gastrointestinal tract and, by lowering the serum potassium level, on the muscles, heart and nervous system, resulting in muscle paralysis, cardiac dysrythmia and respiratory failure. Exposure (ingestion of high doses) may result in death.

Barium Acetate is not combustible. In case of fire in the surroundings, use appropriate extinguishing media. To avoid exposure, prevent dispersion of dust and practice strict hygiene.

Prevent inhalation by using local exhaust or breathing protection. Upon contamination, fresh air and rest are recommended. Avoid skin exposure to barium acetate by using protective gloves. Upon contamination, rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. To protect the eyes from exposure, use safety spectacles. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Ingestion of barium acetate may cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and shortness of breath. Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon contamination, rinse mouth and refer for medical attention.

Spillage Disposal of Barium Acetate: Sweep spilled substance into covered containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Personal protection: P2 filter respirator for harmful particles.

Storage of Barium Acetate: Keep the substance separated from strong oxidants, acids, food and feedstuffs.

Barium and Salts

Le baryum fait partie des alcalino-terreux. C’est un métal tendre, blanc argenté lorsqu’il est pur, très malléable. Brillant lorsqu’il vient d’être coupé, il se ternit rapidement au contact de l’air puis deviant brun-jaunâtre et finalement gris. Il semble qu’il se couvre d’une couche d’oxyde et de nitrure. Il possède une forte affinité pour l’eau. Il s’oxyde à l’air en formant une couche superficielle protectrice.

Les principaux sels insolubles sont: le sulfate, le carbonate, les phosphates, le fluorure, les chromates, le silicate et le fluosilicate. Le carbonate est insoluble dans l’eau mais soluble dans les acides dilués. Le sulfate est insoluble dans l’eau, pratiquement insoluble dans les acides dilués.

Les sels solubles sont: le chlorure, l’oxyde, le nitrate. Le chlorure est très soluble dans l’eau, soluble dans les acides dilués. L’oxyde est soluble dans l’eau et dans les acides dilués. Le nitrate est soluble dans l’eau, insoluble dans l’alcool, soluble dans les acides (87g/L d’eau à 20°, 347 g/L à 100°). L’hydroxyde est partiellement soluble dans l’eau (à 20°C 3,89 g de Ba(OH)2 dans 100 g d’eau).

Autres caractéristiques

Le baryum métallique sous forme divisée peut s’enflammer sous l’effet d’une élévation de température et/ou au contact de l’air humide ou de tout autre gaz oxydant; il doit être conservé sous hélium ou argon sec. Il peut aussi être conservé sous pétrole. L’eau réagit sur le baryum à température ordinaire avec dégagement d’hydrogène. Ba + 2H2O —-> Ba(OH)2 + H2 = 92,500 Kcal. La réaction avec l’ammoniac, l’azote, l’hydrogène ou l’oxygène est très exothermique. Le baryum peut réagir de manière explosive au contact d’un hydrocarbure halogéné tel que: monofluorotrichlorométhane, trifluorotrichloroéthane, tétrachlorure de carbone, trichloréthylène, perchloréthylène. Il a une grande affinité pour l’azote, le soufre et le phosphore. Le sulfure de baryum est phosphorescent. Les dérivés du baryum colorent la flamme en vert.

Utilisations

Le métal:

– Alliage avec l’aluminium ou le magnésium pour la fabrication de piégeurs à gaz dans les tubes électroniques.

– Alliage avec le nickel pour l’industrie automobile.

– Porteur pour le radium.

– Extincteur pour les feux d’uranium ou de plutonium.

Les oxydes:

– L’oxyde, BaO, sous forme poreuse, permet de sécher les gaz et les solvants (pétrole, alcool divers). Il est utilisé dans la fabrication d’huile et de lubrifiant.

– L’hydroxyde, Ba(OH)2, est utilisé dans la fabrication du verre, dans la vulcanisation du caoutchouc, comme inhibiteur de corrosion, comme lubrifiant, dans le raffinage des huiles minérales végétales, dans l’industrie du sucre.

– Le peroxyde, BaO2, est employé dans le blanchiment des fibres textiles et de la paille, dans la fabrication de l’eau oxygénée, pour amorcer les combustions dans les bombes calorimétriques ou en aluminothérapie, dans les cathodes et comme agent d’oxydation en synthèse organique.

Benzene

Origin of Benzene

Benzene occurs naturally but is primarily produced from petroleum products (ATSDR, 1993). Benzene is produced commercially through catalytic reforming of light naphtha, dealkylation of toluene, and as a coking by-product in steel mills (Weaver et al., 1983).

Uses of Benzene

Benzene is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of a number of chemicals, including ethylbenzene (used in the synthesis of styrene), cumene (used in the synthesis of phenol and for the manufacture of phenolic resins and nylon intermediates), cyclohexane (used to make nylon resins), and nitrobenzene (used in the synthesis of aniline). Benzene is also a precursor in the manufacture of urethanes, chlorobenzene, and maleic anhydride.

Benzene was previously used widely as a solvent, but this use has decreased in many countries due to the concern over carcinogenic effects. Benzene is a naturally occurring component of petroleum and is present in gasoline (ATSDR, 1993). In the United States benzene averages less than 2% by volume in gasoline, and in Europe the concentration is often 4 to 5% by volume and may exceed these concentrations with certain blends. Environmental contamination from benzene occurs from automobile exhaust, chemical plants, gasoline spills, and emissions from coke ovens (Haley, 1977). In some countries, benzene continues to be used as a household cleaner. Benzene has also been reported to be abused by sniffing (Winek et al., 1967).

Summary of Clinical Effects

Acute neurological toxicity from benzene exposure may cause headache, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, tremors, and loss of consciousness. Exposure to high concentrations may have effects on multiple organ systems. Sudden deaths occurring below anesthetic concentrations of benzene are apparently due to cardiac dysrhythmias. With ingestion, toxic signs and symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain as well neurological toxicity. Chronic hematological effects include anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, chromosomal aberrations, and leukemia. Dermal exposure may cause skin irritation.

High Risk Circumstances of Poisoning

The most common form of exposure to benzene is occupational, and both occupational and environmental exposures to benzene are overwhelmingly through inhalation. Dermal contact is most often only a minor source of exposure. Environmental exposure is greatest in areas of heavy automobile use due to the presence of benzene in tailpipe emissions, near service stations, and from tobacco smoke (ATSDR, 1993). In the United States, smoking accounts for approximately half of the total population exposure to benzene (Wallace, 1989). In countries where benzene is used as a household cleaner, accidental or suicidal ingestion may occur.

Benzene is a naturally occurring colorless liquid at room temperature (20 °C) and ambient pressure (760 mmHg), and has a characteristic aromatic odor. Benzene is released to the environment from both natural and man-made sources, the latter accounting for the major part of the emissions. Benzene has a large number of industrial, commercial and scientific uses. Approximately, 10% of the total use of benzene is in gasoline (RIVM, 1988), where levels average < 1% by weight in the USA (US EPA, 1985) and 2.5-3.0% v/v in western Europe (GDCh, 1988). Methods have been reported for the analysis of benzene in other environmental media such as cigarette smoke (Brunnemann et al., 1989, 1990) and in petroleum products such as petrol (gasoline) (Poole et al., 1988; Dibben et al., 1989).

Along with other aromatic compounds, benzene is important in the production of organic chemicals, particularly styrene. There are no data indicating a major deviation from this pattern of use, which was reported in 1981. The presence of benzene in gasoline (petrol), and as a widely used industrial solvent can result in significant and widespread emissions to the environment. Outdoor environmental levels range from 0.2 µg/m3 in remote rural areas to 349 µg/m3 in industrial centers with a high density of automobile traffic. During refueling of automobiles, levels up to 10 mg/m3 have been measured.

Benzene has been detected at levels as high as 500 µg/m3 in indoor residential air. Cigarette smoke contributes significant amounts of benzene to the levels reported in indoor air, with smokers inhaling approximately 1800 µg benzene/day compared to 50 µg/day by non-smokers.

Benzene metabolism occurs mainly in the liver, is mediated primarily through the cytochrome P-450 IIE1 enzyme system and involves the formation of a series of unstable reactive metabolites. In rodents the formation of two putative toxic metabolites, benzoquinone and muconaldehyde, appears to be saturable. This may have important implications for dose-response relationships, because a higher proportion of the benzene will be converted to toxic metabolites at low doses than at high doses.

It is known that benzene produces a number of adverse health effects. The most frequently reported health effect of benzene is bone marrow depression leading to aplastic anemia. At high levels of exposure, a high incidence of these diseases is probable.

Benzene is a well-established human carcinogen. Epidemio-logical studies of benzene-exposed workers have demonstrated a causal relationship between benzene exposure and the production of myelogenous leukemia. A relationship between benzene exposure and the production of lymphoma and multiple myeloma remains to be clarified.

Physical Dangers: The vapor is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible. As a result of flow, agitation, etc., electrostatic charges can be generated.

Chemical Dangers: Reacts violently with oxidants, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and halogens causing fire and explosion hazard. Attacks plastic and rubber.

The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion. A harmful contamination of the air can be reached very quickly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure:

The substance is irritating to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. Swallowing the liquid may cause aspiration into the lungs with the risk of chemical pneumonitis. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system, resulting in lowering of consciousness. Exposure far above the occupational exposure limit value may result in unconsciousness and death.

Effects of Long-Term or Repeated Exposure:

The liquid defats the skin. The substance may have effects on the bone marrow and immune system, resulting in a decrease of blood cells. This substance is carcinogenic to humans.

Benzene is highly flammable. To prevent fire, there should be NO open flames, NO sparks, and NO smoking. Powder, AFFF, foam, or carbon dioxide may be used to extinguish fire. Vapor/air mixtures are explosive. There is risk of fire and explosion. Closed system, ventilation, explosion-proof electrical equipment and lighting may prevent explosion. Do NOT use compressed air for filling, discharging, or handling. Use non-sparking hand tools. Prevent build-up of electrostatic charges (e.g., by grounding). In case of fire: keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water.

Avoid all contact with benzene.

In case of inhalation, symptoms like dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, shortness of breath, convulsions, and unconsciousness may manifest. Ventilation, local exhaust, or breathing protection may prevent inhalation of benzene. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments. Refer for medical attention.

Wear protective gloves and protective clothing to avoid skin exposure to benzene which may cause redness and pain. Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer for medical attention.

Wear a face shield, or eye protection in combination with breathing protection to avoid eye exposure to benzene which may cause redness and pain. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Ingestion of benzene may cause abdominal pain, sore throat, and vomiting. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer for medical attention.

Evidence for Carcinogenicity to Humans (Sufficient)

Numerous case reports and series have suggested a relationship between exposure to benzene and the occurrence of various types of leukemia. Several case-control studies have also shown increased odds ratios for exposure to benzene, but mixed exposure patterns and poorly defined exposures render their interpretation difficult.

Three independent cohort studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in workers exposed to benzene. An updating of a cohort study published earlier on benzene-exposed workers confirmed the previous findings and added a further case of myelogenous leukemia, giving a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 194 (95% confidence interval, 52-488), based on four cases; the difference was statistically significant when only myelogenous leukemia was considered (4 observed, 0.9 expected; p = 0.011).

A further cohort study found an excess of acute myeloid leukemia (SMR, 394; 172-788) among refinery workers, based on eight cases; however, the patients had not worked in jobs identified as having the highest benzene exposure. Another study of refinery workers showed no death from leukemia (0.42 expected); however, the median exposure intensity for benzene was 0.14 ppm (0.45 mg/m3), and only 16% of 1394 personal samples, taken between 1973 and 1982 inclusive, contained more than 1 ppm (3.19 mg/m3). The median exposure intensity in ‘benzene-related units’ was 0.53 ppm (1.7 mg/m3).

In a Chinese retrospective cohort study, encompassing 28 460 workers exposed to benzene in 233 factories, 30 cases of leukemia (23 acute, seven chronic) were found, as compared to four cases in a reference cohort of 28 257 workers in 83 machine production, textile and cloth factories. The mortality rate from leukemia was 14/100 000 person-years among the exposed and 2/100 000 person-years among the unexposed (SMR, 574; p <0.01).

Evidence for Carcinogenicity to Animals (Limited)

Benzene was tested for carcinogenicity in mice and rats by several routes of administration. Following its oral administration at several dose levels, it induced neoplasms at multiple sites in males and females of both species. After mice were exposed to benzene by inhalation, a tendency towards induction of lymphoid neoplasms was observed. Exposure of rats by inhalation increased the incidence of neoplasms, mainly carcinomas, at various sites. Skin application or subcutaneous injection of benzene to mice did not produce evidence of carcinogenicity, but most of the experiments were inadequate for evaluation. In a mouse-lung tumor bioassay by intraperitoneal injection, an increase in the incidence of lung adenomas was observed in males.

Experimental Data

Benzene has been tested in rats by intragastric administration and inhalation exposure, and in mice by skin application, inhalation exposure and subcutaneous injection. Oral administration to rats resulted in an increase in the incidence of Zymbal-gland carcinomas. Anemia, lymphocytopenia and bone-marrow hyperplasia and an increased incidence of lymphoid tumors occurred in male mice exposed by inhalation to benzene; in similar inhalation studies with another strain of mice and with rats there was no evidence of a leukemic response. Experiments involving skin application or subcutaneous injection of benzene did not produce evidence of carcinogenicity, but most of these experiments were inadequate.

Benzene does not induce specific gene mutations in bacterial systems or in Drosophila melanogaster. A single report showed no evidence for the induction of point mutation in mammalian cells; however, benzene induced cytogenic abnormalities (chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) in mammalian cells in vitro.

Human Data

Workers and the general public are exposed to benzene as a result of a variety of activities in which it is processed, generated or used. Major contributors to benzene emissions into air include: (1) gasoline production, storage, transport, vending and combustion; (2) production of other chemicals from benzene; and (3) indirect production of benzene (e.g., in coke ovens). The last is the major source of benzene emissions into water.

Chronic human exposure to benzene results in leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, anaemia or combinations of these. At early stages of such blood dyscrasias, these effects appear to be reversible. Exposure to high doses for longer periods of time may lead to pancytopenia, which results from aplasia of the bone marrow and is considered to be an irreversible stage of the disease.

Benzene crosses the human placenta. There is a clear correlation between exposure to benzene and the appearance of chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphocytes of individuals exposed to high levels of benzene (> 100 ppm). Such levels of exposure usually lead to clinical symptoms of benzene-induced blood dyscrasias. These aberrations may persist for many years after exposure and after manifestations of haematotoxicity. The results are not so clear with lower levels (< 100 ppm). Although aberrations have been reported following chronic exposures to as little as 10 ppm, this has not been a consistent finding. Environmental factors and exposure to other agents may have interacted with benzene in these studies of low exposure.

Many case reports and case series have described the association of leukaemia with exposure to benzene, either alone or in combination with other chemicals. Most cases were acute myelogenous leukemia, although some were monocytic, erythroblastic or lymphocytic; and some lymphomas have been noted.

Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation

Animal Carcinogenicity Data

Benzene has been tested only in mice by subcutaneous injection and skin application. The data reported do not permit the conclusion that carcinogenic activity has been demonstrated.

Human Carcinogenicity Data

It is established that exposure to commercial benzene or benzene-containing mixtures may result in damage to the haematopoietic system. A relationship between such exposure and the development of leukaemia is suggested by many case reports, and this suggestion is strengthened by a case-control study from Japan.

Benzyl Acetate

Benzyl Acetate is a colorless liquid, with characteristic odor. The substance decomposes on burning producing irritating fumes and reacts with strong oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard. Benzyl Acetate can be absorbed into the body by inhalation and by ingestion. A harmful contamination of the air will be reached rather slowly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C; on spraying or dispersing, however, much faster.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure: The vapor is irritating to the eyes and the respiratory tract. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system. Exposure far above the OEL may result in unconsciousness.

Effects of Long-Term or Repeated Exposure: The liquid defats the skin. The substance may have effects on the kidneys.

Physical Properties Benzyl Acetate:

Boiling point: 212°C

Melting point: -51°C

Relative density (water = 1): 1.1

Solubility in water, g/100 ml at 20°C: none

Vapour pressure, Pa at 25°C: 190

Relative vapour density (air = 1): 5.1

Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.01

Flash point: 90°C c.c.

Auto-ignition temperature: 460°C

Explosive limits, vol % in air: 0.9-8.4

Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 1.96

Benzyl Acetate is combustible. Avoid open flames. Powder, alcohol-resistant foam, water spray, carbon dioxide may be used to extinguish fire. At temperatures above 90°C, explosive vapor/air mixtures may be formed. Use a closed system and ventilation to prevent explosion.

Inhalation of benzyl acetate causes a burning sensation, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, labored breathing, and sore throat. Ventilation, local exhaust, or breathing protection would help prevent the inhalation of benzyl acetate. Fresh air and rest are recommended as first aid treatments. Refer for medical attention. Protect the skin from exposure by wearing protective gloves. Dry skin is a symptom of exposure. Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap.

Wear safety spectacles to avoid eye exposure to benzyl acetate which may cause redness. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor. Ingestion of benzyl acetate may cause a burning sensation, convulsion, diarrhea, drowsiness, and vomiting. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Give plenty of water to drink. Rest. Refer for medical attention.

Spillage Disposal of Benzyl Acetate: Cover the spilled material with earth, sand. Ventilation. Collect leaking liquid in covered containers. Wash away remainder with plenty of water.

Jatropha Multifida

Jatropha multifida is a small tree or shrub, commonly 3-7 feet tall, but may reach 20 feet. Leaves are dark green; alternate, simple, palmately cut into 9-11 deep narrow lobes. The leaves are large up to 1 foot across.

Main Toxins of Jatropha Multifida:

  1. Curcin – a phytotoxin (toxalbumin), found mainly in the seeds and also in the fruit and sap.
  2. Purgative oil – the seed yields 40% oil, known as hell oil, pinheon oil, oleum infernale or oleum ricini majoris, which contains small amounts of an irritant curcanoleic acid, which is related ricinoleic acid and crotonoleic acid, the principle active ingredients of castor oil and croton oil respectively (Joubert et al., 1984).

Other Toxins:

This genus also may contain hydrocyanic acid (CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology 1977). There may be a dermatitis producing resin (Lampe & Fagerstrom, 1968). There may be an alkaloid, and a glycoside which produce cardiovascular and respiratory depression. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMPZ), an amide alkaloid has been obtained from the stem of J. podagrica (Ojewole & Odebiyi, 1981). Atropine-like effects have also been reported following ingestion of Jatropha multifida (Aplin 1976). The latex of Jatropha multifida contains a thioglucoside which yields irritant mustard oil (Micromedex, 1974-1994).

Symptoms of poisoning are likely to be similar for species of Jatropha. There is usually a delay of an hour or more between consumption of the plant and the occurrence of symptoms. Symptoms are largely those associated with gastro-intestinal irritation. There is acute abdominal pain and a burning sensation in the throat about half an hour after ingestion of the seeds followed by nausea, vomiting and profuse watery diarrhea. In severe poisoning, these symptoms progress to hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and dehydration. Polydipsia can be extreme. Salivation and sweating may occur. There may be skeletal muscle spasm.

Intense hyperpnoea or a quick panting respiration is seen together with hypotension and electrocardiographic abnormalities. There may be CNS and cardiovascular depression, children are more susceptible; this may be either a direct effect of toxins or secondary to dehydration. In one report, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms, atropine-like effects developed eight hours after ingestion of Jatropha multifida (Aplin, 1976). Symptoms included sweating, dry skin and mouth, slight mydriasis, mild tachycardia and flushing of facial skin and persisted for four hours. In non-fatal cases the course of intoxication is short; the patient may become asymptomatic within 24 hours. Recovery seems to be the rule.

Amodiaquine Hydrochloride

Amodiaquine hydrochloride is a yellow crystalline powder; odorless (or almost odorless); with a bitter taste. Amodiaquine hydrochloride is synthesized from 4,7-dichloroquinoline and 4-acetamido-diethylamino-o-cresol. Alternative synthesis from 2-aminomethyl-p-aminophenol and 4,7-dichloroquinoline (The Merck Index, 1983). Amodiaquine hydrochloride is used for treatment of acute malarial attacks in non-immune subjects. It is at least as effective as chloroquine, and is effective against some chloroquine-resistant strains, although resistance to amodiaquine has been reported.

Amodiaquine hydrochloride has been tried in the treatment of giardiasis and hepatic amoebiasis. It has also been tried, with variable success, in the treatment of lepra reactions, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and urticaria (Martindale, 1989).

Main Risks and Target Organs

After oral administration amodiaquine hydrochloride is rapidly absorbed, and undergoes rapid and extensive metabolism to desethylamodiaquine which concentrates in blood cells. It is likely that desethylamodiaquine, not amodiaquine, is responsible for most of the observed antimalarial activity, and that the toxic effects of amodiaquine after oral administration may in part be due to desethylamodiaquine (Winstanley et al., 1987).

Chloroquine, a 4-aminoquinoline derivative which resembles amodiaquine structurally, is widely distributed into the body tissues, especially in liver, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and spinal cord. It binds to melanin-containing cells in the eyes and skin. In the blood, chloroquine concentrates in the erythrocytes and binds to platelets and leucocytes. Since the structure and spectrum of activity of these two 4-aminoquinoline derivatives are very similar, it is likely that the distribution of desethylamodiaquine in man mirrors that of chloroquine.

Summary of Clinical Effects

Gastrointestinal tract: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, melanosis

Haematopoietic system: leucopenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia, pancytopenia

Liver: toxic hepatitis

Skin: lichenoid reaction, urticaria, pigmentation of mucous membranes and skin

Nervous system & muscles: hallucinations, neuronitis, polymyositis

Eye: corneal irritation, keratitis, retinitis, retinal degeneration

Heart: heart block

The usual signs and symptoms of an overdose are headache, vertigo and vomiting; the more severe manifestations including cardiac arrhythmias, convulsions and coma. The most dramatic feature is visual disturbance, including sudden loss of vision, which is usually transitory.

Other symptoms include itching, cardiovascular abnormalities, dyskinesia, neuromuscular and haematological disorders, and hearing loss.

Diagnosis

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, drowsiness, blurred vision, blindness, convulsions, coma, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest and impaired respiration are the characteristic features of amodiaquine poisoning.

Electrocardiography (ECG) may show inverted or flattened T waves, widening of QRS, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Hypokalaemia may be present. High serum amodiaquine levels confirm the diagnosis.

Arum Maculatum L.

Arum maculatum is an ornamental plant. Occasionally used in traditional medicine and as an aphrodisiac; this last use is due to the phallic form of its inflorescence and without relationship with a pharmacological effect. (Boyce, 1993)

All parts of the Arum maculatum plant contain crystals insoluble calcium oxalate causing an effect caustic. Chewing leaves or fruit causes oral lesions. If swallowed, these lesions are accompanied by pain digestive, vomiting and diarrhea. More rarely, digestive hemorrhagic syndrome may occur as well as systemic disorders (paresthesia, somnolence, convulsions, mydriasis, cardiac arrhythmias). Irritative dermatitis has also been reported.

Chewing leaves or fruit of the Arum maculatum plant causes immediately a sensation of burning pharyngeal, with hypersalivation, local edema that may interfere with swallowing and ventilation. If ingested, these disorders are accompanied by pain digestive, vomiting and diarrhea. Cases of massive ingestion can be complicated by digestive hemorrhagic syndrome and systemic disorders paresthesia, somnolence, convulsions, mydriasis, heart rhythm), but these disorders are exceptional.

The oral way is the most common mode of intoxication, especially as regards the orange-red berries, attractive for the children. Chewing leaves or fruit causes severe local oral and pharyngeal irritation with hypersalivation, and their ingestion causes vomiting and diarrhea.

Cases of poisoning have been reported spring in cattle: hypersalivation, edema of neck, incoordination, convulsions, collapse and death animals. At autopsy: inflammation of the mucous membranes mouth and digestive tract, and edema of the gallbladder (Cooper & Johnson, 1984). At home horses have been observed: inflammation of the mucosa mouth, constipation, genital hemorrhage (Cooper & Johnson, 1984).

Decontamination is to be initiated immediately, with eviction of plant debris persisting in the cavity buccal and in the stomach. Monitoring of oral and pharyngeal edema is necessary in to detect possible complications respiratory.

Monitoring of oral and pharyngeal edema necessary to detect possible complications respiratory. Treat convulsions and correct acid disorders basic and hydroelectrolytic. To calm the pain one can administer liquids cold or suck an ice cube.

Aron, arodine and aronine are alkaloids related to conicine, but the main toxicity is exerted by insoluble crystals of calcium oxalate present in the plant. A saponin is present in the plant and could enhance the caustic effect. All parts of the Arum maculatum plant, leaves, fruits and rhizomes are toxic. But it has been reported that the rhizome dried and boiled could have been used as food (Garnier, 1961). Nicotine was found in the leaves at the rate 0.7 mg / kg, which cannot contribute to the toxicity of the plant (Stahl & Kaitenbach, 1965).

Caesalpinia Gilliesii

Caesalpinia gilliesii is a variety of Caesalpinia Pulcherrima. The Caesalpinia gilliesii plant is native to Madagascar, grown on the periphery of the Mediterranean basin; we meet her also in Argentina and Uruguay, south of United States and Hawaii. Habitat for this plant is dry grounds, full sun. The cultivated plant is used to form hedges or massive.

The seeds of Caesalpinia gilliesii are toxic. The other parts of this plant would also be toxic. After ingestion of at least two seeds of Caesalpinia gilliesii, the symptomatology occurs between 1 and 6 hours. This one is essentially digestive with vomiting food then bilious, possibly become unchangeable. Abdominal pain can also occur, and diarrhea is likely to manifest itself in the same amount of time. These disorders persist up to 24 hours after intoxication and are followed by an absolute digestive intolerance, may lead to hospitalization, especially in young children. Digestive disorders are likely to cause a state of dehydration (Jouglard et al., 1973).

Ingestion of seeds (combined with dry beans) or green pods (confused with green beans) containing seeds, most often by children. A blood Ionogram must be carried out in the event of serious intoxication, looking for dehydration and a functional renal failure related to digestive hydro-electrolytic losses.

Food vomiting then bilious, can become uncontrollable, occur between 1 and 6 hours after ingestion of at least 2 seeds. of the abdominal pain can also occur, and diarrhea is likely to manifest in the same amount of time. These disorders persist until 24 hours after intoxication and are followed by absolute digestive intolerance, which may induce hospitalization, especially in young children. The digestive disorders are likely to result in dehydration state (Jouglard et al., 1973).

The vomiting of the digestive syndrome must be respected as long as they allow the digestive evacuation of the toxic. When they become unproductive and uncontrollable, treat them with antivomic. Hydro-electrolytic disorders following losses digestive should be warned and a surveillance established hemodynamics. Hemodynamic monitoring should be undertaken if the digestive syndrome respect them as long as they allow the digestive evacuation toxic.

Jouglard et al (1973) described 6 cases of poisoning accidents in young children under 10 years of age. All the patients had vomiting, pain abdominal and diarrhea, and one of them has more showed some transient sleepiness. The evolution was always favorable, by means of a treatment symptomatic. Avoid planting this type of shrubs in schools nurseries, nurseries and kindergartens.

2-(Acetyloxy)Benzoic Acid

2-(Acetyloxy)Benzoic acid is colorless to white crystals or white crystalline powder, with characteristic odor. Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air. The solution in water is a weak acid. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation and by ingestion. Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly when dispersed, especially if powdered.

Effects of Short-Term Exposure: The substance irritates the eyes, the skin, and the respiratory tract. The substance may cause effects on the blood and central nervous system, if ingested in large amounts.

Effects of Long-Term or Repeated Exposure: Animal tests show that this substance possibly causes toxic effects upon human reproduction.

Physical Properties of 2-(Acetyloxy)Benzoic Acid:

Decomposes below boiling point at 140°C

Melting point: 135°C

Density: 1.4 g/cm^3

Solubility in water: poor (0.25 g/100 ml at 15°C)

Vapour pressure, Pa at 25°C: about 0.004

Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 1.19

2-(Acetyloxy)Benzoic acid is combustible. Avoid open flames. Powder, water spray, foam, or carbon dioxide may be used to extinguish fire. Finely dispersed particles form explosive mixtures in air. Prevent deposition of dust; closed system, dust explosion-proof electrical equipment and lighting.

In case of inhalation, symptoms like cough and sore throat may manifest. Ventilation (not if powder) may prevent inhalation of 2-(Acetyloxy)Benzoic acid. Fresh air and rest are recommended first-aid treatments. Refer for medical attention.

Wear protective gloves to avoid skin exposure to 2-(Acetyloxy)Benzoic acid which may cause redness. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer for medical attention.

Wear safety goggles to avoid eye exposure to 2-(Acetyloxy)Benzoic acid which may cause redness and pain. Upon contamination, first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.

Ingestion of 2-(Acetyloxy)Benzoic acid may cause nausea and vomiting. To prevent ingestion, do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Upon ingestion, rinse mouth. Refer for medical attention.

Spillage Disposal of 2-(Acetyloxy)Benzoic acid: Sweep spilled substance into containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. (extra personal protection: P2 filter respirator for harmful particles).

Storage: 2-(Acetyloxy)Benzoic acid must be stored in a well-closed container.

Acenterine, Acesal, Acetol, Acetophen, Acetosal, Acetosalin, Acetylin, Acetylsal, Acisal, Acylpyrin, Asagran, Aspro, Asteric, Caprin, Duramax, Ecotrin, Empirin, Neuronika, Polopiryna, Rhodine, Salacetin, Xaxa are trade names.

Brucine

Brucine is an alkaloid obtained from strychnos seeds: (Strychnos nux-vomica L. and s. ignatii Berg, Loganiaceae). S. nux-vomica L. contains approximately 1.1% brucine S. ignatii Berg contains approximately 1 to 1.2% brucine “Upas tient_” (arrow poison) contains 2.4% of this alkaloid (Kohn-Abrest, 1955). The bark of S. nux-vomica contains 2.4% brucine (Fabre and Truhaut, 1961).

Uses

Industry – Brucine and its salts are used as a denaturant in oils and alcohols (Cook & Martin, 1953; Merck Index, 1989), and particularly in cosmetic preparations (Arena, 1986). Brucine is used in analytical chemistry for separating racemic mixtures (Merck Index, 1989). It has been patented as additive for lubricants (Merck Index, 1984). Brucine may be a constituent of suntan preparations (Arena, 1986).

Agriculture – Brucine and the other alkaloids obtained from the seeds of Strychnos have been used for destroying birds, rodents, moles and predatory animals (Vallet, 1964).

Medicine – Extracts of nux vomica have been used in some preparations. Nux vomica (dried ripe seeds of Strychnos nux) contains strychnine and brucine and is used in the preparation of homeopathic medicine. Ignatia (the extract of S. ignatii) is also used in homeopathic medicine, where it is known as Ignatia amara (Martindale,1989).

Brucine is an alkaloid resembling strychnine but it is much less potent than strychnine. Brucine causes paralysis of the peripheral nerve endings and produces violent convulsions. Highly toxic by ingestion and inhalation; irritant. When heated, brucine emits highly toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides.

Brucine may produce nausea, vomiting restlessness, excitement, twitching and convulsions in large doses. Contact irritates eyes. Brucine can be measured in urine, blood, gastric contents, and vomitus, but concentrations are not relevant for management. Determine acidosis and serum potassium. Determine SGOT, LDH and CPK.

High Risk Circumstance of Poisoning

Brucine is rarely used and poisoning is uncommon. The concentration of brucine when used as a denaturant is very low. Consequently, such preparations do not present any great hazard, unless an unusually large quantity is ingested (Arena, 1986).

Ingestion of the whole plant, particularly the seeds of S. nux-vomica and S. ignatii can cause poisoning. These plants contain the alkaloids strychnine and brucine, but lethality of nux vomica is believed to parallel its content of strychnine.

The bark of Strychnos, may be used mistakenly for the bark of Galipea officinalis because of its similar appearance and cause accidental poisoning (Francone, 1963; Fabre & Truhaut, 1961). Brucine when heated emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides.

Cancer during pregnancy is not common. It only affects about 1 in 1,000 women, and being pregnant does not make the disease spread faster. However, when a pregnant woman has cancer, there are a few things she should know, including the potential effects on her unborn child.

Types
The most common type of cancer during pregnancy is breast cancer, affecting about 1 in 3,000 pregnant women. This type of cancer can potentially be more dangerous to have during pregnancy because breasts naturally change during pregnancy. It can make breast cancer more difficult to detect because any changes appear to be normal. Women who have breast cancer during pregnancy may be diagnosed later than in women who are not pregnant.

Other types of cancer that are common during pregnancy are cervical cancer, leukemia, ovarian cancer, and melanoma. A pregnant woman can also get bone cancer, lung cancer, or brain cancer, but these types are not very common.

Diagnosis
Pregnancy can make it harder to diagnose cancer because some cancer and pregnancy symptoms overlap. These symptoms include breast changes, rectal bleeding, headaches, and bloating. On the other hand, some tests during pregnancy, such as Pap tests or ultrasounds, can show cervical or ovarian cancer.

While some tests may be harmful to the baby, there are a few tests a doctor may use to diagnose cancer. Research has shown that X-rays are safe for babies because the amount of radiation in them is very low. Depending on what part of the body the X-rays are focusing on, a pregnant woman may be able to wear a lead drape over her stomach to protect the baby further.

Another diagnostic test that is often used and is safe during pregnancy is a CT scan or computed tomography scan. While CT scans are like X-rays, they are more precise in showing the location of cancer and where it has spread.

In the head and chest, CT scans are usually safe for the baby because he or she is not directly exposed to radiation. A pregnant woman can wear a lead drape over her stomach to protect the baby more. However, CT scans in the head and stomach should only be done if they have to be because they can expose the baby to radiation.

Other tests such as ultrasounds, biopsies, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) are also usually safe for an unborn baby.

Treatment
When a pregnant woman is diagnosed with cancer, a team of both cancer specialists and high-risk pregnancy obstetricians work together to determine the best course of action. The best treatment for a pregnant woman with cancer depends on a variety of factors. These include how far along the pregnancy is, the type, stage, and location of cancer, and how risky the treatment is to the baby. Regardless of what treatment, sometimes it might not be right for a pregnant woman now, but it will be later on in the pregnancy once the baby has developed further. For example, in the first trimester of pregnancy, a baby may be more likely to be harmed by cancer treatments than later on in the second or third trimesters.

If it is even later in the pregnancy, the doctor may decide to discontinue treating cancer and instead wait until after the baby has been born.

Surgery
Surgery for cancer treatment is generally safe for the baby. In this procedure, the doctor removes the cancerous tissue as well as some surrounding tissue to ensure that the disease does not spread. Because this does not put the growing baby at risk, it is considered one of the safest cancer treatments for pregnant women.

Chemotherapy
In chemotherapy, doctors use certain drugs to destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy can keep cancer from spreading by preventing cancer cells from dividing and creating new cells. While chemotherapy can damage healthy cells, it usually only kills the cancer cells because they grow much faster than healthy cells.

Doctors may choose to use chemotherapy before surgery to shrink a tumor, after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells or to treat cancer that has come back.

A pregnant woman should not have chemotherapy during her first three months of pregnancy because this is when a baby’s organs are developing. Chemotherapy can cause congenital disabilities or even miscarriage.

Once a pregnant woman reaches the second and third trimesters, doctors are able to choose from a few chemotherapy drugs that cannot pass through the placenta to the baby. Some other chemotherapy drugs only pass through to the baby in small amounts, and studies have shown that they do not harm the developing baby.

Radiation
In radiation therapy, high-energy X-rays are used to destroy cancer cells. They work by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, causing them to stop dividing and die.

While diagnostic X-rays are not harmful to a baby, the amount of radiation when it is used as a cancer treatment can be detrimental to a baby no matter what trimester the mother is in. The dose of radiation and the area of the body being treated can show how risky it is for the developing baby.

A baby who is exposed to radiation in the womb can have severe health problems such as stunted growth, congenital disabilities, deformities, or even cancer later in life.

Effects on Mother
Pregnancy is already difficult and having cancer only adds to that difficulty. One result of chemotherapy is that its side effects may cause low blood cell counts in a woman’s body. It can lead to the risk of infection during delivery.

Generally, a woman with cancer during pregnancy is able to keep her baby. However, she may need to deliver the baby a little earlier than she had planned.

Effects on Baby
Usually, cancer cannot spread from a pregnant woman to her child. The placenta generally prevents this. However, while there is a lack of research on the effect of cancer on unborn children, there is evidence that certain types of cancer, especially leukemia, can spread from a mother to her baby.

One Japanese mother was diagnosed with leukemia a few weeks after giving birth, eventually dying from the disease. Less than a year later, her child also developed leukemia. When doctors tested the child’s cancerous cells, they found the cells had most likely passed through the placenta.

Effects on Breastfeeding
Cancer itself cannot spread to a baby through breastfeeding. However, if a woman is going through chemotherapy treatments after she delivers her baby, she should not breastfeed. The drugs used in chemotherapy can pass through breast milk to her baby

Outlook
It is unlikely for a pregnant woman to develop cancer while she is carrying her child. However, if she does, her outlook is usually about the same as for a woman who is not pregnant, especially if the cancer was caught early. The disease will generally not affect her pregnancy. A pregnant woman with cancer should discuss the best treatment options for herself and her baby with her doctor.

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Spruce CBD Oil Review

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Spruce is a family-owned business based out of Raleigh, North Carolina. The company was founded in 2018 in the belief that modern medicine is broken and that there is a need for alternatives to dangerous pharmaceuticals. Spruce’s lab-grade CBD oil is 100% natural and tested by a third-party lab in...

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