Are CBD dog treats beneficial for dogs?

  • The first scientific research conducted on CBD oil use in pets is the 2017 Cornell University study(1). In the said study, some of the conditions thought to be relieved by the consumption of hemp-based CBD dog treats and products were: joint pain, inflammation, anxiety and phobia, digestive system issue, and pruritus (itching)(2).
  • In animal studies, CBD has been shown to stimulate or rectify the loss of appetite and relieve inflammation by interacting with the endocannabinoid system(3).
  • CBD is used in dogs due to its anti-inflammatory properties, benefits to the heart, appetite stimulation benefits, and anti-anxiety and anti-nausea effects, says American Kennel Club (AKC)’s Chief Veterinary Officer. However, there is no conclusive scientific data on using cannabidiol (CBD) to treat dogs specifically(4).
  • Dog owners must consult with a veterinarian about all the possible options to manage their dog’s health conditions before deciding to include CBD dog treats in their pet’s diet or treatment regimen.

Best CBD Dog Treats

HolistaPet CBD Dog Treats +Stress & Anxiety Relief

HolistaPet-All-Products

Holista Pet contains a full spectrum CBD and are superfood infused dog treats. They are also vegan and organic dog treats, tinctures and capsules to help promote relief from joint pain, stress and anxiety, for heart and immune care, and capsules as a dietary supplement. Holista Pet offers treats that specifically targets a health problem.

This brand also contains a high-quality CBD that is from the U.S. It also combines superfoods for the best results and is available in tasty flavors that your dog will enjoy like green apple and peanut butter, blueberry and sweet potato, and delicious pumpkin spice and cinnamon.

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Best Bow Chow

cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Treats for Dogs

cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Treats for Dogs

These treats are made with no meat or unnecessary additives, combined with the powerful properties of CBD derived from U.S. hemp that has been grown with organic farming methods.

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Read our review

King Kanine King Kalm Crunch CBD Pet Treats

King Kanine - King Kalm Crunch Dog Treats

King Kanine is one of the leading CBD pet product manufacturers. They offer three tasty flavors of King Kalm Crunch CBD pet treats. This is available in apple cinnamon, blueberry, and honey oats. King Kanine pet CBD treats are made with naturally derived US, non-GMO, organic hemp with the addition of turmeric, honey and apples. They are also gluten-free and baked at a low temperature and dehydrated for optimal nutritional value. King Kanine’s CBD pet treats offer 0% THC, so you know that your pets are 100% safe when consuming this. Each treat has 3mg of CBD oil. All the products are fully tested by a certified ISO-17025 Lab.

This company has a wonderful dosing chart available online to help first-time pet owners with CBD dosing for their pets. King Kalm is a natural cannabidiol product that works as a great alternative to CBD oil. The natural and ingredients are high-quality and contain macro and micronutrients for good gut health.

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Why Some Dog Owners Give Their Dogs CBD Dog Treats

CBD dog treats contain CBD oil which studies have shown to possess several therapeutic benefits. 

It is interesting to note that the first scientific research conducted on CBD oil use in pets is the 2017 Cornell University study, where CBD oil was given to dogs with osteoarthritis two times a day(5)

In the said study, some of the conditions thought to be relieved by the consumption of hemp-based CBD dog treats and products were: joint pain, inflammation, anxiety and phobia, digestive system issue, and pruritus (itching)(6). 

Results concluded that CBD oil helped increase the dogs’ relief and activeness, which seemed to support anecdotal reports of CBD oil’s benefits for pain and anxiety.

Moreover, in animal studies, CBD has been shown to stimulate or rectify the loss of appetite and relieve inflammation by interacting with the endocannabinoid system(7). 

In an article posted by the American Kennel Club (AKC), Chief Veterinary Officer, Dr Jerry Klein, says CBD is used in dogs due to its anti-inflammatory properties, benefits to the heart, appetite stimulation benefits, and anti-anxiety and anti-nausea effects. However, there is no conclusive scientific data on using cannabidiol (CBD) to treat dogs specifically(8).   

Meanwhile, CBD’s anti-inflammatory characteristics have been shown in several human and animal studies, like that of a 2014 study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation and a 2012 research conducted by authors from the Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine in the University of São Paulo, Brazil(9).

In addition, research demonstrates that cannabinoids can also prove beneficial in certain types of cancers that are activated by chronic inflammation. In such instances, cannabinoids, as anti-inflammatory agents, can either directly prevent tumor growth or suppress inflammation(10).

Achy joints, arthritis, and diseases linked to inflammation, such as heart disease and cancer, can cause pain and discomfort that may slow down pets. 

Dog treats with CBD are often marketed to help alleviate the joint pains and have them moving around again.

For example, King Kanine’s King Kalm CBD 300mg Pet and Dog Formula contains krill oil, which it advertises as beneficial in improving arthritis symptoms and providing joint pain relief.

Krill oil, an emerging alternative for omega-3 supplementation, is rich in antioxidants, said the researchers of a 2019 study published in Biotechnology Reports(11). Antioxidants are good for heart health and inflammation(12). 

Turmeric is another anti-inflammatory food(13). Some CBD pet treats have it as one of the ingredients.

Greenwellness is one company that takes advantage of the combined health benefits of CBD and that of turmeric. The company’s Treatibles Soft Chews for Dogs (60 ct) contains 3mg of organic full-spectrum CBD hemp oil, turmeric, papain (papaya) and bromelain.

CBD’s anti-inflammatory benefits may also help dogs with skin problems.

In a 2019 study published in the Journal of Dermatological Treatment, researchers found that cannabinoids have shown to demonstrate anti-inflammatory and antipruritic (anti-itch) properties, making it a potential alternative to conventional skin treatments(14).

Skin problems in dogs sometimes manifest in the condition of their coat and may lead to alopecia, the excessive hair loss in dogs.   

Applying coconut oil on the dog’s coat may help build up a dog’s topical immunity to avoid bacteria and infection. 

Researchers of a study published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology have indicated the antimicrobial benefits of lauric acid in coconut oil(15)

Holistapet combines the skin benefits of CBD and coconut oil in its unique CBD Dog Treats + Heart and Immune Care product that comes in Yummy Blueberry and Sweet Potato flavor. Ingredients also include flaxseed, which contains alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential omega-3 fatty acid. 

Honest Paws CBD-Infused Coconut Oil is another product that may aid in a shiny coat and help with itchy skin. 

Honest Paws CBD-infused coconut oil comes with human-grade, non-GMO ingredients, including organic, full-spectrum hemp and organic virgin coconut oil.

Another common problem that dogs experience is anxiety. Like people, dogs experience anxiety from time to time.

However, if disproportionate levels of anxiety are left unchecked, an anxiety disorder can develop. If not treated, dog anxiety can lead to behavioral and other issues(16).

In dogs, anxiety may be caused by high-stress situations, such as being home alone, long car rides, thunderstorms, fireworks, and visits to the vet. Anxiety may also manifest as separation anxiety, depression, and noise phobias.

Aggression is, by far, the most dangerous symptom of dog anxiety. This aggression can be targeted directly or indirectly, depending on the situation(17)

Some dog owners believe that the calming effects of CBD may work with high-strung dogs who struggle with anxiety. The makers of Holistapet CBD pet treats also seem to agree. 

The company markets its Holistapet Peanut Butter + Apple CBD dog treat as beneficial to alleviating anxiety.

Holistapet Peanut Butter + Apple CBD dog treats are enhanced with L-Theanine and chamomile that are known to help reduce a pet’s anxiety.

However, although many people use CBD oil for anxiety treatment purposes, there is no scientific data on how using CBD oil may affect dogs. 

Consulting with a veterinarian can help dog owners determine if CBD oil might be a proper treatment for their dog’s anxiety, as well as discuss different products, possible side effects, and risks(18).

How CBD in Dog Treats Works for Dogs

An understanding of how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) functions in dogs might help explain how CBD could potentially alleviate certain medical conditions or symptoms, such as joint pain, inflammation, loss of appetite, and anxiety, as well as induce apoptosis (cell death) in cancer cells. 

The ECS maintains homeostasis (balance) by regulating bodily functions. In dogs or any other mammal, the ECS functions consist of three primary mechanisms: the cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors, and enzymes that produce and metabolize (break down) endocannabinoids.

Cannabinoids produce many of their cellular and organ system effects by interacting with the CB1 and CB2 receptors(19).

The CB1 receptor structure is similar among all mammalian species, as also mentioned in a 2019 study on the ECS of animals(20). 

CB1 receptors are mostly found on neurons, and they inhibit neurotransmitter release. CB1 receptors play a role in motor regulation, memory processing, appetite, pain sensation, mood, and sleep(21). 

Meanwhile, CB2 receptors are mostly found on immune cells. CB2 receptors modulate the release of cytokines (proteins made by the immune system) and cell migration. This process was explained in a 2018 PLOS One publication on ECS in canine inflammatory (central nervous system) CNS diseases(22).

The authors of the said study also indicated that many medicinal properties of cannabinoid compounds had been attributed to the CB2 receptor.

In a study published in the Journal of Neuroinflammation in 2017, it was shown that CB2 receptors contribute to slowing down of chronic inflammatory processes and modulate chronic pain(23).

Data from a research article published in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics suggested that CBD could induce apoptosis in cancer cells partially via direct or indirect activation of the CB2 receptor(24). Results showed that CBD could be a potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth. 

However, CBD has not been proven as a complete treatment method for any ailment or disorder in dogs.

As the safety and risks of using CBD for dogs have not yet been researched, the American Kennel Club advises pet owners to always check with their veterinarian first before giving their dogs CBD(25).

The Pros and Cons of CBD Dog Treats

Pros Cons
CBD’s therapeutic benefits may help with specific ailments and symptoms. Baked CBD dog treats may not have the same cannabinoid content as indicated on the label.
CBD is non-intoxicating and non-addictive.  Some dog treats contain artificial flavors and preservatives
CBD extracted from hemp is legal under U.S. federal law. Dogs could be allergic reactions to the other ingredients in the pet treats.
CBD products are safe and easy to use on pets. CBD may cause interactions with other pharmaceuticals.

The Pros

  • Studies discussed above have shown that CBD’s therapeutic benefits may help with inflammation, anxiety, loss of appetite, seizures, and tumor growth. 
  • CBD is non-intoxicating and non-addictive. CBD extracted from hemp is legal under U.S. federal law(26). 
  • Generally, cannabis oil and CBD products are easy to use on pets when following the manufacturer’s instructions. 

To date, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not directly received any reports of adverse events linked to animals given cannabis products. However, adverse events from accidental ingestion are well-documented in the scientific literature(27).  

The Cons

  • CBD in dog treats could be affected during the cooking process when heat or high temperature is applied. 

Results of a 2016 experiment published in a European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA) paper indicated that the cannabinoid content of a product is reduced when subjected to high temperature over time(28). 

As cooking degrades the cannabinoid, bioavailability is also reduced, which means the amount of CBD that gets absorbed by the dog’s system is way below the amount indicated on the product label. 

Unless the treats were baked at very low temperatures and for a short period, there is a possibility that the amount of CBD initially added is less. 

Fortunately, there are companies that understand the importance of slow cooking, and King Kanine is one of them.

King Kalm Crunch – Blueberry is an all-natural recipe made with organic ingredients and formulated by the company’s licensed holistic physician and nutritionist. Each vitamin- and omega 3-rich King Kalm Crunch dog treat is slowly-baked at a low temperature and then dehydrated to maintain its nutritional value.  

Getting an accurate dose is not critical when feeding CBD treats to dogs to take advantage of CBD’s added benefits. 

However, when CBD dog treats are used as a means for pets to get CBD’s essential therapeutic properties to address specific symptoms or illnesses, accurate dosing is crucial.

  • Some CBD dog treats may contain artificial flavors and preservatives. 
  • There is a lack of extensive and longitudinal research on CBD use in dogs. Cannabis remains a Schedule I drug in the U.S., which could be why most veterinarians are hesitant to prescribe any cannabis-based medicine. 

How CBD Dog Treats Compare to CBD Oil for Dogs 

Dogs can be given CBD through CBD-infused oil taken orally, CBD-infused transdermal cream or salve applied on the skin, or CBD-infused dog treats. 

CBD tinctures or CBD oil for dogs are an effective and fast-acting option. They are also easy to dose, giving dog owners assurance that they are administering CBD in the same mg as per the potency of the product they are buying. 

Meanwhile, CBD creams or salves can be applied topically to target specific areas as often as needed.

However, CBD dog treats are popular for several reasons: 

  • Doses are consistent in each dog treat (in mg of CBD). Thus, it is easy to compute the dosage, which is critical when treating a furry friend for some condition.
  • Dogs are naturally drawn to treats. Typically, it is easier for dog owners to give their pets CBD via delicious treats than it is for them to keep their furry companion’s mouth open while they measure the dosage drop by drop. 
  • Some CBD dog treats come in tasty, fur baby-friendly flavors. Check the label for the list of ingredients, and choose only the brands that use all-natural compounds.
  • CBD dog treats are like a superfood for pets, complete with other natural extracts that may supplement a pet’s daily dietary needs.

How to Choose the Right CBD Dog Treats 

CBD dog treats that contain pure hemp oil CBD with zero active tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are ideal for pets. THC is the psychoactive part of a cannabis plant that gives the user a ‘high’ effect.  

CBD from organic industrial hemp plants contains less than 0.3% THC, making it a safe option for use in pets.

When buying CBD products, like CBD dog treats, look for these words in the ingredients list: pure CBD, hemp CBD, CBD from the hemp plant, full-spectrum, full-spectrum hemp extract, broad-spectrum CBD, phytocannabinoid-rich hemp oil, and hemp extract oil. Those words indicate that CBD is one of the active ingredients in the formula.

Some CBD products for people use solvents for extraction. Some solvents may be safe for people but not for dogs. 

Look for products that used the CO2 extraction method. CO2 extraction utilizes pressurized carbon dioxide to pull all of the essential cannabinoids, terpene oils, and waxes out of the hemp plant in a clean and safe manner.

The following factors are essential to ensure the safety and reliability of CBD pet treats purchased:

  1. Research on the exact legal stipulations applicable to CBD in the area where it would be purchased and used.
  2. Purchase only high-quality CBD products from legitimate and reliable brands. The majority of companies that manufacture the best CBD oil products grow their hemp from their own farm, or they purchase from licensed hemp producers who practice ethical and sustainable farming methods.
  3. Research product reviews before buying from an online store. When buying from a physical store or dispensary, check whether the store is authorized by the government to sell CBD.
  4. Choose products that contain only organic natural ingredients. Read product labels and to avoid any adverse reactions, such as allergies. Given that CBD oil is a natural supplement, some pet treats may have additional ingredients like essential oils, vitamins, herbs, and other elements. 
  5. One important thing to look for in CBD pet products is certification codes. Several certification authorities approve certain products only after some thorough screening tests. 
  6. Compare company claims about their products’ potency with that of the third-party lab reports. Reputable CBD companies practice transparency and provide consumers with a copy of the certificate of analysis (COA) of the purchased product.
  7. Check out customer reviews and see how the company strives to deliver the best CBD products and customer experience to their clients. Find out how the company’s shipping process, refund policy, and money-back guarantee work.
  8. Consulting with a trusted medical professional experienced in CBD use is ideal before dog owners decide to include CBD pet treats in their dog’s diet or use CBD pet treats to treat symptoms of specific medical conditions.

CBD Dosage for Dogs

There are no regulated dosage recommendations for CBD for dogs or people to date. Neither are there any generally-accepted guidelines on how much CBD for dogs is useful for specific conditions. 

Due to a lack of regulation, there is a significant difference in CBD dosing that companies recommend to consumers. 

All dogs are different and individual responses vary. Thus, most manufacturers of CBD dog treats advise pet owners to start with a low dose, such as 0.05 mg/day per kilogram of the dog’s body weight. This dosage may gradually increase, depending on the dog’s reaction to the product.

More importantly, dog owners should check with their veterinarian before using any CBD dog products, especially if their pet is taking other medications, to avoid any complications that might result from drug interactions. 

How Dogs Can Take CBD Dog Treats  

CBD oils and tinctures for dogs can be dropped directly into the pet’s mouth or mixed into its food. 

King Kalm claims to be the best CBD oil for pets in the market. King Kalm 600mg CBD with Copaiba Oil and DHA for Dogs in Colorado Springs is made with extracts obtained from industrial hemp grown in the USA. 

All King Kalm products are tested in a third-party ISO-certified lab to ensure dose accuracy, purity, and consistency.

A few drops of the CBD tincture can also be mixed into homemade dog treats. There are countless recipes shared online by dog lovers for those who want to make their own vegan, grain-free dog treats that make use of almond flour or tapioca starch.

Meanwhile, store-bought CBD dog treats, like chews, dog biscuits, or cookies, can be given whenever a dog exhibits symptoms of an illness or behavior problems, upon the recommendation of a vet. 

Note that dog owners are strictly advised to consult with a licensed veterinarian experienced in the use of CBD before giving their pets CBD treats. 

Also, talking with the vet about dosing instructions and the frequency of feeding is essential.

Conclusion

All dog owners want to provide their pets with a good quality of life, and some of them may want to try giving their pets CBD treats.

Mammals, like people and dogs, have an endocannabinoid system that allows them to benefit from CBD oil. 

The numerous anecdotal reports from dog owners on social media and online forums about the benefits they have observed in their pets from CBD use seem encouraging. 

Also, the convenience of administering CBD to dogs through the CBD dog treats is also appealing to pet owners.

However, there are unknown risks that come with using a natural compound that has not been studied extensively.

Research on the specific impact of CBD oil on dogs is lacking, making it difficult to determine the correct dosing for a specific medical condition. 

CBD is not a cure-all, and it is not for every dog. Thus, dog owners are strongly advised to consult with a veterinarian about all the possible options to manage their dog’s health condition before deciding to include CBD dog treats in their pet’s diet or treatment regimen.


  1. Gamble LJ, Boesch JM, Frye CW, et al. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Front Vet Sci. 2018;5:165. Published 2018 Jul 23. doi:10.3389/fvets.2018.00165.
  2. Kogan LR, Hellyer PW, Robinson NG. Consumers’ perceptions of hemp products for animals. J Am Holist Vet Med Assoc. (2016) 42:40–8. 
  3. Iffland, K. and Grotenhermen, F. (2017). An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2(1), pp.139-154; Reggio, P. (2010). Endocannabinoid Binding to the Cannabinoid Receptors: What Is Known and What Remains Unknown. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 17(14), pp.1468-1486.
  4. Kriss R. (2019, Oct 27). The American Kennel Club. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/.
  5. Gamble LJ, Boesch JM, Frye CW, et al. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Front Vet Sci. 2018;5:165. Published 2018 Jul 23. doi:10.3389/fvets.2018.00165.
  6. Kogan LR, Hellyer PW, Robinson NG. Consumers’ perceptions of hemp products for animals. J Am Holist Vet Med Assoc. (2016) 42:40–8.
  7. Iffland, K. and Grotenhermen, F. (2017). An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2(1), pp.139-154; Reggio, P. (2010). Endocannabinoid Binding to the Cannabinoid Receptors: What Is Known and What Remains Unknown. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 17(14), pp.1468-1486.
  8. Kriss R. (2019, Oct 27). The American Kennel Club. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/.
  9. Oláh A, Tóth BI, Borbíró I, et al. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and anti-inflammatory effects on human sebocytes. J Clin Invest. 2014;124(9):3713–3724. doi:10.1172/JCI64628; Ribeiro A et al. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012 Mar 5;678(1-3):78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.12.043. Epub 2012 Jan 12.
  10. Nagarkatti P, Pandey R, Rieder SA, Hegde VL, Nagarkatti M. Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Future Med Chem. 2009;1(7):1333–1349. doi:10.4155/fmc.09.93.
  11. Zadeh-Ardabili PM, Rad SK. Anti-pain and anti-inflammation like effects of Neptune krill oil and fish oil against carrageenan induced inflammation in mice models: Current statues and pilot study. Biotechnol Rep (Amst). 2019;22:e00341. Published 2019 Apr 18. doi:10.1016/j.btre.2019.e00341.
  12. Mangge H, Becker K, Fuchs D, Gostner JM. Antioxidants, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. World J Cardiol. 2014;6(6):462–477. doi:10.4330/wjc.v6.i6.462. 
  13. UnityPoint Health. Does Turmeric Reduce Inflammation? Retrieved from https://www.unitypoint.org/livewell/article.aspx?id=2d07f077-1a67-4ba4-91bd-5589d76382e5.
  14. Sheriff T, Lin MJ, Dubin D, Khorasani H. The potential role of cannabinoids in dermatology. J Dermatolog Treat. 2019 Oct 10:1-7. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2019.1675854.
  15. Nakatsuji T, Kao MC, Fang JY, et al. Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129(10):2480–2488. doi:10.1038/jid.2009.93.
  16. Kriss R. (2019, May 14). The American Kennel Club. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety. Retrieved from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/.
  17. Kriss R. (2019, May 14). The American Kennel Club. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety. Retrieved from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/.
  18. Kriss R. (2019, May 14). The American Kennel Club. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety. Retrieved from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/.
  19. Soderstrom K, Soliman E, Van Dross R. Cannabinoids Modulate Neuronal Activity and Cancer by CB1 and CB2 Receptor-Independent Mechanisms. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:720. Published 2017 Oct 10. doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00720.
  20. Silver RJ. The Endocannabinoid System of Animals. Animals (Basel). 2019;9(9):686. Published 2019 Sep 16. doi:10.3390/ani9090686.
  21. ECHO. (2017, April 18). Retrieved from https://echoconnection.org/look-endocannabinoid-systems-cb1-cb2-receptors/.
  22. Freundt-Revilla J, Heinrich F, Zoerner A, et al. The endocannabinoid system in canine Steroid-Responsive Meningitis-Arteritis and Intraspinal Spirocercosis. PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0187197. Published 2018 Feb 6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0187197.
  23. Niu J, Huang D, Zhou R, et al. Activation of dorsal horn cannabinoid CB2 receptor suppresses the expression of P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors in neuropathic pain rats. J Neuroinflammation. 2017;14(1):185. Published 2017 Sep 12. doi:10.1186/s12974-017-0960-0.
  24. Alessia Ligresti, Aniello Schiano Moriello, Katarzyna Starowicz, Isabel Matias, Simona Pisanti, Luciano De Petrocellis, Chiara Laezza, Giuseppe Portella, Maurizio Bifulco and Vincenzo Di Marzo. Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics September 1, 2006, 318 (3) 1375-1387; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.106.105247.
  25. Kriss, R. (2019, Oct 27). CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/.
  26. (US FDA. (2020, Feb 13). FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd.
  27. FDA. (2020, March 11). FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd.
  28. Iffland K et al. (2016, October). Decarboxylation of Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) to active THC. Retrieved from https://eiha.org/media/2014/08/16-10-25-Decarboxylation-of-THCA-to-active-THC.pdf.
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