• CBD (cannabidiol) is a nonpsychoactive compound in the cannabis plant with purported anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties(1). These potential therapeutic effects of CBD may help a child having seizures.
  • CBD appears to be a safe and well tolerated therapeutic agent for certain types of epilepsy(2). Epilepsy is a neurological disorder associated with persistent seizures.
  • THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the primary psychoactive compound of cannabis, may have a proconvulsant effect(3). However, CBD may counteract the adverse effects of THC(4).
  • Most of the studies regarding CBD’s effect on seizures, particularly childhood epilepsy, are inconclusive. Therefore, more longitudinal research is warranted to elucidate the long-term efficacy and safety of CBD as a novel therapeutic agent for seizure disorders. 

Research on CBD and Kids With Seizures

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by continual seizures. It is commonly diagnosed in children and individuals over 65(5)

Although most children with epilepsy have seizures that respond well to medication, the condition varies per individual(6)

A 2020 research article published in Frontiers in Neurology indicated that about one-third of epileptic patients do not become seizure-free with anti-seizure medication(7)

Hence, researchers consistently look for novel treatment options, such as cannabidiol or CBD, to possibly help with epilepsy

CBD is one of the primary compounds present in the cannabis plant

Several studies suggest that CBD may have numerous potential health benefits, including anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties(8). These putative therapeutic effects of CBD may help with seizures.  

It is worth noting that CBD is nonpsychoactive, unlike THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). THC is a cannabinoid in the cannabis plant that induces psychoactive effects

Both CBD and THC may interact with the endocannabinoid system or ECS(9). The ECS is responsible for maintaining homeostasis or the body’s balance

THC, in particular, may bind with the ECS’ CB1 receptors, abundant in the central nervous system(10)

Studies suggest that THC may have a proconvulsant effect since it behaves as a partial agonist(11). Partial agonists are substances that bind to and activate a particular receptor without inducing maximal activation. 

THC  may have a proconvulsant effect(12). Meanwhile, CBD may have a consistent antiepileptic efficacy(13) 

Researchers suggest that TRPV1-mediated signaling is possibly the most relevant pathway in cannabidiol’s anticonvulsant effects(14)

TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) is a nonselective cation channel widely expressed in nonneuronal cells and sensory nerve fibers. 

Animal research also suggested that the orphan receptor GPR55 seems to be a promising target for the potential treatment of epileptic disorders(15)

The study’s authors reported that GPR55 function was altered in epileptic rat tissue. Their findings showed that the effect of CBD on dysfunctional GPR55 signaling was consistent with the compound’s anticonvulsant effects(16)

Several studies have shown that cannabidiol, as part of a CBD-enriched cannabis extract or in isolation as a pharmaceutical-grade preparation, may help decrease seizure frequency in children with treatment-resistant epilepsy(17)

In addition, a study from Frontiers in Psychiatry mentioned that CBD may counteract the adverse effects of THC(18)

Experts from the University of Western Ontario have shown the molecular mechanisms that cause CBD to offset the psychiatric side effects of THC(19)

Using a rat model, the researchers observed higher levels of activated ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) in subjects that received THC. The rats showed sensitivity to fear-based learning and exhibited a more anxious behavior.

However, the experts observed that when CBD is coadministered with THC, the nonpsychoactive compound seems to block THC’s ability to overstimulate the ERK pathway in the brain and thus prevent the latter’s adverse side effects(20)

The ERK is part of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family involved in vasoconstriction and vascular smooth muscle cell growth, making it an attractive therapeutic target for hypertension(21)

A 2019 study from Neurological Sciences suggested that hypertension may cause seizures and epilepsy(22)

According to the AAFP (American Academy of Family Physicians), high blood pressure is also prevalent in children and adolescents(23)

Therefore, AAFP suggests that children should be screened for elevated blood pressure yearly, starting at three years old, if risk factors are present(24)

A study from the JCI Insight journal suggested that acute CBD administration may reduce resting blood pressure(25)

Meanwhile, the BMJ (British Medical Journal) said that whole-plant medicinal cannabis had shown promise in reducing epileptic seizure frequency by 86%(26).

A variety of other cannabinoids, including CBD and THC, as well as flavonoids and terpenes, make up the whole plant.

Terpenes are the principal constituent of essential oils and are responsible for cannabis’ aroma(27). Meanwhile, flavonoids are active compounds in cannabis with purported antioxidant, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory actions(28).  

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all compounds of the cannabis plant. This variant also has less than 0.3% THC concentration. 

The Frontiers in Plant Science study indicated that the entourage effect in full-spectrum hemp extracts may produce better therapeutic benefits than pure CBD(29).

The entourage effect is a concept wherein the biologically active compounds of cannabis work better together. 

Although the studies seem promising, more longitudinal research is necessary to elucidate how CBD and other cannabis derivatives may help with children’s seizures.  

Benefits of CBD for Kids With Seizures

Korean researchers who assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol in DS (Dravet syndrome) and LGS (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) administered CBD orally to 2 to 18 years old subjects diagnosed with DS and LGS(30). The starting dose was 5mg daily, and maintained the dosage at 10mg per day.

LGS and DS are rare and severe forms of epilepsy in pediatric patients.  

LDS generally becomes apparent during infancy or early childhood. Besides seizures, children with LGS may also develop behavioral problems, developmental milestone delays, and cognitive dysfunction(31)

Meanwhile, DS is characterized by frequent and prolonged seizures and other comorbidities like chronic infections and orthopedic conditions(32)

Their findings showed that the use of CBD may be safe and tolerable and may be expected to possibly reduce seizure frequency in pediatric patients with DS or LS(33)

Meanwhile, The Lancet Neurology study examined the efficacy of CBD in individuals with treatment-resistant epilepsy(34). The clinical trial featured epileptic individuals from 1-30 years old who received stable doses of antiepileptic drugs before the study. 

The researchers gave oral CBD at 2 to 5mg per kilogram of body weight daily, up-titrated until tolerance, or up to 25mg/kg of the patient’s body weight per day. 

Devinsky and colleagues suggested that cannabidiol may alleviate seizure frequency and seem to have a good safety profile among children and young adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy(35)

Meanwhile, TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex) is a genetic illness characterized by the growth and proliferation of benign tumors in various body parts.

TSC is a rare disorder in about one out of 6,000 individuals(36)

In a 2020 placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial involving 224 patients with TSC, the researchers observed that 25mg and 50mg of CBD were more efficacious in reducing TSC-associated seizures than a placebo. However, the smaller CBD dosage led to fewer adverse side effects(37).

Meanwhile, a systematic review article from Frontiers in Neurology indicated that cannabis products rich in cannabidiol may be more effective at alleviating seizure frequency than pure CBD(38)

Cohen and colleagues hypothesized that pharmaceutical CBD may achieve higher serum CBD levels and better seizure control than artisanal CBD in refractory pediatric epilepsy patients(39)

The researchers observed that those taking artisanal CBD had an average CBD level in the blood of 30.1ng/ml (nanogram per milliliter) than those taking pharmaceutical CBD with 124ng/ml(40)

They also noticed that individuals on artisanal CBD had a 70% increase in overall seizures, whereas the prescription CBD group had a 39% reduction(41). Perhaps, the reason for this is the potential labeling inaccuracy in some commercial CBD products

Owen Miller of the University of Wisconsin-Madison led an analysis of 39 CBD products from various stores across Southwest Wisconsin. He and his colleagues determined that most of those tested products may contain measurable amounts of THC, possibly leading to inconsistent and unreliable dosing(42).

For these reasons, consumers must consult a healthcare professional experienced in cannabis use, especially if they intend to use CBD oil, cannabis oil, and other cannabis products in the market for medical use.

Although the studies seem to imply the positive effects of using CBD for seizures, the results are generally indefinite. Therefore, more clinical trials and research are necessary to determine whether CBD products like CBD oil may help stop seizures.  

How to Use CBD Oil for Kids’ Seizures

There are different ways to use CBD oil for a child having seizures. Still, parents and consumers, in general, must work with a doctor versed in recommending CBD or medical marijuana for a fine-tuned delivery method and CBD dosage.  

Suppose consumers do not know a healthcare professional experienced in cannabis use. In that case, the details below may serve as a guide for them to initiate a conversation with their child’s pediatrician regarding the use of CBD to manage seizures. 

Delivery Methods 

The most commonly used delivery methods are as follows:

  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Sublingual (under the tongue) administration
  • Topical absorption
  • Transdermal delivery system (providing drug absorption through the skin) 

A study from Molecules hypothesized that oral CBD administration is subject to the first-pass effect(43). During the first-pass effect, the liver and digestive tract partly break down substances before these substances enter the bloodstream(44)

Research from the University of Minnesota suggested that high-fat foods may increase oral CBD absorption into the body(45)

The study’s authors indicated that the amount of CBD may increase by four times when individuals take CBD with food than taking it on an empty stomach(46).

Parents may try adding CBD oil to their children’s food or beverages. Giving CBD gummies to children may also be a good option. 

These CBD edibles are palatable. Unlike the usual CBD oil, gummies do not have an earthy, grass-like taste. 

Usually, CBD edibles like gummies have an onset time of 30 to 90 minutes(47)

In addition, most CBD gummies in the market have a predetermined amount of CBD in each piece. Since these CBD candies are flavorful, some individuals may ingest a higher dose of CBD than necessary. 

For this reason, consumers, particularly parents, should discuss their child’s specific situation with a healthcare provider before giving such CBD products to their children. 

Another good option would be to use sublingual administration. Parents may use a dropper to dispense CBD oil straight to their child’s mouth. As previously mentioned, CBD oil has an earthy grass-like taste. Hence, some children may not like it.

The sublingual method relies on the mucous membrane under the tongue to absorb cannabidiol(48). Tiny blood vessels called capillaries found in the connective tissue diffuse the compound, entering the bloodstream. 

The sublingual route is also a fast-acting solution, with a 15- to 30-minute onset(49)

Meanwhile, parents may also consider transdermal patches infused with cannabidiol. The transdermal delivery system is a non-invasive alternative for parenteral (injection) routes, avoiding issues like needle phobia(50)

The onset time of cannabidiol in transdermal patches is between 15 and 30 minutes. Generally, individuals may feel the effect of CBD via this route for up to 8 hours(51)

CBD Dosage 

The Food and Drug Administration or FDA does not approve the marketing of products with cannabis extracts as a treatment for most medical conditions(52).

The only FDA-approved CBD-derived drug is Epidiolex, a cannabidiol oral solution to treat seizures associated with LGS and DS(53).

Aside from LGS and DS, Epidiolex is also used to treat seizures linked to tuberous sclerosis complex(54).

Researchers from Korea observed 44 patients between 1.2 and 15.8 years old with severe and rare forms of epilepsy(55). They administered CBD orally at a starting dose of 5mg daily to those patients and maintained the CBD dosage at 10mg per day.

Their findings showed that CBD appears to be a safe and well tolerated therapeutic agent for certain types of epilepsy(56).

Meanwhile, macro doses between 50mg and 800mg of CBD may also help with epilepsy and seizure disorders(57).  

 Still, it is best to consult a pediatric neurologist experienced in cannabis use to know how much CBD a child needs to take for a seizure. 

Safeness: Is CBD Safe for Kids’ Seizures?

 CBD is generally safe, and humans seem to tolerate it(58). Meanwhile, a study from The Lancet Neurology journal suggested that CBD may reduce seizure frequency and is potentially safe for young individuals with treatment-resistant epilepsy(59)

The study results seem to imply that children may also take CBD. Still, it is worth noting that the study is inconclusive. Therefore, more longitudinal clinical trials are necessary to determine the long-term effects and safety of CBD for seizures, particularly those associated with childhood epilepsy.  

Risks and Side Effects of CBD

No study suggests that CBD can make a child’s seizure worse. Still, CBD is an active compound. Therefore, it is likely to induce risks and side effects

For instance, some seizures may cause an individual to feel drowsy and tired(60). Similarly, sleepiness and fatigue are common side effects of CBD(61)

According to the FDA, CBD may also cause side effects that consumers may not even notice, such as(62)

  • Changes in alertness
  • Gastrointestinal distress like diarrhea and reduced appetite
  • Changes in mood, including irritability and agitation 

CBD Drug Interactions

A 2019 study from the Journal of Clinical Medicine stated that cannabidiol is not a biologically inert substance(63). The nonpsychoactive compound has a complex pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile similar to other medicines. Hence, CBD may interact with other medications. 

Pharmacokinetics is how human bodies act upon a particular medicine, whereas pharmacodynamics is how the medicine acts on the body. 

A study from the journal Epilepsia indicated a drug-to-drug interaction between CBD and clobazam in children with refractory epilepsy(64)

Clobazam is a benzodiazepine class of medication that works by reducing abnormal electrical activity in the brain(65). Individuals often use it with other drugs to control seizures. 

Meanwhile, Penn State College of Medicine researchers said that when they coadministered cannabidiol with valproate, they observed an increased incidence of liver enzyme elevations and thus recommended reducing the dose of either agent or discontinuing one or the other(66)

Sodium valproate is primarily used to treat bipolar disorder and epilepsy

Cannabis for Seizure Disorders 

What Is CBD

CBD is a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid present in the cannabis plant

This chemical compound has purported therapeutic benefits, such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, muscle relaxant, antianxiety, antipsychotic, and antioxidant properties(67).

What Is THC?

THC or tetrahydrocannabinol is the mind-altering constituent of cannabis (sometimes called marijuana). 

What Is Epidiolex?

The FDA has approved Epidiolex, a cannabidiol oral solution, to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome(68). Epidiolex is also used for seizures linked to tuberous sclerosis complex(69)

GW Pharmaceuticals, now part of Jazz Pharmaceuticals, makes Epidiolex

On June 25, 2018, the DEA or Drug Enforcement Administration rescheduled Epidiolex in Schedule V of the CSA (Controlled Substances Act)(70)

Schedule V substances have an acceptable medical use, a low potential for abuse, and a mild potential for addiction. 

However, on April 6, 2020, the DEA descheduled Epidiolex from Schedule V, meaning the drug is no longer subject to the CSA, including its tracking and monitoring requirements(71).  

What Are Seizures?

Seizures are sudden and uncontrolled electrical disturbances in the brain. They occur when one’s brain cells become excited at once(72)

Seizures can be a one-time event due to medication(73). Meanwhile, individuals experiencing recurring seizures have epilepsy

Major Types of Seizures 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention state that seizures are classified into two groups(74)

  1. Generalized seizures 
  2. Focal seizures

Generalized seizures spread to both sides of the brain. Under this type of seizure are absence seizures, which cause rapid blinking or a few seconds of staring into space, and tonic-clonic seizures, characterized by loss of consciousness, spasms, crying, and falling to the ground.

An individual may also feel tired after a tonic-clonic seizure.  

On the other hand, focal seizures or partial seizures involve only one brain area. Types of focal seizures are as follows: 

  • Simple focal seizures cause twitching or a change in sensation, such as a weird smell or taste.
  • Complex focal seizures cause an individual with epilepsy to not respond to questions for a few minutes.
  • Secondary generalized seizures usually start with one part of the brain and then spread to both sides of the brain.       

Causes of Seizures

Abnormal electrical activity in the brain causes all types of seizures. Other causes of seizures may include(75)

  • Abnormal levels of glucose or sodium in the blood
  • Brain injury that happens to the baby during childbirth
  • Congenital brain defects
  • Brain infections
  • Brain tumors
  • Epilepsy
  • High fever
  • Stroke
  • Kidney failure
  • Heart disease 
  • Drug abuse
  • Withdrawal from alcohol or medications after using them for long periods
  • Poisoning
  • Heat intolerance 

Symptoms of Seizures

Seizure symptoms may vary. However, general signs of a seizure may include(76)

  • Breathing issues
  • Appearing confused
  • Periods of a rapid eye staring and blinking
  • Stiffening of the body
  • Jerking movements of the legs and arms
  • Loss of consciousness 

What Is an Epilepsy Center?

Epilepsy centers offer a comprehensive team approach for the medical diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. The NAEC (National Association of Epilepsy Centers) defines four levels of epilepsy care(77)

  • Level 1 epilepsy care usually occurs at a primary care physician’s office with an epilepsy evaluation or in an emergency room.
  • Level 2 epilepsy care includes a consultation with a general neurologist and may take place at a specialized epilepsy center. 
  • Level 3 and 4 care occurs at specialized epilepsy centers. 

Laws Surrounding Medical Cannabis and Cannabidiol 

The United States Congress signed the 2018 Farm Bill, decriminalizing the commercial use of industrial hemp and other items obtained from hemp plants(78).

The 2018 Farm Bill indicates that Cannabis sativa L., including all its derivatives with no more than 0.3% THC concentration on a dry weight basis, is legal under federal law(79).

The Federal Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act created a drug schedule to classify substances into five categories depending on their potential for drug abuse and plausible medical usage(80).

Most states have passed legislation allowing the use of recreational and medical marijuana. Nonetheless, these state laws do not alter that, under federal law, marijuana plant is still included in the Schedule I drug category(81)

Substances listed as Schedule I drugs are defined as substances with a high abuse potential with no accepted medical use(82). Hence, individuals may not dispense, prescribe, or administer medications listed in this category under federal law.

Since rules and regulations pertaining to medical cannabis are confounding, consumers must be aware of various state laws to avoid possible legal repercussions should they wish to use CBD products for whatever purpose they may have. 

For instance, Texas passed laws in June of 2019, creating a state industrial hemp program(83)

Under House Bill 1325, the Texas Department of State Health Services is responsible for issuing licenses for individuals wanting to manufacture or sell consumable hemp-derived items in the Lone Star State. 

In October 2021, California Governor Gavin Newsom signed Assembly Bill No. 45 into law, allowing the inclusion of hemp and cannabinoids, extracts, or hemp derivatives in dietary supplements, food and beverages, cosmetics, and processed pet food, provided that they contain less than 0.3% THC(84).

The state of Colorado also permits recreational and medical marijuana use(85). The state decriminalized the use of marijuana by passing Amendment 64 to the Colorado Constitution in November 2012. 

On April 16, 2015, Governor Nathan Deal of Georgia signed Haleigh’s Hope Act, allowing the use of cannabis oil having no more than 5% THC concentration(86).  

However, the Georgia Department of Public Health stated that the law did not address how low THC oil is manufactured, purchased, or shipped. The Haleigh’s Hope Act only establishes a procedure to protect eligible individuals from prosecution for having cannabis oil in their possession(87). 

Therefore, on April 17, 2019, Governor Brian Kemp signed a bill permitting the in-state production and sale of marijuana oil. The bill also allows licenses for up to six private businesses, effective July 1, 2019(88)

Regarding the FDA’s stand on cannabis and its derivatives, the agency issued a statement explaining that even CBD products derived from legal, commercial hemp, must not claim to have health benefits or be sold as dietary supplements provided the FDA approves their use(89)

How to Choose CBD Oil Products 

When choosing CBD oil and other CBD-derived products, consumers should remember the following pertinent information to help them find high-quality CBD products for their specific needs:

Hemp Extract

Full-spectrum CBD oil includes all compounds of the cannabis plant. This CBD extract also has less than 0.3% THC concentration. Meanwhile, broad-spectrum CBD oil also has all compounds of the cannabis plant. However, it does not have THC

Lastly, CBD isolates only contain cannabidiol in its purest form.

Extraction Method

Carbon dioxide, ethanol, and solvent extraction with olive oil are preferred to create a safe CBD-derived product(90). On the other hand, extraction methods utilizing butane or hexane may leave harmful residues, like heavy metals and pesticides. 


If possible, consumers must always choose CBD products made from U.S.-grown hemp and CBD formats made with natural ingredients or non-GMO products. 

Third-Party Lab Testing

 The COAs (certificates of analysis) or lab test results must be up-to-date and come from a trusted third-party laboratory. Hence, consumers must ensure that the information on the COA matches the claims on the product label.   

Brand Reputation

Many CBD brands strive to offer only high-quality CBD products to their customers. 

Still, consumers must research the CBD company to verify if it is a trusted brand. They may read customer feedback to get more insight into the manufacturer and its products. 

Since most individuals have different opinions and experiences of a product, understanding the overall impression given by various customers will influence one’s decision. 

Consumers must also check a brand’s website and look for any product disclaimer. They should also check its payment method, shipping and refund policy, and whether it offers promos and discounts for first-time buyers.  

Carrier Oils 

Following CBD extraction from the hemp plant, CBD manufacturers infuse cannabidiol into a carrier oil. 

The most commonly used carrier oils are coconut oil and hempseed oil. Most people interchangeably use hempseed oil and hemp oil. However, these terms have significant variations.

Hemp oil, popularly known as CBD oil, is an essential oil that comes from the flowers and leaves of hemp plants. On the other hand, hempseed oil is made from the pressed seeds of hemp.

Hempseed oil contains nutrients and fatty acids and has different chemical composition than CBD oil(91).  


Medical and public interest in CBD has been rising(92). Still, most of the scientific data available are inconclusive. Therefore, more clinical trials are necessary to provide unequivocal evidence and substantiate anecdotal reports regarding CBD’s efficacy on children’s seizures. 

In the meantime, parents who have children diagnosed with seizures or epilepsy should continuously communicate with their child’s pediatrician for medical advice.

  1. Cannabidiol
  2. Cannabidiol for Treating Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome and Dravet Syndrome in Korea
  3. Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: A Focused Review of Evidence and Gaps
  4. Does Cannabidiol Protect Against Adverse Psychological Effects of THC?
  5. Epilepsy in Children
  6. Ibid.
  7. Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: A Focused Review of Evidence and Gaps
  8. Cannabidiol
  9. Ibid.
  10. Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: A Focused Review of Evidence and Gaps
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Ibid.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Investigating the Involvement of GPR55 Signaling in the Antiepileptic Effects of Cannabidiol
  16. Ibid.
  17. Cannabis for Pediatric Epilepsy
  18. Does Cannabidiol Protect Against Adverse Psychological Effects of THC?
  19. Cannabis Study Reveals How CBD Offsets the Psychiatric Side-Effects of THC
  20. Ibid.
  21. The Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) Pathway: A Potential Therapeutic Target in Hypertension
  22. Hypertension, Seizures, and Epilepsy: A Review on Pathophysiology and Management
  23. High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents
  24. Ibid.
  25. A Single Dose of Cannabidiol Reduces Blood Pressure in Healthy Volunteers in a Randomized Crossover Study
  26. Epileptic seizure frequency fell by 86% in kids treated with whole-plant medicinal cannabis
  27. The Cannabis Terpenes
  28. Flavonoids as antioxidants
  29. The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain
  30. Cannabidiol for Treating Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome and Dravet Syndrome in Korea
  31. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome
  32. What is Dravet Syndrome?
  33. Cannabidiol for Treating Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome and Dravet Syndrome in Korea
  34. Cannabidiol in Patients With Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: An Open-Label Interventional Trial
  35. Ibid.
  36. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)
  37. Add-on Cannabidiol Treatment for Drug-Resistant Seizures in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
  38. Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis
  39. Keep Off the Grass: Artisanal versus Pharmaceutical Cannabidiol in Pediatric Refractory Epilepsy Patients (710)
  40. Ibid.
  41. Ibid.
  42. Non-Prescription CBD Product Labeling Largely Inaccurate, Study Finds
  43. Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment
  44. First Pass Effect
  45. High-Fat Foods Can Increase Oral Cannabidiol Absorption Into the Body
  46. Ibid.
  47. Healing With CBD, page 191.
  48. Healing With CBD, page 207.
  49. Ibid.
  50. Transdermal Drug Delivery: Innovative Pharmaceutical Developments Based on Disruption of the Barrier Properties of the stratum corneum
  51. Healing With CBD, page 194.
  52. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD)
  53. FDA Approves First Drug Comprised of an Active Ingredient Derived from Marijuana to Treat Rare, Severe Forms of Epilepsy
  54. FDA Approves New Indication for Drug Containing an Active Ingredient Derived from Cannabis to Treat Seizures in Rare Genetic Disease
  55. Cannabidiol for Treating Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome and Dravet Syndrome in Korea
  56. Ibid.
  57. CBD: A Patient’s Guide to Medicinal Cannabis, page 129.
  58. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies
  59. Cannabidiol in Patients With Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: An Open-Label Interventional Trial
  60. Evaluation of a First-Time Seizure
  61. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use?
  62. What You Need to Know (And What We’re Working to Find Out) About Products Containing Cannabis or Cannabis-derived Compounds, Including CBD
  63. Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug-Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer Cannabidiol (CBD) Use
  64. Drug-Drug Interaction Between Clobazam and Cannabidiol in Children With Refractory Epilepsy
  65. Clobazam
  66. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Drug-Drug Interactions
  67. Cannabidiol
  68. FDA Approves First Drug Comprised of an Active Ingredient Derived from Marijuana to Treat Rare, Severe Forms of Epilepsy
  69. FDA Approves New Indication for Drug Containing an Active Ingredient Derived from Cannabis to Treat Seizures in Rare Genetic Disease
  70. HB 6095 Scheduling of Drug Products Containing Cannabidiol
  71. Ibid.
  72. Seizures
  73. Types of Seizures
  74. Ibid.
  75. Seizures
  76. Evaluation of a First-Time Seizure
  77. What Is an Epilepsy Center?
  78. H.R.2 – Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018
  79. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD)
  80. The Federal Controlled Substances Act: Schedules and Pharmacy Registration
  81. Ibid.
  82. Ibid.
  83. Cannabis and the Law
  84. Assembly Bill No. 45
  85. Legal Marijuana Use in Colorado
  86. States With Legal Cannabidiol (CBD)
  87. Ibid.
  88. Ibid.
  89. Statement From FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on Signing of the Agriculture Improvement Act and the Agency’s Regulation of Products Containing Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Compounds
  90. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
  91. Hemp Seed Oil Properties
  92. Reasons for Cannabidiol Use: A Cross-Sectional Study of CBD Users, Focusing on Self-Perceived Stress, Anxiety, and Sleep Problems
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