How Can CBD Be Beneficial for Dogs?

  • CBD (cannabidiol) is used in dogs because of its anti-inflammatory properties, cardiac benefits, anti-nausea effects, appetite stimulation, and anti-anxiety impact, said Dr. Jerry Klein, the Chief Veterinary Officer of American Kennel Club (AKC)(1).
  • The first scientific research conducted on CBD oil use in dogs is the 2017 Cornell University study(2). Results concluded that CBD oil helped increase comfort and activity in dogs with osteoarthritis.
  • Data from a 2016 study in The European Journal of Pain indicated that the topical application of CBD had the potential to relieve arthritis pain-related behaviors and inflammation in animal subjects without evident side-effects(3).
  • Pain management is a vital component of treatment for dogs with arthritis, particularly for senior dogs and disabled (mobility-impaired) dogs. A 2017 study in the journal Pain found that local administration of CBD might help block osteoarthritis pain in animal models(4).
  • Given how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates the functions of cannabinoids and works in the same way among all mammals, CBD’s anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties may also be beneficial to dogs with arthritis.

Why Dog Owners Are Turning to CBD Oil for Dogs

A recent survey noted that pet owners endorse hemp-based treats and products because of perceived improvement in numerous ailments, as hemp products were moderately-helpful to very helpful medicinally(5). 

Some of the conditions believed to be relieved by hemp consumption were pain, inflammation, anxiety and phobia, digestive system issue, and itching(6). 

CBD is used in dogs because of its anti-inflammatory properties, cardiac benefits, anti-nausea effects, appetite stimulation, and anti-anxiety impact, said Dr. Jerry Klein, the Chief Veterinary Officer of American Kennel Club (AKC)(7).

It is interesting to note that the first scientific research conducted on CBD oil use in dogs is the 2017 Cornell University study, where CBD oil was given to dogs with osteoarthritis(8).

In this randomized placebo-controlled, veterinarian and owner-blinded, cross-over study, the dogs received each of both treatments: 2 mg/kg CBD oil or placebo every 12 hours. Each treatment lasted 4 weeks with a 2-week washout period. 

The industrial hemp product used in the study is a strain-specific extract with relatively high concentrations of CBD and lesser quantities of secondary cannabinoids, including small amounts of terpenes. 

Results concluded that CBD oil helped increase comfort and activity in the home environment for dogs with osteoarthritis. Additionally, the veterinary assessments of pain were also favorable.

Pain management is a vital component of treatment for dogs with arthritis, particularly for senior dogs and disabled (also called mobility-impaired) dogs. 

Given that inflammation is a significant source of pain for dogs suffering from arthritis, reducing inflammation is crucial for their special needs and quality of life.

Generally, pain management includes prescription pain medications, such as opioids. Chronic pain from arthritis is also treated aggressively with NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).

Unfortunately, these drugs raise concerns regarding the safety of their use, particularly for immune-compromised and aging dogs(9).

Meanwhile, animal studies suggest that CBD, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, may help treat arthritis and relieve the associated inflammatory pain.

A study published in Neuroscience Letters in 2011 found that CBD helped reduce acute joint inflammation in rat models by affecting the way pain receptors respond to stimuli(10).

Data from a 2016 study in The European Journal of Pain indicated that the topical application of CBD had the potential to relieve arthritis pain-related behaviors and inflammation in animal subjects without evident side-effects(11).

A 2017 study published in the journal Pain found that local administration of CBD blocked osteoarthritis pain in rats(12). 

The authors also believe that preventive CBD treatment may help suppress the later development of joint pain and nerve damage.

Another study done on rats and mice found that cannabinoids, particularly CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), are useful in the management of challenging-to-treat pain(13).  

Given how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates the functions of cannabinoids and works in the same way among all mammals, CBD’s anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties may also be beneficial to dogs with arthritis.

The impact of arthritis in dogs is not only physical but also emotional. Dogs experiencing pain are likely to exhibit changes in behavior that range from irritability to anxiety to aggression(14).

Studies have shown that CBD might help alleviate anxiety. Researchers of a 2019 study published in the Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry found that CBD’s anti-anxiety effect might help reduce the response to stressful environmental factors(15). 

CBD’s potential for anxiety relief can also be linked to its ability to help with sleep problems, reduce stress, and manage depression. 

Published in the journal CNS and Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets, a study noted that CBD, a cannabis Sativa constituent with great psychiatric benefits, had therapeutic uses as an anti-anxiety-like and an antidepressant-like compound(16).

Researchers of a study in The Permanente Journal in 2019 measured sleep and anxiety scores of the participants and found that CBD could hold benefits for anxiety-related disorders(17).

Results of a study published in the Neuropharmacology Journal suggested that CBD might help block anxiety-induced sleep disturbances through its anti-anxiety effects on the brain(18).

The studies mentioned above were conducted on humans and animal models, like rats and mice, not dogs. 

However, the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which regulates the functions of cannabinoids, works in the same way among all mammals(19). Thus, the results may be similar when CBD is given to dogs.

Still, it is essential to always consult with a veterinarian experienced in the use of cannabis plants before administering any CBD product, regardless of form or dose, to dogs.

Meanwhile, the AKC Canine Health Foundation (CHF) is sponsoring a study through the Colorado State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, to examine the use of CBD in treatment-resistant epileptic dogs(20).

In a 2019 article, the CHF expressed hope the study would be the first to gain scientific data on the use of CBD in dogs with this condition.

How CBD Oil Works to Help Dogs

CBD’s potential benefits in dogs may be attributed to how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) functions similarly in the bodies of both humans and dogs.

According to the authors of a 2017 study published in the PLOS One Journal, many conditions in dogs share striking similarities with their human counterparts(21). 

The said study examined the spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in the central and peripheral nervous systems of healthy canines and compared them with that of humans and other animals.

The similarities were also shown in a review published in the Animals (Basel) Journal(22). Based on the author’s research, it is clear that the endocannabinoid system is present in nearly all animals. 

The ECS also plays an integral role in maintaining homeostasis (natural balance) for a number of organ systems.

Researchers of a 2014 study in The European Journal of Neuroscience noted the prevalence of receptors in the body and the essential role of the ECS in the regulation of pain, inflammation, and joint function support the therapeutic use of cannabinoids for osteoarthritis(23).

CBD’s potential to help dogs with arthritis deal with mood changes, including irritability, anxiety, and lethargy, may also be associated with how CBD interacts with the ECS.

Research published in the Neurochemical Research Journal indicated that CBD could inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain, making serotonin more available for the body(24). 

Serotonin, also called the “feel good” chemical, impacts a variety of body and psychological functions and influences levels of anxiety, mood, and happiness. 

The researchers believe that with better regulation of serotonin, CBD could help stabilize mood and reduce anxiety.

In the Translational PsychiatryJournal, a 2012 study demonstrated CBD’s ability to trigger the ECS to produce more of its natural cannabinoids, like anandamide, which regulates emotions(25). Results showed that anandamide levels increased in volunteers who were given CBD.

Increased anandamide in the brain guards against the effects of stress and reduces behavioral signs of anxiety and fear, according to a 2019 study on rats that was published in the Journal of Neuroscience(26).

These studies, although not conducted on dogs, may yield similar results for canines as the ECS works in the same way among all mammals.

It is essential to always consult with a veterinarian experienced in the use of cannabis plants before administering any CBD product, regardless of form or dose, to dogs.

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Dogs


  • CBD’s potential benefits in dogs may be attributed to how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) functions similarly in the bodies of both humans and dogs.
  • Human and animal studies have shown that CBD possesses characteristics that may be beneficial to dogs in treating arthritis or its symptoms, including anxiety, sleep problems, depression, lethargy, and changes in mood and behavior.
  • Generally, cannabis oil and CBD products are easy to use on dogs when following the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • There are many manufacturers from where one can get CBD oil for dogs. Hemp-derived CBD oil is legal in many countries as well.
  • As of March 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not received reports of adverse events connected to animals given cannabis products(27). However, adverse events from accidental ingestion are well-documented in the scientific literature.


  • CBD has not been extensively tested for use in dogs with specific diseases or disorders, and no longitudinal studies on its effects have been done.
  • The FDA has not approved cannabis for any use in animals. The agency cautions pet owners against the use of CBD products and recommends consultation with a veterinarian about appropriate treatment options for pets(28).
  • CBD, which may come from marijuana or hemp, is still categorized by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a Schedule 1 controlled substance, like heroin(29). 

The AVMA stated that “under current federal and state law, veterinarians may not administer, dispense, prescribe or recommend cannabis or its products for animals.”(30).

  • Only California has passed legislation that authorizes veterinarians to discuss cannabis with their clients. 

As a result, vets lag behind other physicians in working with cannabis and researching its use in pets(31).

  • CBD may interact with medications, including those prescribed by veterinarians. Also, there is less testing of products marketed for pets.

There have been reports of animals adversely affected by contaminated or spoiled CBD products(32).

  • Potential side effects of CBD use in dogs include dry mouth, low blood pressure, and drowsiness(33).

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Dogs

Non-medical treatment options for arthritis treatment in dogs include(34):

  • Physical rehabilitation that includes canine massage 
  • Weight management to decrease further stress added to a dog’s joints
  • Dietary changes to include foods rich in Omega-3 fatty acid known to be useful in reducing joint inflammation

As dogs age, they develop bone and joint problems and can overwork their muscles. As humans benefit from massages, so can dogs. 

Massaging a dog helps promote flexibility, stretches, and relaxes its body. Massaging also reinforces the human-animal bond. 

The hands-on contact of massage may be useful in reducing stress during a thunderstorm, fireworks display, long travels, and going to crowded and noisy places, like dog shows, that can make dogs nervous and restless.

Massages can also help with arthritis in dogs. The act of gentle rubbing and kneading can increase circulation to a dog’s sore muscles and joints. 

CBD has been used in massage therapies as well to provide pain relief and reduce stress.

CBD oil shares a similar texture to standard massage oils formulated to moisturize the skin without leaving an oily or greasy residue. 

Most CBD massage oils include other natural ingredients, like coconut oil, almond oil, or jojoba oil. 

Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids are also present in high concentrations in full-spectrum CBD oil. 

A study in the journal Clinics in Dermatology showed that Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids help promote the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines(35).

Cytokines are proteins produced by cells that interact with other cells of the immune system to regulate the body’s response to disease and infection.

However, note that the studies were done on mice and rats, not dogs. Pet owners are advised to first consult with a veterinarian should they decide to try CBD massage oil for its Omega-3 and Omega-6 content as an alternative treatment for dogs with arthritis.

CBD may also help dog owners manage their dog’s weight. In a 2008 animal study published in the PLOS One Journal, it was shown that CBD inhibits a receptor in the brain so that ghrelin, which stimulates the appetite, is unable to act(36).

A study published in Nature Journal has shown that CBD could increase the levels of leptin in the brain(37). 

Leptin is the hormone that makes an individual feel full or satiated. The reduced cravings for unhealthy, calorie-dense foods may help individuals achieve their weight loss goals fast.

Note that these studies were not conducted on dogs. However, results may be similar for canines as the ECS works in the same way among all mammals.

How to Choose the Best CBD Oil for Dogs

The primary types of CBD are CBD isolate, broad-spectrum CBD oil, and full-spectrum CBD oil. 

The full-spectrum variety contains a complete range of cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds naturally present in cannabis, including other compounds and minerals, such as Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids and beneficial fiber. 

Terpenes are the compounds in cannabis that give it distinctive aromas and flavors, while flavonoids are responsible for the vivid colors in most plants.

The combination of all these components creates a synergy known as “entourage effect,” where all of the constituents working together are more efficient than their isolated elements(38).

Broad-spectrum CBD oils are like full-spectrum oils that are THC-free or contain trace amounts (less than 0.3%) of THC, which means these oils are not going to get a dog high.

CBD isolates, meanwhile, carry only isolated cannabidiol that is substantially pure CBD oil. 

Not all oils are the same. Dog owners must only insist only on the highest quality of pet CBD oil to have a better chance of it working.

The following factors are essential to ensure the safety and reliability of the pet CBD oil products purchased:

  • Purchase only GMO-free, organic hemp-derived CBD oil products from legitimate and reliable CBD brands known for their high-quality products. 

Most CBD companies grow their hemp from their own farms, or they purchase hemp from licensed producers. 

Reputable brands are GMP-compliant and have a state-of-the-art facility where they manufacture their products.

GMP regulations require a quality approach to the manufacturing of products, enabling companies to minimize or eliminate instances of contamination, mixups, and errors(39).

  • Choose CBD pet products that contain only organic CBD oil and other natural ingredients.

While CBD oil is a natural compound, some CBD dog treats may have additional ingredients like essential oils, vitamins, herbs, and other elements.

One company that understands the benefits of a full-spectrum CBD oil for dogs is Honest Paws

Honest Paws Wellness Bites contain organic full-spectrum CBD oil, organic barley, organic oats, and organic peanut butter. 

With those powerhouse ingredients, Honest Paws is confident that from just giving dogs a biscuit or two a day, pet owners can expect to notice a significant improvement in their dog’s immunity, calmness, and general alertness.

If not happy with the product, consumers can avail of the company’s 30-day money-back guarantee.

  • Look for CBD pet products that used the CO2 extraction technology. This method utilizes pressurized carbon dioxide to extract all of the essential cannabinoids, terpene oils, and waxes out of the hemp plant safely and cleanly.

NuLeaf Naturals is only one of several companies that use the supercritical CO2 extraction method to extract CBD oil for their pet tinctures.

The most natural carrier oils used in CBD pet tinctures include MCT oil (medium-chain triglycerides from coconut oil), hemp seed oil, and extra-virgin olive oil.

NuLeaf uses organic hemp oil as its carrier oil for CBD, for the most natural connection to the body’s endocannabinoid system and the most compatible oil for CBD.

  • Look for lab results or the certificate of analysis (COA) of each product. Compare company claims about their products’ potency with that of the third-party lab test results. 

The COA lists the other active cannabinoids contained in the CBD product. The COA also indicates whether or not the products are non-GMO or if they contain other additives, preservatives, or contaminants, such as heavy metals, fungicides, and herbicides.

Several certification authorities approve certain products only after some thorough screening tests and third-party lab tests. 

  • Buy high-quality CBD oil as a liquid. This way, the dog’s dose can be adjusted drop by drop. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions on dosing, and administer CBD only upon the advice of a veterinarian.
  • Always consult with a trusted medical professional experienced in CBD use is ideal before using any CBD pet products.

CBD Dosage for Dogs

In a 2017 study, the authors found that dogs with osteoarthritis receiving an industrial hemp extract high in CBD (2 mg/kg of CBD) were perceived to be more comfortable and active(40).

However, this is only one study conducted on CBD and a small sample of dogs with osteoarthritis. Thus, the results are not conclusive in terms of dosing with CBD.

Meanwhile, in an article posted by Veterinary Cannabis Education and Consulting, pet parents are given guidelines and tips on how much CBD oil should be given for a particular health concern(41).

Still, note that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved CBD and has not issued a dosing chart for dogs(42).

Given these limitations, one does not know what size dosage would be toxic. CBD can also cause adverse interactions with other pharmaceuticals currently taken by the dog. 

There are many factors involved in finding the most therapeutic dose of CBD for one’s dog. The dose can also depend on the dog’s weight, diet, and health condition. 

It is always advisable, when giving a dog something new, to start with small amounts, and then carefully monitor the effects. 

CBD is remarkably safe. However, every dog responds differently to CBD oil. Thus, it is encouraged that dog owners follow the instructions on dosing as per the manufacturer’s recommendation and upon the advice of a veterinarian experienced in cannabis use.

It is the pet parent’s primary responsibility to inform the veterinarian about a plan to include CBD in the dog’s regimen if the dog is taking other medications.

How Dogs with Arthritis Can Take CBD Oil 

CBD oil for dogs with arthritis may come in the form of CBD oil pet tincture that may be given orally, combined with dog food or treats, or blended with other essential oils for soothing massages. 

There are also CBD hemp oil, creams, salve, balms that may be readily applied on dog skin topically. 

Topicals are excellent for managing a dog’s seasonal allergies, rashes, joint pains, or muscle aches because these products allow for targeting of a specific area of the body and are only used when needed.

When giving CBD oil tincture to a dog for the first time, always start with a low dose and slowly work up to a target dose(43). 

For CBD tinctures, a syringe, marked dropper, or easily-calculated number of drops is recommended for consistent and accurate dosing. 

Gradually introduce any change in brand, CBD to THC ratio, or concentration. Then, re-evaluate the dosing whenever the dog’s health condition changes.

It is essential to know how many milligrams of CBD is in each drop or milliliter of CBD tincture, for example. 

Note that high concentrations allow easier administration in big animals. Low concentrations are safe for small animals due to their low body weight.

Arranging the home environment in such a way that the dog feels safe, secure, and comfortable at all times is an excellent idea. 

An animal that receives cannabis therapy is usually overly sensitive to loud sounds and bright lights.

Also, consider keeping a journal or a log of the dog’s CBD dosing, reactions, and behavior. Remember to share this information with the veterinarian in charge of the dog’s therapy.

Note that the amount of CBD that could help a dog would vary, depending on the dog’s diagnosis, size, age, and other medical conditions. 

Important To Know

Arthritis in Dogs: Symptoms and Risk Factors

A 2015 study published by the Veterinary Science Development noted that one in every four dogs in the USA is diagnosed with some form of arthritis(44).   

Affecting mostly senior dogs, this degenerative joint disease can take many forms. The most common type of arthritis in dogs is osteoarthritis, which affects multiple joints(45).

The classic symptoms of arthritis in dogs are limping and stiffness in the joints. Other potential symptoms include:

  • Difficulty getting up after lying down
  • Unexpected aggression toward humans or other dogs
  • Irritation when touched or petted
  • Depression and behavioral changes, including separation anxiety and moodiness 
  • Lethargy and sleeping more than usual
  • Changes in appetite and weight gain

Similar to humans, dogs can experience arthritis due to natural aging, trauma, or situations when the joints do not develop properly. 

A typical joint problem in older dogs and large breeds is hip dysplasia, which occurs when the hip joint becomes wholly or partially dislocated. 

While age is a common risk factor for arthritis in dogs, other factors can make them more susceptible to this painful joint disease. These include(46):

  • Large breeds of dogs 
  • Being overweight results in added stress on the joints
  • Genetic or hereditary factors
  • Joint trauma early in life 
  • Abnormal joint development
  • Bacterial infections 
  • Irregularities in the immune system 
  • Lyme disease (and other tick-borne illnesses)

Potential Side Effects of CBD

Dog owners should note that CBD’s calming effect can also cause slight drowsiness, mainly when used in high doses, according to the American Kennel Club (AKC).

The other potential side effects of CBD use include the following(47):

  • Dry mouth: Research has shown that CBD can decrease the production of saliva, says AKC. For dogs, this would manifest as increased thirst.
  • Lowered blood pressure: High doses of CBD have been known to cause a temporary drop in blood pressure. Even though the drop is small, it might create a fleeting feeling of light-headedness.

Dog owners must make sure they are following the proper CBD dosage to minimize any potential adverse side effects.

Warning: THC Is Toxic To Dogs 

The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC, the psychoactive cannabinoid from cannabis, is more than 3 g/kg, according to a 2013 review(48).

Although the compound has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after the ingestion of food products that contain the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. In animals, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes following oral ingestion.

No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. However, sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. 

Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control the dog’s body temperature(49).

No Cure for Arthritis

Unfortunately, arthritis cannot be cured. Once the cartilage in joints is damaged, they rarely undergo complete recovery(50).

Still, there is hope for a dog to live a pain-free life even with arthritis. Many dogs with arthritis can live comfortably with proper treatment and management. 

Dog owners who suspect their dog may be suffering from arthritis should consult with a veterinarian immediately and explore all options to give the dog the best life possible.


When it comes to finding the best natural treatment for their canine friend, dog owners understandably are curious whether or not dog CBD oil is legal, safe, and useful for treating specific health conditions or their related symptoms(51).

There is no treatment for arthritis. However, CBD may help manage the symptoms of the disease, such as pain due to inflammation, anxiety, lethargy, sleep problems, behavior problems, and mobility issues. 

The few studies published on the health benefits of CBD were mostly conducted on humans and other animals, like mice and rats, not dogs. Most of the available information on CBD’s efficacy on arthritis in dogs is anecdotal. 

More longitudinal studies on CBD use in dogs should be helpful in determining appropriate medical use and dosage.

A consultation with a veterinarian experienced in cannabis use is an essential step for dog owners before they use CBD oil and CBD treats to supplement a dog’s arthritis therapy or combine CBD with their dog’s food.

  1. Kriss R. (2019, Oct 27). The American Kennel Club. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know. Retrieved from
  2. Gamble LJ, Boesch JM, Frye CW, et al. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Front Vet Sci. 2018;5:165. Published 2018 Jul 23. DOI:10.3389/fvets.2018.00165.
  3. Hammell DC, Zhang LP, Ma F, et al. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. Eur J Pain. 2016;20(6):936‐948. DOI:10.1002/ejp.818.
  4. Philpott HT, OʼBrien M, McDougall JJ. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain. 2017;158(12):2442‐2451. DOI:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001052.
  5. Kogan LR, Hellyer PW, Robinson NG. Consumers’ perceptions of hemp products for animals. J Am Holist Vet Med Assoc. (2016) 42:40–8. Retrieved from
  6. ibid.
  7. Kriss R. op. cit.
  8. Gamble LJ, Boesch JM, Frye CW, et al. op. cit.
  9. Monteiro-Steagall BP, Steagall PV, Lascelles BD. Systematic review of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced adverse effects in dogs [published correction appears in J Vet Intern Med. 2014 Mar-Apr;28(2):745]. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(5):1011‐1019. DOI:10.1111/jvim.12127.
  10. Schuelert N, McDougall JJ. The abnormal cannabidiol analogue O-1602 reduces nociception in a rat model of acute arthritis via the putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55. Neurosci Lett. 2011;500(1):72‐76. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2011.06.004.
  11. Hammell DC, Zhang LP, Ma F, et al. op. cit.
  12. Philpott HT, OʼBrien M, McDougall JJ. op. cit.
  13. Russo EB. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(1):245–259. DOI:10.2147/tcrm.s1928.
  14. RA. Arthritis in Dogs. Retrieved from
  15. Linares IM, Zuardi AW, Pereira LC, et al. Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test. Braz J Psychiatry. 2019;41(1):9–14. DOI:10.1590/1516-4446-2017-0015.
  16. de Mello A et al. “Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis sativa”, CNS & Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets (2014) 13: 953.
  17. Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. 2019;23:18–041. DOI:10.7812/TPP/18-041.
  18. Hsiao YT, Yi PL, Li CL, Chang FC. Effect of cannabidiol on sleep disruption induced by the repeated combination tests consisting of open field and elevated plus-maze in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Jan;62(1):373-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.08.013. Epub 2011 Aug 16.
  19. McPartland JM, Matias I, Di Marzo V, Glass M. Evolutionary origins of the endocannabinoid system. Gene. 2006;370:64-74. DOI:
  20. Brady B. (2017, Sept 6). CHF Announces Funding for Clinical Trial to Study Cannabidiol to Treat Drug Resistant Epilepsy in Dogs. Retrieved from
  21. Freundt-Revilla J, Kegler K, Baumgärtner W, Tipold A (2017) Spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in normal canine central and peripheral nervous system. PLoS ONE 12(7): e0181064.
  22. Silver RJ. The Endocannabinoid System of Animals. Animals (Basel). 2019;9(9):686. Published 2019 Sep 16. DOI:10.3390/ani9090686.
  23. La Porta C, Bura SA, Negrete R, Maldonado R. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain. Eur J Neurosci. 2014;39(3):485‐500. DOI:10.1111/ejn.12468.
  24. Russo, E.B., Burnett, A., Hall, B. et al. Agonistic Properties of Cannabidiol at 5-HT1a Receptors. Neurochem Res 30, 1037–1043 (2005).
  25. Leweke FM, Piomelli D, Pahlisch F, et al. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2(3):e94. Published 2012 Mar 20. DOI:10.1038/tp.2012.15.
  26. Morena M., Aukema, R., […], and Hill M. Upregulation of Anandamide Hydrolysis in the Basolateral Complex of Amygdala Reduces Fear Memory Expression and Indices of Stress and Anxiety. Journal of Neuroscience 13 February 2019, 39 (7) 1275-1292; DOI:
  27. US FDA. (2020, March 11). FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from
  28. ibid.
  29. ibid.
  30. Burke, A. (2018, Oct 17). How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil. Retrieved from
  31.  Peachman, RR. (2019, April 11). Should You Try CBD for Your Pet? Retrieved from
  32. Peachman, RR. (2019, April 11). Should You Try CBD for Your Pet? Retrieved from
  33. Kriss R. op. cit.
  34. RA. Arthritis in Dogs. Retrieved from
  35. McCusker MM, Grant-Kels JM. Healing fats of the skin: the structural and immunologic roles of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28(4):440–451. DOI:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2010.03.020.
  36. Kola B, Farkas I, Christ-Crain M, Wittmann G, Lolli F, Amin F, et al. (2008) The Orexigenic Effect of Ghrelin Is Mediated through Central Activation of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System. PLoS ONE 3(3): e1797.
  37. Di Marzo, V., Goparaju, […], and Kunos G. Leptin-regulated endocannabinoids are involved in maintaining food intake. Nature 410, 822–825 (2001).
  38. Russo EB. The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain. Front Plant Sci. 2019;9:1969. Published 2019 Jan 9. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2018.01969.
  39. ISPE.What is GMP? Retrieved from
  40. Gamble LJ, Boesch JM, Frye CW, et al. op. cit.
  41. Veterinary Cannabis Education and Consulting. Cannabis Guidelines for Pet Parents. Retrieved from
  42. Kriss R. op. cit.
  43. ibid.
  44. Clark, Stephanie. (2015). Canine Osteoarthritis and Treatments: A Review. Veterinary Science Development. 5. 10.4081/vsd.2015.5931. 
  45. RA. Arthritis in Dogs. op. cit.
  46. ibid.
  47. Kriss R. op. cit.
  48. Fitzgerald KT, Bronstein AC, Newquist KL. Marijuana poisoning. Top Companion Anim Med. 2013;28(1):8–12. DOI:10.1053/j.tcam.2013.03.004.
  49. ibid.
  50. RA. Arthritis in Dogs. op. cit.
  51. AVMA. Cannabis use and pets. Retrieved from


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