• Studies suggest that CBD may help manage various anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder(1).
  • Cannabis products containing CBD may also help with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)(2) and autism spectrum disorder(3).
  • Researchers have not conducted studies determining the proper dosage of medication for anxiety in children. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not endorsed any dosing guidelines for this condition.
  • There are no established CBD dosing schemes for anxiety in children. Therefore, parents should consult a pediatrician or a doctor well versed in cannabis use to determine an appropriate CBD dosage.

Research on CBD for Child Anxiety

Studies have suggested that cannabidiol (CBD) may have anti-inflammatory and calming effects, especially within the field of pediatric anxiety(4).

However, clinical data from such studies are minimal, and researchers must conduct further extensive studies to determine whether the benefits of CBD are effective in managing anxiety in children.

Existing preclinical evidence showed that CBD may help manage several anxiety disorders, including the following(5):

  • Social anxiety disorder (SAD)
  • Panic disorder
  • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

SAD is a feeling of intense anxiety or fear of being evaluated, judged, or rejected in a social situation(6). Meanwhile, panic disorder is characterized by a sudden panic attack or feeling of terror even when there is no real danger(7).

An individual with GAD tends to be excessively or persistently worried about various things(8). On the other hand, individuals with OCD may typically have recurring thoughts or behaviors that drive them to do something repetitively(9).

Individuals with this PTSD may experience intense and disturbing thoughts or feelings caused by a past traumatic event they experienced or witnessed(10).

One study on the effects of CBD oil on insomnia and pediatric anxiety was conducted on a 10-year-old patient diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)(11).

The study mentioned that CBD may effectively reduce anxiety and insomnia associated with PTSD. The authors attributed these benefits to CBD’s potential anxiolytic (antianxiety) and sleep-inducing effects.

CBD’s antianxiety and calming properties may help individuals experience better sleep through relaxation and anxiety relief, leading to better rest quality(12).

In another study, CBD may help manage sleep problems better than a placebo(13). Improved sleep is associated with mental and physical relaxation(14).

A placebo is a medication or treatment with no active therapeutic properties.

Another study suggested that CBD may help lower acute heart rate and blood pressure increases caused by restraint stress(15).

Restraint stress is a commonly used stress model representing immobilization stress in experiments(16)

Animal studies suggested that chronic immobilization stress may induce anxiety behavior(17).

While animal studies involving CBD may not directly apply to humans, researchers may use these studies as a reference for future research on CBD’s health benefits on human subjects.

CBD may also contribute to fear extinction, which involves activating the CB1 receptors to help inhibit fear responses(18)

Fear can cause anxiety in a person(19). Thus, managing fear may help individuals address anxiety.

Anxiety may show symptoms similar to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)(20). Children with ADHD may be overly active and may have difficulty controlling impulsive behavior or paying attention.

ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder often diagnosed in childhood that may last into adulthood.

One study evaluated the effectiveness of cannabis for managing ADHD in three human male subjects aged 18, 22, and 23(21).

The 23yearold subject, who took a medical cannabis prescription with a 20:1 CBD-to-THC ratio, mentioned that cannabis may positively impact demeanor, improve focus, and help the individual become less anxious.

Overall, results showed that cannabis products containing CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may provide a complementary function in the therapeutic regimen of the subjects.

THC is a psychoactive cannabis substance that produces a feeling of “high” usually typically associated with marijuana usage(22).

In another study in the Journal of Cannabis Research, the researchers evaluated the potential of CBD-enriched cannabis to help with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children(23).

Results showed that cannabis products containing CBD may help decrease behavioral problems, increase expressive language, improve cognition, and increase social interaction.

ASD is a developmental disability wherein the individual with this disorder has challenges with social interaction and communication or repetitive or restricted interests or behaviors(24).

Individuals with ASD may exhibit characteristics such as delayed language skills, delayed learning or cognitive skills, anxiety or stress, hyperactive or impulsive behavior, gastrointestinal issues like constipation, and lack of or excessive fear.

This disorder may also cause individuals to have difficulties in maintaining eye contact, showing facial expressions, sharing interests with others, playing simple interactive games, or noticing when others are upset or hurt.

One behavior that individuals with ASD may show is getting upset when the arrangement of toys or other objects gets changed(25). Similar behaviors include saying the same words or phrases repeatedly, following certain routines, or having unusual reactions to how certain things taste, smell, look, or feel.

The same research also suggested that CBD may help enhance oxytocin and vasopressin release and positively affect other ASD symptoms(26).

Vasopressin is a hormone that helps manage blood pressure regulation, kidney functioning, and sodium balance(27). Meanwhile, oxytocin acts as a chemical messenger that helps control reproductive aspects such as childbirth and lactation(28).

Researchers are evaluating the role and efficacy of oxytocin in addressing various health conditions such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress(29).

Use of CBD Oil for Kids With Anxiety

Individuals may choose a CBD product depending on their preferred CBD administration method to help manage anxiety in children. These methods include:

  • Ingestion: Oral administration involves taking CBD through the mouth. This route allows the drug to pass through the digestive tract before the compound spreads into the bloodstream.

Orally administered CBD oil products have a prolonged duration of effect, making them preferable for providing an all-night effect(30).

  • Sublingual administration: In this method, individuals apply CBD oil sublingually or under the tongue to deliver the drug into the bloodstream directly, bypassing the digestive tract.
  • Topical application: This administration route involves applying CBD products to the skin. While CBD topicals do not get absorbed into the bloodstream, they provide pain relief to the area where the product is applied(31).
  • Inhalation: This method is a quick way to administer cannabis, making inhalation appropriate for problems like acute pain or nausea(32).

Inhalation lets CBD affect the lungs, heart, and brain before spreading the drug in the body(33). Common methods for inhalation include smoking and vaping.

Individuals should take precautions when using vapes as these products can cause health risks associated with lung disease, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved vaping as a method to stop smoking(34).

Additionally, selling e-cigarettes (also called e-cigs or vapes) to anyone below 21 is illegal(35). Thus, using vapes to administer CBD to children is not recommended.

Individuals with existing medical conditions should consult a doctor or health care professional for a diagnosis and appropriate treatment before trying CBD.

After administration, CBD takes some time before starting to work in the body. However, researchers have not performed clinical trials determining CBD’s onset times specifically for child anxiety.

However, the drug’s onset times may vary depending on the chosen delivery method, such as the following(36):

  • Sublingual administration: 15 to 30 minutes
  • Oral ingestion: 30 to 90 minutes
  • Topical application: 15 to 30 minutes
  • Inhalation: 2 to 15 minutes

In addition, the different administration routes also determine how long CBD’s effects may last.

For example, CBD taken through oral ingestion may last for six to eight hours, while administering the substance through sublingual administration, topical application, or inhalation may take around two to four hours(37).

CBD Dosage for Children With Anxiety

The FDA has not endorsed any standard dosing schemes specifically for anxiety in children.

Additionally, researchers have not performed extensive studies determining the appropriate dose or amount of CBD to administer to children with anxiety.

However, one suggestion for individuals taking CBD for the first time should consider starting with a low dose and gradually increasing the dosage(38).

For CBD-rich products, one recommendation is to begin with a 10 milligram (mg) dose per day(39).

One study on the potential use of cannabinoids in pediatrics suggests that a 200mg to 300mg dose of CBD may be safe to administer over a short period(40).

CBD dosage may vary from one individual to another due to factors like diet, exercise, stress levels, health conditions, and genetics(41).

Before giving CBD to children, parents should consult the child’s doctor or pediatrician, preferably one well versed in cannabis use, to determine an appropriate CBD dosage.

Pros of Using CBD for Child Anxiety

The World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledges CBD, in general, to be low in toxicity(42).

The agency also recognizes that the compound does not appear to exhibit the same effects found in delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), sometimes only referred to as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Based on the findings of several open-label and controlled trials evaluating CBD’s therapeutic effects, the WHO finds CBD to be well tolerated by humans and has a good safety profile(43).

However, despite CBD being considered generally safe, scientists need to conduct further studies to determine the long-term effects of the compound(44).

Side Effects and Risks of CBD for Child Anxiety

Scientists have not thoroughly studied CBD’s side effects and risks on children with anxiety.

However, one study mentioned that the commonly reported side effects of CBD are tiredness, changes in appetite or body weight, and diarrhea(45).

In another study conducted on patients with CBD oil prescriptions, researchers stated that some participants experienced sedation and vivid dreams(46).

In general, CBD may cause fatigue, drowsiness, dry mouth, appetite loss, and diarrhea, which may be considered tolerable side effects among humans(47).

Choosing the Right CBD for Children With Anxiety

Individuals searching for the best CBD oil for anxiety or relaxation for children with anxiety should consider the extraction methods, lab test results, CBD product categories, and personal preferences.

Extraction Methods

Manufacturers derive CBD and other compounds from the cannabis plant using various extraction processes, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), ethanol, or hydrocarbon techniques.

  • CO2 extraction: This method utilizes liquefied and highly pressurized carbon dioxide to derive CBD from hemp. Many CBD companies consider this method the safest way to extract CBD(48).
  • Ethanol extraction: This technique makes use of ethanol as a solvent to extract CBD from cannabis. For centuries, many cultures have utilized ethanol to obtain medicinal cannabis compounds(49).
  • Hydrocarbon extraction: This method uses hydrocarbons, such as propane or butane, as solvents to extract CBD from hemp plants.

Hydrocarbons are flammable and neurotoxic. If the manufacturers do not adequately purge the solvents from the extracted CBD, they may be ingested accidentally and become a health hazard.

Manufacturers consider this method effective for CBD extraction provided that proper procedures are followed(50).

Product Categorization

After extracting the CBD oil, manufacturers process the extract and categorize it as full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, or isolate.

  • Full-spectrum CBD oil: This product, also called full-spectrum hemp oil, contains all beneficial cannabinoids and compounds from the cannabis plant. These compounds include THC, terpenes, and flavonoids.

Terpenes are essential oil components that produce a distinct aroma in cannabis plants(51). Meanwhile, flavonoids are plant substances that act as antioxidants and antimicrobials(52).

Combining these essential compounds in full-spectrum CBD oil may produce an “entourage effect.” This phenomenon, characterized by the active cannabis compounds working together synergistically, may provide better therapeutic results(53).

  • Broad-spectrum CBD oil: Contains most compounds and cannabinoids found in full-spectrum products. However, broad-spectrum CBD oil products are THC-free.
  • CBD isolates: These products contain pure CBD only. These products do not have THC and do not include any other cannabinoids or compounds.

Individuals planning to buy CBD products that do not contain THC or its psychoactive effects may consider purchasing CBD isolates or broad-spectrum CBD oil products.

Third-Party Lab Tests

Reputable and transparent CBD brands typically provide a certificate of analysis (COA) for their CBD products.

Third-party labs provide these COAs, containing information on a CBD product’s actual content. Third-party testing and analysis are industry-standard processes to help minimize the concerns surrounding falsely labeled products(54).

Many third-party labs also analyze whether the product has harmful contaminants, such as solvents, pesticides, or heavy metals, that can cause a health risk to consumers.

When looking for high-quality CBD products, individuals should consider buying from brands that provide updated COAs with complete information on the product website.

Individuals may utilize the COAs to compare the product label information with the lab test results and check for consistency.

Individual Preferences

Buyers should factor in their personal preferences when deciding what CBD product to purchase.

Some consumers may prefer non-GMO or gluten-free CBD products. Others may purchase products made from organic hemp coming from USDA-certified hemp farms.

Other individuals may choose a product depending on their personal goals, such as mental health or overall wellness. Moreover, some customers may prefer brands with discount offers, money-back guarantees, or good customer reviews.

CBD Oil vs. Alternative Treatments for Kids With Anxiety

Individuals who have an aversion to using CBD oil or are unable to access such products may consider other alternative remedies to help with anxiety in children.

However, research on these alternatives and their effectiveness in managing anxiety is limited or inconclusive.

Thus, individuals will need more information before making an objective comparison between CBD and these alternative products.

The following alternative remedies aside from CBD oil to help manage anxiety in children:

  • Omega-3 fatty acids: An article in Harvard Health Publishing mentioned that omega-3 fatty acids, typically derived from fish oil, may help ease anxiety symptoms among individuals diagnosed with various physical and mental health conditions(55).

Researchers stated that individuals who took up to 2,000mg of omega-3 fatty acids a day may feel the most reduction in anxiety symptoms(56).

Despite this result, there are no conclusive recommendations to take omega-3 fatty acids in high doses to help treat anxiety.

The authors suggested conducting more extensive trials to help confirm omega-3’s therapeutic benefits.

  • Magnesium: One study mentioned that magnesium status may be linked to subjective anxiety and suggested that magnesium supplementation may help attenuate symptoms of anxiety(57).

However, existing studies on the beneficial effects of magnesium are limited and have insufficient evidence quality.

Thus, well designed studies involving randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of magnesium supplementation on anxiety.

  • B vitamins: Vitamin B, also called vitamin B complex, is a group of vitamins essential for various enzymes in the body to work.

B vitamins include thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6), biotin, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin (B12).

One study suggested that a high intake of dietary B vitamins, including biotin, may be beneficial in lowering the prevalence of depression, stress, and anxiety symptoms(58).

For example, moderate thiamin intake may help lower anxiety occurrence, and taking moderate amounts of folic acid may help reduce the risk of depression and stress.

The benefits of B vitamins need additional research, specifically randomized controlled trials, to confirm their efficacy.

  • Passionflower: This plant is a climbing vine native to Central and South America and the southeastern United States.

Native civilizations in the Americas used this plant as a sedative, and when it was brought to Europe, the passionflower plant became part of European folk medicine(59).

Passionflower is often used as a dietary supplement for anxiety, sleep issues, pain, menopausal symptoms, and ADHD(60). Individuals may also apply the plant to the skin to help with burns and hemorrhoids.

One study mentioned that the passionflower extract may be utilized as a drug to help manage GAD(61). Results of the clinical trial showed that, compared to placebo, the extract may be more effective for GAD.

The research also showed that the extract may have a lower incidence of job performance impairment than oxazepam, a medication used for treating anxiety and insomnia.

What Is CBD?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive Cannabis sativa plant component purported to help provide a calming effect and relieve anxiety(62). Managing stress and anxiety and feeling calm are associated with relaxation(63).

Aside from helping with anxiety, CBD may also help manage insomnia, chronic pain, and addiction(64).

CBD interacts with various receptors in the body known to help regulate fear-related behaviors and anxiety levels(65). These receptors include the serotonin 5HT1A receptor, CB1 receptor, and TRPV1 receptor.

CB1 receptors are primarily within the brain and present in the spinal cord and peripheral nervous tissues(66). Activating these receptors may create anxiolytic effects that may help prevent fear reconsolidation and enhance fear extinction(67).

Meanwhile, TRPV1 receptors are widely expressed in vascular cells, muscle cells, and sensory nerve fibers(68). These receptors have an essential role in mediating pain perception, inflammation, and body temperature(69).

On the other hand, serotonin 5-HT1A receptors are found in the nervous system and may influence behaviors associated with anxiety and depression(70).

Pain is one of the symptoms of anxiety(71). CBD may produce a calming effect to help manage anxiety(72).

CBD also interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS)(73). Preclinical and clinical data showed that ECS signaling may help in regulating anxiety and depression(74).

Further studies and clinical trials are needed to conclusively determine how CBD’s therapeutic effects may help with relaxation and manage anxiety.

Forms of CBD

Individuals have a wide variety of CBD products to choose from, depending on their preferred administration method. These CBD forms include the following:

  • Oral CBD products: These products include edibles such as CBD gummies, chews, or cookies. CBD capsules also fall under this category.

These products may be unflavored or contain various flavors, such as peppermint, mint chocolate, or other natural flavors to cater to individual preferences.

Some CBD brands claim to have formulated their oral CBD products to help manage anxiety or provide consumers with a calming effect. 

However, these claims are unsubstantiated, and consumers should not use CBD products as medication for any disease or condition.

Additionally, while some individuals may prefer CBD products to be ingested, there is limited scientific evidence that these products are the best choice for calming or relaxation.

  • Sublingual CBD products: One type of sublingual CBD product is a tincture, which is typically administered under the tongue using droppers.

Tinctures containing CBD oil may have an earthy taste. Thus, some individuals may consider mixing these products with food or drinks(75). Many CBD companies sell tinctures in 30ml bottles.

CBD oil tinctures contain carrier oils that help dilute the CBD concentrate. Examples of carrier oils are olive oil, hemp seed oil, medium-chain triglyceride oil (MCT oil), and coconut oil.

Hemp seed oil derived from hemp seeds usually does not contain CBD(76).

Other sublingually administered products include oromucosal sprays, tablets, and high-potency oils.

  • Topical CBD products: CBD topicals come in a wide variety of forms, such as CBD creams, balms, lotions, and ointments.
  • CBD inhalers: Inhalers are portable devices that help deliver CBD orally or by inhalation. Some sellers may claim to have such products formulated to help with anxiety or other mental health issues.

Safeness of CBD Oil

One study showed that humans may tolerate a high dose of up to 1,500 mg of CBD daily(77).

CBD may interfere with the activities of the cytochrome P450 enzymes, which metabolize many pharmaceutical drugs. When these liver enzymes are prevented from doing their activity, they may affect the effectiveness of various medicines(78).

Some medications that may interact with CBD through the cytochrome P450 enzymes include beta-blockers and antidepressants(79). These drugs are usually taken as anxiety medication(80).

The legality of CBD oil or medical marijuana varies among states. Before buying CBD products, consumers must review and understand their state’s laws regarding CBD use.

There are 37 U.S. states with regulated cannabis programs as of February 3, 2022. These states include Arizona, California, Colorado, New York, and Nevada(81).

Under federal law, CBD products containing more than 0.3% THC are considered illegal(82).

The 2018 Farm Bill excludes hemp-based CBD products containing less than 0.3% THC from the “marijuana” definition under the Controlled Substances Act(83). The law also establishes a regulatory framework for producing hemp in the United States(84).

In June 2020, the FDA approved Epidiolex, an oral medication containing purified CBD used for treating seizures linked to two forms of epilepsy, Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome(85).

The FDA warns that marketing or labeling CBD products as dietary supplements or food additives are illegal. The agency has limited data about CBD’s safety and advises that real risks must be considered before using CBD(86).

CBD Products to Avoid With Children

Although CBD, in general, has various purported health benefits, there are several CBD products individuals should avoid when administering CBD to children. These products include the following:

  • CBD capsules: CBD capsules provide a convenient way to administer CBD as each capsule has a predetermined dosage and may readily be taken orally.

However, this product type is not recommended for young children as they have smaller airways than adults. The capsule’s size may cause the product to get stuck in a child’s throat and cause a significant health risk.

  • Alcohol-based tinctures: In the United States, the legal drinking age is 21 in all states(87). From this legal standpoint, individuals should not give children alcohol-based CBD oil tinctures.

However, many CBD companies sell CBD oil products in the form of tinctures. Thus, individuals should double-check the ingredients on product labels or check the products’ COAs to confirm the content.

  • CBD vape pens: E-cigarettes or vape pens are pocket-sized, battery-powered devices that heat a vape tank to produce vapor.

However, despite vaping being increasingly popular, businesses are legally prohibited from selling such products to children(88).

  • CBD concentrates: These substances contain little to no diluting agent and thus, may have a high potency even in small amounts.

For little children who only need minimal doses, administering CBD concentrates may cause dosing difficulties. Consumers should consider avoiding concentrates and choose a lower-potency CBD product instead.

Thus, individuals should consider avoiding CBD concentrates unless a doctor well versed in CBD or cannabis use will recommend such a product for the child.

  1. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604171/
  2. Cannabis for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Report of 3 Cases https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8832253/
  3. CBD-Enriched Cannabis for Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Experience of a Single Center in Turkey and Reviews of the Literature https://jcannabisresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42238-021-00108-7
  4. Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101100/
  5. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604171/
  6. Social Anxiety Disorder https://adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder
  7. Panic Disorder https://medlineplus.gov/panicdisorder.html
  8. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) https://adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad
  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd
  10. What is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? https://psychiatry.org/patients-families/ptsd/what-is-ptsd
  11. Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101100/
  12. Page 177 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  13. Hypnotic and Antiepileptic Effects of Cannabidiol https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1552-4604.1981.tb02622.x
  14. Insomnia: Relaxation techniques and sleeping habits https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279320/
  15. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604171/
  16. Restraint Stress-Induced Morphological Changes at the Blood-Brain Barrier in Adult Rats https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2015.00088/full
  17. Chronic Immobilization Stress Alters Aspects of Emotionality and Associative Learning in the Rat https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18410168/
  18. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604171/
  19. Impact of Fear and Anxiety https://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/impact-fear-and-anxiety
  20. What Is ADHD? https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/facts.html
  21. Cannabis for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Report of 3 Cases https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8832253/
  22. Tetrahydrocannabinol https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/tetrahydrocannabinol
  23. CBD-Enriched Cannabis for Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Experience of a Single Center in Turkey and Reviews of the Literature https://jcannabisresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42238-021-00108-7
  24. Signs and Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html
  25. Ibid.
  26. CBD-Enriched Cannabis for Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Experience of a Single Center in Turkey and Reviews of the Literature https://jcannabisresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42238-021-00108-7
  27. Physiology, Vasopressin https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526069/
  28. Oxytocin https://www.yourhormones.info/hormones/oxytocin/
  29. Ibid.
  30. Page 202 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  31. Page 210 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  32. Best Way to Take CBD https://www.projectcbd.org/guidance/best-way-take-cbd
  33. Ibid.
  34. Can Vaping Damage Your Lungs? What We Do (and Don’t) Know https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/can-vaping-damage-your-lungs-what-we-do-and-dont-know-2019090417734
  35. Ibid.
  36. Page 190-193 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  37. Ibid.
  38. CBD Dosing https://www.projectcbd.org/guidance/cbd-dosing
  39. Page 218 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  40. Cannabinoids in Pediatrics https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473390/
  41. CBD Dosing https://www.projectcbd.org/guidance/cbd-dosing
  42. WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence: Fortieth Report https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/279948/9789241210225-eng.pdf
  43. Ibid.
  44. Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101100/
  45. Dosage, Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Administration in Adults: A Systematic Review of Human Trials https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7092763/
  46. Cannabidiol Prescription in Clinical Practice: An Audit on the First 400 Patients in New Zealand https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330185/
  47. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use? https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  48. CBD Oil: An Introduction https://www.projectcbd.org/wellness/cbd-oil-introduction
  49. Ibid.
  50. Ibid.
  51. The Cannabis Terpenes https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763918/
  52. Flavonoids as Antioxidants https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10924197/
  53. Page 92 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  54. Page 260 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  55. Omega-3s for Anxiety? https://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/omega-3s-for-anxiety
  56. Ibid.
  57. The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress—A Systematic Review https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5452159/
  58. Dietary Intake of B Vitamins and Their Association With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Survey https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33848753/
  59. Passionflower https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/passionflower
  60. Ibid.
  61. Passionflower in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety: A Pilot Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial With Oxazepam https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11679026/
  62. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326553/
  63. Relaxation and mental health https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/relaxation
  64. Cannabidiol (CBD)-What We Know and What We Don’t https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  65. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604171/
  66. Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain Episodes https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430692/
  67. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604171/
  68. The Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Common Diseases of the Digestive Tract and the Cardiovascular and Respiratory System https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2019.01064/full
  69. Page 104 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  70. 5-HT1A receptors in mood and anxiety: recent insights into autoreceptor versus heteroreceptor function https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3927969/
  71. Chronic Pain https://adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/related-illnesses/other-related-conditions/chronic-pain
  72. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326553/
  73. Page 103 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  74. Role of Endocannabinoid Signaling in Anxiety and Depression https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3808114/
  75. Page 208 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  76. Page 252 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  77. Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent https://doi.org/10.2174/157488611798280924
  78. Page 114-115 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  79. Ibid.
  80. Anxiety Medication https://www.helpguide.org/articles/anxiety/anxiety-medication.htm
  81. State Medical Cannabis Laws https://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx
  82. CBD & THC: Myths and Misconceptions https://www.projectcbd.org/guidance/cbd-thc-myths-and-misconceptions
  83. Hemp Production and the 2018 Farm Bill https://www.fda.gov/news-events/congressional-testimony/hemp-production-and-2018-farm-bill-07252019
  84. Hemp Production https://www.ams.usda.gov/rules-regulations/hemp
  85. FDA Approves New Indication for Drug Containing an Active Ingredient Derived from Cannabis to Treat Seizures in Rare Genetic Disease https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-new-indication-drug-containing-active-ingredient-derived-cannabis-treat-seizures-rare#
  86. What You Need to Know (And What We’re Working to Find Out) About Products Containing Cannabis or Cannabis-derived Compounds, Including CBD https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-need-know-and-what-were-working-find-out-about-products-containing-cannabis-or-cannabis
  87. Alcohol Policy https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohols-effects-health/alcohol-policy
  88. Can Vaping Damage Your Lungs? What We Do (and Don’t) Know https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/can-vaping-damage-your-lungs-what-we-do-and-dont-know-2019090417734
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