Can CBD Help With Diabetes?

  • Diabetes can be managed, but no treatment has been found that would ultimately cure the disease(1).
  • A study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology states that CBD may be helpful in the treatment of diabetes because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties(2).
  • Another study on diabetes that was published in The American Journal of Pathology reports that CBD helps reduce the likelihood of diabetic patients developing diabetic retinopathy. This therapeutic effect is because of CBD’s ability to reduce neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation(3). Diabetic retinopathy is a common eye condition in diabetic patients that can result in blindness(4).
  • Studies have revealed that CBD might alleviate diabetes symptoms. However, further research needs to be done on CBD’s effects on diabetes.
  • Before using CBD on diabetic patients, it is essential to consult with a physician first.

Best CBD Oils for Diabetes

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for New CBD users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Score breakdown
    Value
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  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Check Latest Prices
Best Value

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Value
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures Products
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Plenty of concentrations to choose from for all people with various kinds of needs
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    300 mg - 7500 mg / 30 ml bottle, 1000 mg - 1500 mg / 60 ml bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    30 ml: 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml), 750 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 50 mg per dropper (1ml), 3000 mg - 100 mg per dropper (1ml), 5000 mg - 166.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 7500 mg - 250 mg per dropper (1ml), 60 ml: 1000 mg - 16.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    Flavours Natural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range 30 ml Bottles: $29.99 for 300 mg, $69.99 for 750 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg, $149.99 for 3000 mg, $239.99 for 5000 mg, $339.99 for 7500 mg 60 ml Bottles: $74.99 for 1000 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    30 ml - $0.05 - $0.10, 60 ml - $0.06 - $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for CBD users with different needs
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why People Are Turning to CBD for Diabetes

Medications commonly used for diabetes, like metformin and insulin, have side effects. Some drugs have more adverse effects on users than others. 

For example, using thiazolidinedione, a type 2 diabetes medication, is linked with an increased risk of anemia and heart failure(5).

A study in 2018 found that the use of type 2 diabetes medications, such as sulfonylureas and basal insulin, was associated with higher cardiovascular risks, like heart disease(6).

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is usually diagnosed in children and teens, but some adults may also develop this disease. Meanwhile, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more common in obese adults(7).

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks the pancreas, resulting in the organ’s failure to produce insulin. 

In type 2 diabetes patients, the body can still produce insulin, but it becomes resistant to insulin’s effects. Eventually, a type 2 diabetic patient’s pancreas stops producing insulin(8).

Insulin is a hormone that lowers the amount of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. Little or no insulin results in excess blood glucose(9)

As the studies previously mentioned have shown, diabetes medications may pose risks to patients. Hence, some diabetic patients have turned to cannabidiol or CBD oil to treat their diabetes. 

CBD comes from the Cannabis Sativa plant. It is believed to have several therapeutic effects in patients without getting them high. 

CBD’s counterpart, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), also comes from the marijuana plant. This active ingredient, however, can induce a high in users. 

A study published in Neuropharmacology found that CBD is a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The study was conducted in non-obese, diabetes-prone female rodents(10).

Another study that was published in The American Journal of Pathology has shown that CBD reduces neurotoxicity, chronic inflammation, and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in diabetic animals(11).

BRB breakdown is a feature of diabetic retinopathy that could result in neural tissue damage and the loss of a diabetic patient’s vision(12.)

Diabetic retinopathy is an eye complication that affects the retina’s blood vessels. It can also cause blindness in diabetic people(13).

Neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation, meanwhile, are caused by high blood glucose levels. When these conditions in diabetic patients are not managed, they may eventually lead to Alzheimer’s disease(14).

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 2016 published in the journal Diabetes Care has shown that the use of CBD combined with tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), another cannabis compound, reduced glucose levels in the blood and increased the production of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes(15)

Another study reports that CBD may have promising therapeutic benefits in the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disorders(16). The study outlines CBD’s ability to reduce oxidative stress, cell death, inflammation, and fibrosis.

Fibrosis is characterized by the thickening of connective tissues due to injury. In diabetic patients, fibrosis is likely to happen because high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) can injure tissues(17).  

How CBD Oil Works to Alleviate Symptoms of Diabetes

Though type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes, they share some common symptoms. These include(18):

  • Extreme hunger
  • Frequent urination
  • Increased thirst
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Ketone presence in the urine (when the body does not have enough insulin, and hence, excess glucose), muscles and fats are broken down and produce a byproduct called ketones)
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Blurred vision
  • Sores that heal slowly
  • Gum, skin, vaginal or other infections

CBD used for diabetes treatment may help manage some of the symptoms previously mentioned. 

CBD for Inflammation

Inflammation is linked to diabetes and complications related to the disease. 

A study in 2019 published in the journal European Cardiology has found that anti-inflammatory medications may help treat the disease, primarily type 1 diabetes(19)

A study published in Future Medicinal Chemistry has found that cannabinoids, like CBD, are potent anti-inflammatory agents(20).

There are three types of cannabinoids, namely endocannabinoids (produced by the body), phytocannabinoids (derived from the marijuana plant, like CBD and THC), and laboratory-derived cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and help it regulate several functions, including mood, appetite, memory, and immune response. 

Another study has found that CBD’s immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects could be beneficial in the treatment of arthritis (21)

Research has found that type 2 diabetes patients are likely to develop arthritis because both conditions are caused by common factors, such as age and obesity(22)

CBD for Weight Management

Obesity is one of the contributing factors to diabetes. Obese individuals often have high amounts of various substances in the body that contribute to insulin resistance, such as fatty acids, glycerol, and cytokines(23).

CBD has been found to help prevent obesity by contributing to fat browning, the process of turning white adipose to brown adipose. This process aids the body in burning energy(24)

Another study in 2018 outlines the role of cannabinoids in weight loss(25). Researchers have found that the manipulation of cannabinoid receptors (CB) can have anti-obesity effects. 

Inhibition of cannabinoid receptor 1 helps reduce body weight and food intake. Stimulation of cannabinoid receptor 2, meanwhile, limits inflammation and, similarly, reduces food intake and weight gain. 

CBD for Skin Irritation

Diabetic patients often develop a variety of skin conditions that can be benign, deforming, and even life-threatening. 

These ailments can also be signs of the disease in patients who have undiagnosed diabetes(26)

A 2019 study reports that CBD-enriched ointment was therapeutic in treating skin conditions, especially those with inflammatory backgrounds, without causing adverse effects in the test subjects(27)

The study also concludes that CBD may help improve the quality of life of patients with skin disorders. 

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Diabetes

The Pros

  • Studies done on human and animal models have shown that CBD has therapeutic properties that may help treat diabetes. 
  • Diabetic patients should not worry about using CBD for their health condition as the safety of cannabidiol has been proven(28)
  • CBD is non-addictive. This fact has been confirmed by the World Health Organization (29). Therefore, there is no potential for CBD substance abuse.
  • As long as CBD use is allowed by federal and state laws, its purchase does not require a prescription.

The Cons

  • Further research still needs to be made on CBD’s ability to lower blood sugar levels and treat diabetes and the conditions that are usually associated with it. 
  • Diabetic patients should still take note of the side effects of CBD, although they are minimal. These reactions include tiredness, diarrhea, and changes in appetite and weight (30).
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has yet to approve CBD for the treatment of diabetes. For this reason, a standard dosage for CBD as therapy for diabetes has not yet been developed. 
  • The selling of CBD is unregulated by the US FDA. This lack of regulation resulted in the proliferation of mislabeled CBD products, especially from CBD manufacturers online (31). Buyers are encouraged to check the brand’s credibility first to make sure that they are purchasing high-quality products. 

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Diabetes

There are several alternative treatments for the alleviation of diabetes symptoms, such as acupuncture and herbal medicines.

Acupuncture

According to a study, acupuncture is used not only in the treatment of diabetes; it is also effective in preventing and managing the disease’s complications (32)

The study details how acupuncture helps the pancreas synthesize insulin and lower blood sugar.

Acupuncture also has anti-obesity properties (33)

Momordica Charantia

Momordica Charantia, a plant popularly known as bitter melon, is believed to be an effective diabetes remedy. 

In a study conducted on diabetic rodents, the administration of Momordica Charantia as a fruit juice has significantly lowered the blood sugar of the test subjects(34).

Another study affirms that Momordica Charantia is made of compounds that have anti-diabetic properties.

Trigonella Foenum Graecum

Trigonella Foenum-Graecum, popularly known as fenugreek, is used in households because of the plant’s aromatic properties(35). In India, it is a popular treatment for diabetes(36).

A study found that the blood sugar levels of type 2 diabetes patients markedly reduced when the test subjects were given 15 grams of fenugreek seed powder soaked in water(37).

While the treatments mentioned above are effective in alleviating diabetes symptoms, the benefits of CBD help treat the symptoms of conditions related to diabetes, like high blood pressure and neuropathic pain

In a clinical trial conducted in 2017, researchers suggested that CBD may have cardiovascular benefits, including the attenuation of blood pressure(38).

Sativex, a cannabis-derived spray made of CBD and THC, has been approved in Canada to treat central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis and for the alleviation for cancer pain(39).

How to Choose the Right CBD for Diabetes

According to Mayo Clinic, diabetic neuropathy is characterized by nerve damage in the legs and feet(40). It can be painful and even disabling.

A 2020 study was conducted in patients who had neuropathy of the lower extremities. Researchers suggested that the topical application of CBD oil may reduce intense, sharp pain, and cold, itchy sensations in the test subjects(41).

The researchers suggested that, compared to current neuropathy therapies, CBD used as a pain relief medication may be more effective and well-tolerated in patients. 

In purchasing a CBD oil product, buyers should be aware of the three main types. These include full-spectrum CBD oil, broad-spectrum CBD oil, and isolates.

Many users with experience in CBD oil treatments prefer to buy full-spectrum oils. This type of CBD oil is believed to be more therapeutic due to the entourage effect. 

The entourage effect is characterized by the synergistic effect of all the active ingredients of a cannabis plant. These components include less than 0.3% THC, fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, and essential oils. 

Some users, however, prefer broad-spectrum oils as they have the same components as full-spectrum oils, except for THC. 

This type of CBD oil is recommended for those who want to avoid the risks of using CBD oils with trace amounts of THC. 

Drug tests may detect THC. The substance may also cause mild psychoactive effects in some individuals.

There are also CBD isolates for those who prefer to use CBD oil made purely from cannabidiol. 

CBD Dosage for Diabetes

Due to the lack of US FDA regulation, there is no dosage chart for CBD use in the treatment of diabetes. 

The general rule is to administer small amounts of CBD to diabetic patients. If there are no adverse side effects, the dosage may be increased gradually. 

Patients are encouraged to use a journal to document their reactions to CBD and whether the treatment shows significant improvement in their blood glucose levels. They may show this journal to their trusted physician for better guidance.

Before adding CBD to one’s diabetes medication regimen, they should inform their doctor first. 

How to Take CBD for Diabetes

CBD products come in different formats, so there are several ways to take CBD for diabetes. Some diabetic patients prefer to take CBD orally.

CBD oils and tinctures (drops) can be mixed with food and beverages, like coffee. CBD products in these formats can also be taken orally. 

For maximum efficacy, tinctures may be applied sublingually (under the tongue).

Some product formats allow diabetic patients to ingest CBD, such as gummies and pills. 

CBD is also available in topical formulations, such as creams, lotions, balms, and salves. These CBD products may be applied to painful areas, such as joints, feet, and legs. 

CBD oils and topical formulations can also be used during massages to help in the treatment of chronic pain. 

CBD also comes in vape and pen formats. However, vaping may be damaging to the lungs(42).  

Conclusion  

Diabetes can be managed, but it cannot be cured entirely. If its symptoms are left untreated, it could progress to worse conditions, like diabetic foot, amputations, heart disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. 

Conventional diabetes medications are effective. However, some diabetes drugs can cause adverse side effects in users.

CBD has therapeutic properties that may help in the treatment of diabetes symptoms, such as its ability to manage inflammation, weight gain, and skin disorders. 

However, further research is needed on CBD’s effect on diabetes, such as its effect on an individual’s insulin levels. 

Before diabetic patients use CBD as part of their therapy, they should consult with a doctor first. 


  1. Mayo Clinic. (2018 Aug 8). Diabetes Diagnosis and Treatment. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20371451
  2. Rajesh, M., Mukhopadhyay, P., Bátkai, S., Patel, V., Saito, K., Matsumoto, S., Kashiwaya, Y., Horváth, B., Mukhopadhyay, B., Becker, L., Haskó, G., Liaudet, L., Wink, D. A., Veves, A., Mechoulam, R., & Pacher, P. (2010). Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56(25), 2115–2125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2010.07.033
  3. El-Remessy, Azza B et al. “Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes.” The American journal of pathology vol. 168,1 (2006): 235-44. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2006.050500 
  4. Diabetic Retinopathy. (2019 Aug 3). Retrieved from https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/diabetic-retinopathy
  5. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2019 Jan 9). Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis and Treatment. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351199
  6. O’Brien MJ, Karam SL, Wallia A, et al. Association of Second-line Antidiabetic Medications With Cardiovascular Events Among Insured Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(8):e186125. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.6125
  7. Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://hopkinsdiabetesinfo.org/diagnosis-of-diabetes/
  8. Ibid.
  9. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2018 Aug 8). Diabetes Symptoms and Causes. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20371444
  10. Weiss, L., Zeira, M., Reich, S., Slavin, S., Raz, I., Mechoulam, R., & Gallily, R. (2008). Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Neuropharmacology, 54(1), 244–249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2007.06.029
  11. El-Remessy, A. (2006). op. cit. 
  12. Klaassen, I., Van Noorden, C. J., & Schlingemann, R. O. (2013). Molecular basis of the inner blood-retinal barrier and its breakdown in diabetic macular edema and other pathological conditions. Progress in retinal and eye research, 34, 19–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2013.02.001
  13. Diabetic Retinopathy. op. cit. 
  14. Bahniwal, M., Little, J. P., & Klegeris, A. (2017). High Glucose Enhances Neurotoxicity and Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion by Stimulated Human Astrocytes. Current Alzheimer research, 14(7), 731–741. https://doi.org/10.2174/1567205014666170117104053
  15. Jadoon, K. A., Ratcliffe, S. H., Barrett, D. A., Thomas, E. L., Stott, C., Bell, J. D., … Tan, G. D. (2016, October 1). Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study. Retrieved from https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/39/10/1777.long
  16. Rajesh, M. (2010). op. cit. 
  17. Ban, C. R., & Twigg, S. M. (2008). Fibrosis in diabetes complications: pathogenic mechanisms and circulating and urinary markers. Vascular health and risk management, 4(3), 575–596. https://doi.org/10.2147/vhrm.s1991
  18. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2018 Aug 8). op. cit. 
  19. Tsalamandris, S., Antonopoulos, A. S., Oikonomou, E., Papamikroulis, G. A., Vogiatzi, G., Papaioannou, S., Deftereos, S., & Tousoulis, D. (2019). The Role of Inflammation in Diabetes: Current Concepts and Future Perspectives. European Cardiology, 14(1), 50–59. https://doi.org/10.15420/ecr.2018.33.1
  20. Nagarkatti, P., Pandey, R., Rieder, S. A., Hegde, V. L., & Nagarkatti, M. (2009). Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Future medicinal chemistry, 1(7), 1333–1349. https://doi.org/10.4155/fmc.09.93 
  21. Malfait, A. M., Gallily, R., Sumariwalla, P. F., Malik, A. S., Andreakos, E., Mechoulam, R., & Feldmann, M. (2000). The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(17), 9561–9566. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.160105897
  22. Piva, S. R., Susko, A. M., Khoja, S. S., Josbeno, D. A., Fitzgerald, G. K., & Toledo, F. G. (2015). Links between osteoarthritis and diabetes: implications for management from a physical activity perspective. Clinics in geriatric medicine, 31(1), 67–viii. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cger.2014.08.019
  23. Al-Goblan, A. S., Al-Alfi, M. A., & Khan, M. Z. (2014). Mechanism linking diabetes mellitus and obesity. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity: targets and therapy, 7, 587–591. https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S67400
  24. Parray, H.A., Yun, J.W. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mol Cell Biochem 416, 131–139 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-016-2702-5
  25. Rossi, F., Punzo, F., Umano, G., Argenziano, M., & Miraglia Del Giudice, E. (2018). Role of Cannabinoids in Obesity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(9), 2690. doi:10.3390/ijms19092690
  26. Rosen J, Yosipovitch G. Skin Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus. (Updated 2018 Jan 4). In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK481900/
  27. Palmieri, B., Laurino, C., & Vadalà, M. (2019). A therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. La Clinica terapeutica, 170(2), e93–e99. https://doi.org/10.7417/CT.2019.2116
  28. Iffland, Kerstin, and Franjo Grotenhermen. “An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies.” Cannabis and cannabinoid research vol. 2,1 139-154. 1 Jun. 2017, doi:10.1089/can.2016.0034
  29. “CANNABIDIOL (CBD) Critical Review Report.” World Health Organization, 2018.Parkinson’s Foundation. op. cit. 
  30. Iffland, K. op. cit. 
  31. Freedman, Daniel A, and Anup D Patel. “Inadequate Regulation Contributes to Mislabeled Online Cannabidiol Products.” Pediatric neurology briefs vol. 32 3. 18 Jun. 2018, doi:10.15844/pedneurbriefs-32-3
  32. Hu H. (1995). A review of treatment of diabetes by acupuncture during the past forty years. Journal of traditional Chinese medicine = Chung i tsa chih ying wen pan, 15(2), 145–154.
  33. Ibid. 
  34. Karunanayake, E. H., Jeevathayaparan, S., & Tennekoon, K. H. (1990). Effect of Momordica charantia fruit juice on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 30(2), 199–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(90)90008-h
  35. Pandey, A., Tripathi, P., Pandey, R., Srivatava, R., & Goswami, S. (2011). Alternative therapies useful in the management of diabetes: A systematic review. Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences, 3(4), 504–512. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.90103
  36. Ibid. 
  37. Madar Z, Abel R, Samish S, Arad J. Glucose-lowering effect of fenugreek in non-insulin dependent diabetics. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1988;42(1):51‐54.
  38. Jadoon, K. A., Tan, G. D., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2017). A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study. JCI insight, 2(12), e93760. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.93760
  39. Russo E. B. (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 4(1), 245–259. https://doi.org/10.2147/tcrm.s1928
  40. Mayo Clinic Staff. (3 Mar 2020). Diabetic Neuropathy. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetic-neuropathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20371580
  41. Xu, D. H., Cullen, B. D., Tang, M., & Fang, Y. (2020). The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in Symptomatic Relief of Peripheral Neuropathy of the Lower Extremities. Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 21(5), 390–402. https://doi.org/10.2174/1389201020666191202111534
  42. “Outbreak of Lung Injury Associated with the Use of E-Cigarette, or Vaping Products.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 25 Feb. 2020, www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease.html
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