Toxins and Their Causes

Toxins are organic poisons produced by animals, plants, or bacteria and can cause certain diseases. Research shows that toxins have become a primary cause of chronic disease. Toxins include not only metals and chemicals in the environment but also autogenously produced toxins such as those from homocysteine (an amino acid in the blood), gut bacteria and hormones that were not fully detoxified. To add to this list are what is referred to as toxins of choice such as intentional exposure to pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalates or plasticizers (used to make plastics more flexible), or mold from humid buildings. Also, some people intentionally consume toxins that include alcohol, salt, corn syrup, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and even gluten. The enormous load of all toxins that people are exposed to or intentionally consume add up may result in physiological and structural damage, and over time, may also lead to chronic conditions.

Common chronic conditions are the leading causes of mortality in developed countries and are becoming predominant in developing nations. Chronic conditions include cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, neurocognitive disorders, immune dysfunction, and cancer. Chronic disease is debilitating some economies due to upsurge in healthcare costs, persistent individual suffering, tormented families caring for afflicted loved ones, and curtailed opportunities as employees get sick and are not productive.

NDL-PCBs and PCB Congeners 126 and 153

The effects of PCBs were examined in individuals exposed to these compounds through diet, work environment, and industrial accidents. PCBs are considered a carcinogen, and they are related to the biliary tract, liver, skin, liver, and intestinal cancers. Other effects of PCBs may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, eye irritation, respiratory problems, increased susceptibility to infection, and hypothyroidism. PCB exposure may also result in menstrual irregularities and fertility decline in women. 

PCBs were used as lubricating and cooling agents in transformers and electronic equipment because of PCB’s high resistance to heat. However, PCBs do not break down in the environment and accumulate in the bodies of animals and humans. The use of PCBs was already banned by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Despite that, PCBs still persist, and they continue to  

PCBs were banned from use in the US in 1979 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, PCBs continue to leak into soil and groundwater from hazardous landfills. Since PCBs accumulate inside the bodies of living organisms, humans are exposed to the toxins from PCB whenever they consume food sourced from areas where food are considered contaminated.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a mixture of individual chemicals. They can be divided into two groups, according to their biochemical and toxicological properties: the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and the non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs). More than 90% of human exposure to NDL-PCBs is through food.

In chemistry, congener means a member of the same taxonomic genus as another organism. A study investigated the effect of two congeners of PCB, PCB153 and PCB 126, to progesterone and testosterone. PCB153 is one of the most prevalent environmental contaminants, while PCB 126 is one of the most toxic contaminants similar to dioxin. In another study, acute exposure to PCBs 126 and 153 was found to have some effects on the pituitary and thyroid hormones in adult male rats.

The PCB Toxicity Test

Symptoms of PCB exposure include fatigue, eye irritation, severe acne, rashes, obesity, allergies, liver damage, weak immune system, and some developmental disorders. The PCB profile can help determine the identity of the most toxic PCB exposure that a patient has experienced. The national reference ranges of the commonly found PCBs have also been documented to include the adverse health problems that they may cause. Levels are given both in parts per million or PPM and as lipid-adjusted amounts to allow the clinician to give the best estimate of the total body burden of these compounds.

Once PCBs enter the body, the fat cells absorb and store them. Since PCBs does not dissolve in water, they are not excreted from the body and over time, they accumulate. Polychlorinated biphenyl testing can help one determine the extent of this PCB burden.

A PCB toxicity problem affects children more than adults. A lowered immune system can lead to complications in children, such as sensitivities, allergies, and chronic infections. Still, a heavy concentration of PCB toxins in adults over time may cause impairments in the brain, nervous system, immune system, and endocrine system. PCB toxicity may also cause fertility issues.

Is CBD Toxic?

CBD is Non-Psychoactive

CBD or cannabidiol is a chemical compound that is naturally found in a cannabis plant, which may be marijuana or hemp. Hemp is predominantly CBD and contains less of tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, the intoxicating substance. Marijuana, meanwhile, contains a high content of THC, which is responsible for inducing a sense of euphoria or “high” that users experience when they smoke or consume it. Studies and research have been conducted on the subject of CBD’s non-psychoactive properties. Since 2010, researchers have confirmed the role of CBD in treating different symptoms of diseases and disorders without causing intoxication.  

CBD is Non-Addictive

The World Health Organization (WHO) released a report that demonstrates how CBD passed tests that examined whether or CBD has the potential for abuse. Volunteers were given CBD, and then they were assessed using a series of tests. WHO declared that CBD oil is not addictive since the volunteers did not manifest signs of possible abuse or dependence on CBD. The result of this investigation is excellent news for people who are skeptical and worried that CBD might be habit-forming in a destructive way.

CBD is Bi-Phasic

CBD is bi-phasic, meaning it produces unique effects for any individual user whenever the amount of CBD consumed is substantially elevated or reduced. When CBD is taken in small doses, users typically experience an energizing effect. However, when CBD is taken in high doses, the effects are comparable to that of a sedative.

Benefits of CBD

Cannabidiol has been proven to be a great medication for various health conditions. The use of CBD oil is generally safe and does not lead to dependence or tolerance towards the drug. CBD is an ideal choice for those trying to combat addictions or refrain from using addictive drugs.

One of the most popular benefits of CBD use is relief from chronic pain and inflammation. Individuals suffering from chronic pain due to fibromyalgia have experienced relief after using CBD oil. In Canada, CBD has been approved for the remedy of cancer pain and multiple sclerosis.

CBD calms epilepsy. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the prescription use of Epidiolex, a purified form of CBD oil. Epidiolex can help treat Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome and Dravet Syndrome, two rare and severe forms of epilepsy that do not respond to anti-seizure medications.

CBD, a non-psychoactive compound, can also help decrease anxiety levels in people with anxiety-related behavioral disorders. CBD’s antioxidant and neuroprotective characteristics may also reduce neurological damage caused by free radicals, thereby reducing oxidative stress. CBD is also observed to help prevent blood pressure changes due to stress. CBD also has an outstanding ability to destroy bacteria, especially drug-resistant strains. 

CBD, when used as a medication to common ailments and disorders, exhibit fewer side effects compared to conventional medications. Although more research is required into the benefits of CBD as a therapeutic agent, more people are turning to CBD to manage or alleviate their symptoms. For people with irritable bowel syndrome or IBS, CBD oil may offer a safe alternative solution. A study demonstrates that CBD can relieve some forms of constipation. The proper use of hemp seed pills may benefit those who want to avoid constipation or are hoping to use an alternative natural remedy for this digestive problem. 

The Endocannabinoid System 

Cannabinoids are compounds found in cannabis, and they have demonstrated diverse and severe effects on the body systems, which could lead to modifications of the body’s physiological functions. Cannabinoids play a critical role in the introduction of immune, respiratory, carcinogenic, and reproductive. The probable toxicity related to the prolonged use of cannabinoids works as a tumor promoter in animal models and humans. Some synthetic cannabinoids have low compatibility with CB1 or CB2 receptors, unlike Δ9-THC, which has a strong affinity towards these receptors. Cannabinoids and their derivatives have a direct or indirect interconnection with acute and long-term toxicity. 

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complicated cell-signaling system discovered by researchers exploring THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), one of the most-recognized cannabinoids. Experts are still trying to fully comprehend the ECS aside from its critical role in regulating a variety of functions and processes such as mood, memory, sleep, appetite, and reproduction. The ECS naturally occurs and is active in the body with or without the consumption of cannabis. The system’s primary components are the endocannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes.

Endocannabinoids are molecules produced by the body, and they are called endogenous cannabinoids. The two identified endocannabinoids are AEA (anandamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglyerol). They both help maintain body functions operate smoothly. However, it is difficult to determine the typical levels for each of them as the body generates them as needed.

The endocannabinoid receptors are found throughout the body. Endocannabinoids adhere to them to prompt the ECS to perform its function. Endocannabinoids can bind to either of the two main endocannabinoid receptors. CB1 receptors are mostly situated in the central nervous system, while the CB2 receptors are mostly found in the peripheral nervous system. The results of the binding of these receptors with the endocannabinoids are dependent on the location of the receptor and which endocannabinoid it attaches to. As an example, endocannabinoids might aim for CB1 receptors in a spinal nerve to alleviate pain. In another instance, endocannabinoids might target a CB2 receptor to signal inflammation, a typical indication of autoimmune disorders.

Toxicity of Cannabinoids

Short-term exposure to cannabis causes minimal toxicity, without causing death due to direct or immediate use of recreational herbal medicine. The most pronounced reported effect of short-term exposure to cannabis would be on the cardiovascular system, which demonstrates substantial elevation of heart rate and decrease in blood pressure. Also, heavy usage of cannabis may damage the intellectual and cause psychomotor function impairment stands lasting up to 48 hours after taking cannabinoids.

On the other hand, studies have shown that the extensive uses of cannabinoids have long-term effects on brain functions. Cannabis has shown to induce effects on an individual’s psychomotor performance, attitude, sleep, memory, ECG (electroencephalogram), heartbeat, and body temperature. The withdrawal symptoms of cannabis are linked to that of alcohol and opioids such as sleeplessness, anorexia, nervousness, muscular tremors, and dysphoria. The common indications also include salivation, nausea, weight loss, and loose bowel movements. 

Because of the minimal quantities of cannabinoids that are released from the fatty tissues into the bloodstream, observing cannabinoids toxicity remains to be a challenge.  Initial exposure to cannabis with a single dose or overdose produces psychological effects like anxiety, mania, fear, and illusion. Cannabinoids may also result in life-long psychotic effects that include including hallucinations which may be misdiagnosed as schizophrenia. Although the effects of cannabinoids are not life-threatening, cannabis medication should not be prescribed in these individuals, which may aggravate toxicity when used in conjunction with other drugs due to drug interactions. 

Studies into CBD’s chemical characteristics have not found any evidence of a fatal overdose. The National Cancer Institute, posted on its official website that because cannabinoid receptors, unlike opioid receptors, are not situated in the brainstem areas regulating respiration, fatal overdoses arising from excessive consumption of cannabis and cannabinoids do not occur. 

Medical Marijuana Becomes Toxic

A study was conducted on the use of medical marijuana by those whose immunity is compromised by AIDS or cancer chemotherapy. Researchers found that medical marijuana may help to alleviate symptoms of the disease or therapy.

When marijuana is burned, it produces creates toxins of combustion. The use of a vaporizer reduces the number of toxins or tars. The water pipes function as filters to the gas-phase toxins. However, water pipes also filter some of the THC or tetrahydrocannabinol content, making this strategy counterproductive. Fungal spores in marijuana may be the cause of the most considerable risk to immunocompromised patients. Several methods may sterilize fungal spores. However, pesticide residues and other contaminants may be present in marijuana sold in the market.

CBD and Liver Health

The market for products with ingredients that include cannabidiol or CBD, the non-psychoactive, pain-relieving chemical in cannabis, has been on the upsurge in recent years. CBD products are becoming increasingly popular among those who seek a natural remedy to specific disorders or ailments. However, CBD is still relatively understudied. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned the public against unscrupulous manufacturers that make claims which are not supported by scientific evidence.

A Study on Mice

A study investigated the hepatotoxicity of a cannabidiol-rich cannabis extract in a mouse model. The researchers’ findings suggest that excessive consumption of CBD might lead to liver damage has caused alarm among cannabis proponents. However, some experts argue that the study conducted on a small sample of mice model does not provide substantial support to that claim.

There is a lack of complete and extensive toxicological studies on the safe use of CBD. These studies are needed for marketing CBD and products containing CBD. Researchers from the University of Arkansas examined some of the effects of administering various doses of CBD on a group of 8-week-old mice. The mice that were given large doses of CBD, equivalent to giving 200 mg of CBD in humans. Researchers found that while the mice exhibited tolerance of these high doses, the animals also demonstrated apparent signs of liver toxicity. Moreover, repeated doses of small quantities of CBD resulted in liver swelling and damage. The low dose that was given to the mice is equivalent to 50 mg CBD in humans.

A 200 mg dose is not applicable to most real-life situations. However, the data provided critical information concerning the possible consequences of CBD overdose. The authors of the study published in the journal Molecules also explained that the data they gathered during the experiment could be used as the basis for doses needed for further toxicity-related studies.

However, a big caveat to this study is that the mice were given doses that in humans were equivalent to the maximum recommended dose of the drug Epidiolex. Epidiolex is a specific prescription drug that is administered to patients to treat seizures.

To put the results of the study in perspective, the CBD dosage that was given to the mice in the study is comparable to over 1,300 mg of CBD per day for an adult with a bodyweight of 150 pounds. This dose is much higher than the typical daily dose of typical CBD oil users. Most people maintain a regular dose of 10 mg to 80 mg per day, with slightly higher doses for insomnia and therapeutic effects. Currently, there is no federal regulation for many CBD products sold in the market, so one cannot rely on the contents of a substance as described on the product label. The FDA sent warning letters to manufacturers that sell their products with inaccurate levels of compound that do not match what is listed on the packaging. 

The label on the packaging of Epidiolex gives a warning for liver injury. It explicitly states that the patient or user should monitor his or her liver enzyme levels. 5% to 20% of patients in clinical trials developed a substantial increase in liver enzymes, and some patients were withdrawn from the experiment. Researchers concluded that anyone consuming CBD consistently and in extreme doses might eventually experience liver damage or liver disease. 

On the other hand, there are studies that corroborate the fact that cannabis may be beneficial in treating liver damage.  

Clinical Studies on Cannabis vs Liver Damage

Study shows that cannabis use is linked to the reduced pervasiveness of progressive stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The study was conducted to determine the effects of cannabis use on the occurrence of liver disease in individuals who consume alcohol in excessive quantities.  While cannabis has exhibited anti-inflammatory characteristics, the connection between CBD use in conjunction with alcohol and the development of liver disease remains unclear. 

A similar study shows the association of marijuana use with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among adults in the United States. Researchers concluded that contemporary marijuana use might favorably impact the development of NAFLD. Current or active marijuana use was related to a lower risk of NAFLD, independent of metabolic risk factors. These data suggest that cannabinoids should be explored as a probable strategy for the treatment or prevention of NAFLD. However, until further evidence is gathered, no recommendations can be made regarding the clinical application of marijuana in patients with NAFLD. 

In another study, patients maintaining cannabis consumption after 3 years presented the smallest increase in (fatty liver index) FLI over time. The increment was significantly smaller than that of the FLI of people who discontinued their cannabis consumption. Researchers concluded that cannabis consumption might produce a therapeutic effect against liver steatosis, probably through weight management.

Study shows that the use of cannabinoids with Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) may have a possible therapeutic effect. In a mouse model, the animals demonstrated reduced inflammation, oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis (accumulation of fat in the liver) with cannabis use

Safety Concerns with CBD

Patients should always be wary of making any changes in their diet, lifestyle or medications, including CBD. However, there are situations when CBD may not be conducive to a healthy treatment program.

CBD is still unregulated, and its proper dosage is still not determined. More studies need to be conducted, and the investigation has to be done on more subjects in clinical trials for extended periods. Most studies were conducted on a small number of individuals for only two weeks long. For example, several aspects of the investigations on CBD’s toxicity are still scarce. Studies on CBD’s interactions with other pharmaceutical drugs in clinical set-ups have to be performed. Still, there is data that suggests that CBD is well-tolerated up to 1,500 mg daily.

Compared to the adverse effects of THC, the side effects of CBD oil are milder and rarer. One may experience a mild headache or feel a bit lethargic as the effect of CBD wears off. To avoid these undesirable effects, one has to lower his or her CBD dosage. However, one must refrain from changing his or her brand of CBD product because it makes the effects more unpredictable. The typical side effects of CBD oil are dizziness, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, diarrhea, and changes in appetite. Still, CBD dosage is unique for every individual.

Variation in THC Content

CBD oil, in its pure form, is an excellent medication. However, the exact chemical structure of the different CBD products available in the market is often inconsistent, posing a threat to human health. This variation in chemical composition is due to the presence of THC or Tetrahydrocannabinol, along with several contaminants. While the benefits from CBD use may be derived from initial use, it is probable that with prolonged use, the medical conditions being treated may further aggravate because of the THC content. It is also possible that a patient may develop additional issues that were not present before.


Another cause of concern is the rampant cases of mislabeling of DBD products in the market. According to a research paper, almost 70% of all CBD products sold online are not labeled accurately. Some products may contain higher traces of THC than what is legally permitted, which is only up to 0.3% THC content in industrial-grade CBD or hemp oil.


The presence of contaminants in many CBD products also poses some health hazards unbeknownst to CBD enthusiasts. Some studies have pointed out that cannabis plants from unregulated sources often carry contaminants that are detrimental to human health like pesticides and metal particles. 

Industrial and agricultural pollution may cause contamination, as well. Common heavy metals found in soils include nickel, zinc, manganese and copper. However, more harmful metals like mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium can also be found in high concentrations in the soil. These contaminants are passed on from the soil to the plants.

Sample Cases of Contamination

Sometimes, contaminants are deliberately added by manufacturers to increase the yield, weight, or potency of the product. On other occasions, these contaminants accidentally get mixed in the products due to carelessness and the lack of strict regulations regarding the production of CBD products.

In one case, a paper from the Netherlands Ministry of Environment and Health recently revealed that of all the cannabis sold in coffee shops in their country, at least 90% contains traces of illegal crop protection products, such as pesticides.

In another case, pesticides were found in cannabis marketed under state law in California and medicinal cannabis from licensed producers in Canada.

Unintentional contaminants like heavy metals, molds, and bacteria, have also found to be mixed with some CBD products.  Results from a report suggest that gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination.

Gamma irradiation is a physical or chemical process of sterilization that destroys bacteria by breaking down bacterial DNA, preventing bacterial division. The gamma irradiation sterilization method does not involve adequate energy to cause the treated products to become radioactive. The process only harms the microorganisms on the products. Moreover, this decontamination process does not rely on humidity, temperature, or pressure and can be practical to use on packaged goods.

Interaction with Other Medications

CBD may interact with other prescription medications that one may be taking with it. Although in some cases, CBD has been seen to boost the therapeutic effects of some prescription drugs, it is still unsafe to take CBD in conjunction with other drugs for the treatment of any disease. The cause of this concern stems from the fact that the CYP450 liver enzyme, which metabolizes these drugs, is also the same enzyme that breaks down CBD in the bloodstream. There are risks involved when high levels of concentration of these drugs accumulate in the bloodstream, causing unwarranted side effects of drug interactions or a potential overdose.

Drugs that need the CYP450 enzyme to metabolize include antihistamines, steroids, antibiotics, anesthetics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, anti-seizures, and antipsychotics. These drugs may not always react adversely with cannabidiol oil, but precaution is still advised.

CBD and CYP450

CBD and other plant cannabinoids have the potential to interact with many pharmaceuticals by impeding the functions of cytochrome P450. This significant enzyme group metabolizes most of the drugs that the body consumes, including more than 60 percent of medicines in the market.

In a study, researchers found evidence to suggest that at sufficient dosages, CBD would temporarily neutralize cytochrome P450 enzymes. When these enzymes are deactivated, the breakdown of a wide variety of compounds, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is also altered.

However, Dr Kazuhito Watanabe, in a presentation that he made at the 2015 International Cannabinoid Research Society convention, indicated that cannabidiol might induce or meaning intensify the activity of some cytochrome P450 enzymes. Based on the evidence gathered in both reports, one may conclude that CBD may either strengthen or weaken the metabolism of other drugs, depending on the particular drug used and the dosages applied.

The Fear of CBD Overdose

An individual cannot overdose on CBD, and no evidence has ever suggested that one can overdose on the intoxicating cannabinoid THC. A World Health Organization report concluded that CBD is “generally well tolerated with a good safety profile.” Human subjects in the studies have reported some side effects, such as drowsiness, lack of appetite, diarrhea, lethargy, convulsions, vomiting, and abnormal tests results on liver function.

So far, there has been no apparent limits to how much CBD is too much CBD. Therefore, the best advice for patients who are unsure of CBD dosage is to start with a minimal dose, gradually increasing to a higher dose over time while observing how the body reacts to CBD. Effects that were reported in relation to CBD use could have been induced by the adverse effects of an interaction between CBD and the individual’s existing medications. Once an individual reaches a level that makes him or her feel significantly better, that dosage could be his or her maximum dose. However, if one begins to experience a worsening of health conditions, he or she should scale back the dosage a little, as the optimal dosage could have been already reached. 

Factors to Consider When Purchasing CBD Products 

Although CBD oil is non-intoxicating and generally safe, one still needs to take precautionary measures when consuming it. Being well-informed of one’s CBD product source, as well as limiting oneself to a particular dosage, is crucial to benefit from CBD fully. Not every CBD vendor is trustworthy and reliable. Neither is CBD legal in all places. Several regulations and conditions apply in some states with regards to CBD use. There are several factors to consider to ensure the safety of the CBD products purchased.

  1. One must research on the exact legal stipulations applicable to CBD in his or her area.
  2. Buyers of CBD products must only purchase from legitimate and reliable big brands.
  3. When buying from an online store, the buyer must research product reviews. When buying from a physical store or dispensary, he or she must check whether the store is authorized by the government to sell CBD.
  4. One important thing to look for in CBD products is certification codes. Several certification authorities approve certain products only after some thorough screening tests. 
  5. Buyers must also compare company claims about their products’ potency with that of the third-party lab reports. 
  6. Consulting a trusted medical professional who is experienced in CBD use is ideal before one purchases his or her first bottle of CBD. 

CBD Dosage Guidelines

Doctors advise patients who are about to commence a CBD therapy, to start with a small dose. Doses of up to 1500 mg daily are relatively safe and beneficial for humans. Doses of up to 300 mg a day can be used without any health risks for up to 6 months. Doses of 1200 mg to 1500 mg a day can be safely consumed for up to 4 weeks or one month. In sublingual applications, 2.5 mg a day of under-the-tongue sprays can be safely used for up to 2 weeks.

Small Doses vs Large Doses

Doses of 1 mg to 20 mg are considered small doses, while anything above 50 milligrams is safely considered a large dose. Still, the size of the dosage is dependent on the user’s body weight, physical condition, and the period of usage, among other factors. Someone may need at least 50 mg of the CBD to experience any therapeutic effect at all. In such a user, sedative effects may be felt only after consuming a dosage over 100 mg. However, clinical tests on humans are conducted with a higher dose of CBD (up to 1000 mg), with almost no side effects at all. Results of a study provided evidence that CBD dosage of up to 1,500 mg a day is well-tolerated by humans. 

Even when consumed in high amounts, there has been no reported incident that one can overdose on CBD. CBD does not interact with the brain receptors that control heart rate and breathing. However, if there are any side effects of CBD overdose, they are very minimal and of minor importance. Most of the common side effects are drowsiness, low blood pressure and dry mouth.

CBD Oil for Pets

CBD oil is considered safe for pets like dogs and cats. CBD has been broadly tested on both animals and humans in clinical trials, and it is widely used as a therapeutic supplement. While there has been no official ruling from the U. S. Food and Drug Administration on CBD, there is no corroboration that CBD is detrimental to humans or animals. One should keep in mind that CBD is a natural cannabinoid. Hence, the bodies of pets, such as dogs and cats, naturally produce their own cannabinoids to interact with the endocannabinoid system or ECS. Both CBD and a dog or cat’s naturally produced endocannabinoids are capable of interacting with the ECS. Regulation of the ECS would help maintain the optimum level of homeostasis (stability or balance within the body) in dogs.

CBD products in different forms can be taken by dogs or cats. There are CBD oil drops, which can be added to pet food or water or directly in the pet’s mouth. CBD-infused dog treats and CBD-infused cat treats are also available, as well as CBD capsules available for pets. The capsules make travelling with pets hassle-free, and they are perfect for fast, accurate dosing.

CBD is not psychoactive, so it would not induce a high in one’s pets. There is no known toxic dose of CBD and no reports of any people or animals overdosing on CBD. Like any supplement, there is a point at which administering additional CBD would yield no added benefits advantages. It is always recommended, therefore, to give a dog small amounts of CBD first and then monitor the effects before increasing the dosage. CBD dosage is primarily given to pets according to the animal’s body weight. However, the dose may also be determined by the severity of the symptoms or disease being treated.


The key to determining one’s CBD dosage is the careful observation of how the substance impacts one’s well-being.  Everybody is unique. People may have different reactions to CBD, depending on the quantity consumed. Since researchers have not identified any precise doses or limits, the best way to commence one’s CBD regimen is to start with a low dose. As one gets accustomed to the effects of CBD, a gradual increment in doses may be applied until one experiences the full benefits of CBD. A careful examination of how one’s body reacts to CBD must be noted. Consulting with a medical professional experienced with cannabis would be best. 

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