Can CBD help support thyroid health?

  • A 2015 study published in BioMed Research supported evidence that cannabinoid receptors interfere with molecular pathways, making them potential therapeutic targets to inhibit the progression of human malignant and benign thyroid lesions (1).
  • Evidence from other research also suggests that CBD and other cannabinoids can be useful in managing symptoms commonly linked to thyroid disorders, such as pain, depression, dry skin, inflammation, and anxiety (2).  
  • While it is not clear how CBD’s influence on cannabinoid receptors may affect conditions like hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, the presence of these receptors and their impact on thyroid health and function suggest CBD may possibly have therapeutic applications (3).
  • However, CBD has been shown to interact with other drugs and alter how the body metabolizes certain medications, as a 2017 research on rodents revealed (4). Thus, consult with a doctor experienced in cannabis use before starting a CBD regimen or combining it with current prescription thyroid medications.

Best CBD Oils for Thyroid Health

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
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    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsOrganic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price Range$89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsOrganic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forNew CBD users
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Score breakdown
    Value
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  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsFull Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take itUnder the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursNatural
    Price Range$99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsNo additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    AllergensNot specified
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forHealth-conscious persons
    Countries servedUSA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Check Latest Prices
Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Customer Service
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take itUsing 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilCoconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price RangeSingle Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsContaminant-free
    AllergensVegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forPatients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures Products
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Plenty of concentrations to choose from for all people with various kinds of needs
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    300 mg - 7500 mg / 30 ml bottle, 1000 mg - 1500 mg / 60 ml bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    30 ml: 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml), 750 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 50 mg per dropper (1ml), 3000 mg - 100 mg per dropper (1ml), 5000 mg - 166.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 7500 mg - 250 mg per dropper (1ml), 60 ml: 1000 mg - 16.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug TestContaining less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    FlavoursNatural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range30 ml Bottles: $29.99 for 300 mg, $69.99 for 750 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg, $149.99 for 3000 mg, $239.99 for 5000 mg, $339.99 for 7500 mg 60 ml Bottles: $74.99 for 1000 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    30 ml - $0.05 - $0.10, 60 ml - $0.06 - $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forCBD users with different needs
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why Some People Are Using CBD for Thyroid Disorders

Although the studies on cannabinoids and thyroid are limited, so far, findings suggest that CBD (cannabidiol) may be beneficial for promoting healthy thyroid conditions (5)

In a 2015 study published in BioMed Research, researchers examined the role of the endocannabinoid system and the significance of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 receptor and CB2 receptor) in human malignant and benign thyroid lesions (6).

The results supported evidence that both receptors interfere with molecular pathways and influence the formation of thyroid tumors. Thus, these receptors could be considered as potential therapeutic targets to inhibit tumor progression.

While it is not clear how CBD’s influence on cannabinoid receptors may affect conditions like hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, the presence of these receptors and their impact on thyroid health and function suggest CBD may possibly have therapeutic applications (7).

Evidence from other research also suggests that CBD and other cannabinoids can be useful in managing symptoms commonly linked to thyroid disorders, such as pain, depression, dry skin, inflammation, and anxiety. 

Researchers of a study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine indicated that the administration of CBD and its modified derivatives significantly suppressed chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rodents (8).

A study published in Neurotherapeutics in 2015 examined CBD as a potential treatment for anxiety disorders (9).

In a 2018 review of existing studies published in Frontiers in Immunology, the authors concluded that CBD has anti-stress effects, which may reduce depression related to stress (10). 

The authors of a 2019 study published in Clinical Therapeutics found that the topical administration of CBD ointment improved the quality of life in individuals with skin disorders, especially those that are linked to inflammation (11). 

How CBD Oil Works to Help Support Thyroid Health

The endocrine system is a series of glands in the body that produce and secrete hormones for a wide range of functions

These hormones control many different body processes, including respiration, metabolism, reproduction, sensory perception, growth, and movement (12).

Research published by the Polish Society of Endocrinology in 2018 suggests interrelations between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and the activity of the endocrine system (13). 

The ECS, a communication network vital to overall well-being and health, is responsible for regulating balance in many bodily functions, including thyroid function.

To understand how CBD works to help with thyroid health, it is essential that one understands how the ECS works. 

The therapeutic effects of cannabinoids, such as CBD, are realized by their interaction with the body’s ECS and its specialized cannabinoid receptors. 

Scientists in a study published in the European Journal of Endocrinology found that there are functional CB1 receptors on the thyroid of animal models. These CB1 receptors modulate the release of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) (14). 

Each type of thyroid hormone plays an important role in the regulation of body weight, energy levels, internal temperature, skin, hair, and nail growth (15). 

Cannabinoid receptors have also been found within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The PVN is an area of the brain that sends signals to the pituitary gland nearby that then releases different types of stimulating hormones that travel in the bloodstream to organs such as the thyroid, gonads, and adrenal glands regulating these organs’ activities (16).

Meanwhile, CBD acts indirectly against cannabinoid agonists, which are substances that bind to a receptor and cause the same action as the substances that typically attach to the receptor.

CBD also interacts with several other receptors in the body, such as the 5-HT1A receptor, which is linked to serotonin, a neurotransmitter found to be a contributor to feelings of well-being. It is through this interaction that these cannabinoids promote healing and balance (17). 

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Thyroid Health

 The Pros 

  • Studies mentioned previously demonstrate CBD’s therapeutic benefits in helping alleviate symptoms of thyroid disorders, such as pain, depression, dry skin, inflammation, and anxiety.  
  • CBD is non-addictive, says Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) in a 2015 article (26). This characteristic makes CBD safe for daily intake (18). 
  • CBD “is generally well tolerated with a good safety profile,” as the World Health Organization (WHO) stated in a critical review (19). 
  • CBD oil may be purchased without a prescription in locations where they are legally available.

The Cons

  • Studies are too limited to determine whether or not CBD is an effective treatment for conditions other than the ones approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  • As with the use of any natural chemical compound, there are risks involved in using CBD. According to the Mayo Clinic, possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, diarrhea, fatigue, and reduced appetite (20).
  • CBD has been shown to interact with other drugs and alter how the body metabolizes certain medications, as a 2017 research revealed (21). Consult with a doctor experienced in cannabis use before starting a CBD regimen or combining it with current prescription thyroid medications.
  • Dr. Doris Trauner, professor of neurosciences and pediatrics at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and a physician at San Diego’s Rady Children’s Hospital, cautions that CBD products marketed online and in dispensaries are mostly unregulated (22).

The lack of regulation makes it difficult to determine whether the CBD gummies, tinctures, patches, balms, and gelcaps contain what the product label claims.

A 2107 review published in the Journal of the American Medical Association revealed labeling inaccuracies among CBD products. Some products had less CBD than stated, while others had more (23).

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Thyroid Disorders

According to the American Thyroid Association (ATA), people with thyroid disease choose complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to help them cope with the side effects of medication and treatments, including dry mouth, fatigue, weight gain, and mental fogginess.

People with thyroid disorders also use CAM to ease the stress and anxiety of medication and treatments or worries about having a lifelong diagnosis (24).

Adjusting lifestyle habits that reduce stress, strengthen immunity, and prevent inflammation may help promote thyroid health.

  • Physical activities like exercise improve the ability to sleep, which in turn reduces stress, says the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA) (25). 

             The ATA, meanwhile, suggests Pilates, yoga, and massage reduce stress (26).  

  • Improve overall immunity to fight environmental toxins. Maintaining a diet that includes plenty of vegetables and fruits, as well as taking steps to avoid infection, such as frequent washing of hands and cooking meats thoroughly, also helps strengthen immunity.
  • Consume more anti-inflammatory foods like berries, fatty fish, broccoli, avocados, turmeric, and olive oil. Many of the causes of thyroid conditions are associated with autoimmunity and inflammation. 

CBD oil may help with the lifestyle adjustments mentioned, as it has been shown to alleviate stress, enhance immunity, and reduce inflammation.

  • A 2019 research in The Permanente Journal suggests that CBD helps with anxiety and sleep problems (27). 
  • Published in Frontiers in Immunology, a 2017 study showed that phytocannabinoids deeply influence the immune functions of the body (28).
  • Data from a 2018 study demonstrated CBD’s anti-inflammatory property (29). The results of the said review, which focused on pain and inflammation treatment, were published in Molecules

How to Choose the Right CBD for Thyroid Health

Studies cited previously show that CBD is not the only cannabinoid found in cannabis that can help promote thyroid health. Hence, when choosing a CBD product, opt for one that contains full-spectrum CBD oil.

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all phytonutrients from hemp, including trace amounts of THC, terpenes, flavonoids, amino acids, and essential oils. These compounds work together to intensify the therapeutic benefits of each cannabinoid, resulting in the “entourage effect”.

Those with allergies to THC may opt to use broad-spectrum CBD oil, which is like full-spectrum CBD but without the THC that makes the user high.

However, regardless of the form of CBD product of choice, careful consideration must still be employed in selecting the best CBD oil to help with the immune system, inflammation, pain, and anxiety.

The following factors are essential to ensure the safety and reliability of the CBD products purchased:

  1. Research on the exact legal stipulations applicable to CBD in the area where it would be bought and used.
  2. Purchase only high-quality CBD products from legitimate and reliable brands. The majority of companies that manufacture the best CBD oil products grow their hemp from their own farm, or they purchase from licensed hemp producers.
  3. Research product reviews before buying from an online store. When purchasing from a physical store or dispensary, check whether the store is authorized by the government to sell CBD.
  4. One important thing to look for in CBD products is certification codes. Several certification authorities approve certain products only after some thorough screening tests. 
  5. Compare company claims about their products’ potency with that of the third-party lab reports. Look for a certificate of analysis for every product purchased.
  6. Consulting with a trusted medical professional experienced in CBD use is ideal before one purchases his or her first bottle of CBD. 

CBD Dosage for Thyroid Health

There is no recommended CBD dosage specific for thyroid disorders or any other diseases. 

According to an article written by Peter Grinspoon, MD, on Harvard Health in August 2019, experts do not know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition (30).  

Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies, effective doses cannot be determined. Also, Grinspoon says given that CBD is currently mostly available as an unregulated supplement, it is difficult to know what the consumers are getting. 

Grinspoon’s advice to those looking to try and purchase CBD products is to talk with their doctor to make sure that taking CBD would not cause adverse interactions with other medications that are currently taken.

In a 2017 study, researchers said that chronic CBD use and large doses of up to 1500 mg a day had been repeatedly shown to be well tolerated by humans (31).  

While CBD is considered generally safe, as the 2011 review in the Current Drug Safety Journal suggests, the long-term effects are yet to be examined further (32). 

How to Take CBD Oil for Thyroid Health

There are different ways to take CBD oil to manage symptoms commonly associated with thyroid disorders, such as pain, depression, anxiety, dry skin, and inflammation. 

The delivery method an individual chooses for taking CBD depends on one’s preference and lifestyle.

CBD oil capsules and edibles, such as brownies, gummies, and lozenges, are a convenient and straightforward way to take CBD oil, especially for beginners.

This format is easy to work into a routine, and the dose is consistent. Depending on the metabolism of an individual, the effects can last between 6 and 12 hours. Thus, one dose is probably all that is needed during the day.

CBD oil tinctures or drops are a practical option for those who seek fast results and maximum dosage control.

Tinctures and drops may be administered sublingually (under the tongue), through which the CBD oil is absorbed directly into the bloodstream. 

Place the desired quantity of drops under the tongue using a dropper, and then let the CBD oil stay in place for at least 60 seconds. Once 60 seconds have passed, swallow the CBD oil.

Sublingual application allows for results to be experienced within 30 to 60 minutes after its use, and the effects can be felt for 4 to 6 hours.

In a 2010 review, published in the International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, researchers found that peak blood levels of most substances given sublingually are achieved in 10 to 15 minutes, which is faster than when those same drugs are ingested orally (33).

Topicals, like CBD creams, lotions, and patches may be applied to a target area on the skin to address dryness and other skin problems.

Look for keywords on the product labels that indicate that the product uses nano technology, encapsulation, or micellization of CBD. These words indicate that their solution can carry CBD through the dermal layers, rather than just staying on the surface of the skin.

Vaping CBD is also a preferred method for some people. However, vaping may cause lung problems (34). Thus, smoking medical cannabis or medical marijuana may not be an option for others.

The Thyroid and Its Functions

The thyroid is the small butterfly-shaped gland found near the throat. The thyroid gland releases thyroid hormones, like thyroxine (T4) and , triiodothyronine (T3) that regulate the way the body uses energy. 

The thyroid plays an essential role in regulating body weight, body temperature, muscle strength, and even mood (35).

The thyroid also controls metabolism and impacts the nervous system, digestive tract, cardiovascular system, appetite, hair, skin, and nail growth.

In addition, thyroid activity influences heart rate, muscle functions, and brain development, particularly during infancy.

Thyroid Disorders

The thyroid is sensitive to deficiencies in nutrients like iodine, zinc, and selenium, as well as specific environmental contaminants, which can cause it to over function or under function (36). 

Also, the immune system can start attacking the thyroid gland, resulting in autoimmune thyroid conditions, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease.

Thyroid problems include the following (37):

  • Thyroid nodules, which are small lumps that may cause excessive hormone production
  • Hyperthyroidism-excess thyroid hormone production
  • Hypothyroidism-low levels of thyroid hormone production
  • Goiter, which is a swelling of the thyroid
  • Thyroid storm, which is a rare type of hyperthyroidism
  • Thyroid cancer

When thyroid hormone release is too much or too little, the results can be damaging to organ functions and can impact one’s health and well-being.

It can be challenging to detect and identify a specific disorder as thyroid conditions can cause several problems related to bodily functions.

However, specific tests are available to check for thyroid imbalances. These procedures include biopsies and imaging scans, such as ultrasound and iodine scans. Blood tests that check for healthy levels of T3, T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) can also assess thyroid imbalances.

A TSH is a blood test that measures the amount of thyroxine (T4) that the thyroid is being signaled to make.

Graves’ Disease (Hyperthyroidism)

Graves’ disease is named after Dr. Robert J. Graves, who first described it in a patient in 1835.

Graves’ disease is a form of autoimmune thyroid disease that causes hyperthyroidism, which is a condition when the thyroid gland generates too much thyroid hormones. Graves’ disease is usually the underlying cause of hyperthyroidism.

Typical symptoms of this thyroid disorder include goiter, fast and irregular heartbeat, diarrhea, irritability or nervousness, muscle weakness or tiredness, trembling hands, trouble sleeping, and weight loss (38). 

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis (Hypothyroidism)

Also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto thyroiditis, Hashimoto’s disease is a common cause of hypothyroid symptoms. Most patients are middle-aged women, although the disease can affect anyone at any age (39).

This autoimmune thyroid disorder, which was first described by the Japanese physician Hakaru Hashimoto in 1912, triggers the immune system to attack and reduce thyroid function, impeding its hormone production. 

As symptoms are mild, one may not be able to recognize that he or she has this disease. These symptoms include constipation, dry skin, fatigue, intolerance to cold temperatures, irregular menstrual cycles, weight gain, hair loss, changes in body temperature, and muscle aches, tenderness, and stiffness (40).

Levothyroxine is a thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism. It is also used with radioactive iodine therapy and surgery to treat thyroid cancer (41). 

Levothyroxine works by replacing thyroid hormones usually produced by the body.

Without thyroid hormones, the body cannot function properly, which may result in slow growth, slow speech, lack of energy, thick skin, increased sensitivity to cold, muscle and joint pain, eye problems, and depression, among other problems.

When taken correctly, levothyroxine reverses these symptoms and eventually treats underactive thyroid issues (42).

The Thyroid Antibodies Test

A thyroid antibody test is used to diagnose autoimmune disorders of the thyroid. This test measures the level of thyroid antibodies in the blood (43).

A doctor who suspects that an individual has symptoms of a thyroid problem, which may be caused by Hashimoto disease or Grave’s disease, may recommend this test. 

Conclusion

Due to its properties, CBD (cannabidiol) allows individuals an alternative option for treating symptoms of various conditions, including thyroid disorders.

A properly adjusted dose of thyroid hormone is essential in dealing with hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). Adequate nutrition and a healthy lifestyle can lead to a reduction in symptoms.

CBD oil may also help treat these symptoms and assist the body in regulating its functions. However, CBD for thyroid conditions is an area that still necessitates more research.

A consultation with a doctor is excellent advice to those interested in trying CBD. Making changes to one’s health care regimen without the supervision of a trusted medical professional is not recommended. Doctors also have to be informed if one is already taking thyroid medication or any other prescription medications. 


  1. Lakiotaki E, Giaginis C, Tolia M, et al. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:839403. doi:10.1155/2015/839403.
  2. Xiong W, Cui T, Cheng K, et al. Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors. J Exp Med. 2012;209(6):1121–1134. doi:10.1084/jem.20120242;  Crippa JA, Guimarães FS, Campos AC, Zuardi AW. Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age. Front Immunol. 2018;9:2009. Published 2018 Sep 21. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009; Palmieri B et al. A therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. Clin Ter. 2019 Mar-Apr;170(2):e93-e99. doi: 10.7417/CT.2019.2116. DOI: 10.7417/CT.2019.2116.
  3. ECHO. (2017, Sept 13). Can CBD Help with Thyroid Disorders? Retrieved from https://echoconnection.org/can-cbd-help-thyroid-disorders/.
  4. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2(1):139–154. Published 2017 Jun 1. DOI:10.1089/can.2016.0034.
  5. .ECHO. (2017, Sept 13). Can CBD Help with Thyroid Disorders? Retrieved from https://echoconnection.org/can-cbd-help-thyroid-disorders/.
  6. Lakiotaki E, Giaginis C, Tolia M, et al. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:839403. doi:10.1155/2015/839403.
  7. ECHO. op. cit.
  8. Xiong W, Cui T, Cheng K, et al. Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors. J Exp Med. 2012;209(6):1121–1134. doi:10.1084/jem.20120242.
  9. Blessing EM, Steenkamp MM, Manzanares J, Marmar CR. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015;12(4):825–836. doi:10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1. 
  10. Crippa JA, Guimarães FS, Campos AC, Zuardi AW. Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age. Front Immunol. 2018;9:2009. Published 2018 Sep 21. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009.
  11. Palmieri B et al. A therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. Clin Ter. 2019 Mar-Apr;170(2):e93-e99. doi: 10.7417/CT.2019.2116. DOI: 10.7417/CT.2019.2116.
  12. Hormone Health Network. The Endocrine System. Retrieved from https://www.hormone.org/what-is-endocrinology/the-endocrine-system.
  13. Borowska M et al. The effects of cannabinoids on the endocrine system. Endokrynol Pol. 2018;69(6):705-719. doi: 10.5603/EP.a2018.0072. DOI: 10.5603/EP.a2018.0072.
  14. Porcella A et al. Evidence for functional CB1 cannabinoid receptor expressed in the rat thyroid. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002 Aug;147(2):255-61. DOI: 10.1530/eje.0.1470255.
  15. https://www.hormone.org/your-health-and-hormones/glands-and-hormones-a-to-z/hormones/thyroid-hormones.
  16. Deli L, Wittmann G, Kalló I, et al. Type 1 cannabinoid receptor-containing axons innervate hypophysiotropic thyrotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons. Endocrinology. 2009;150(1):98–103. doi:10.1210/en.2008-0330.
  17. ECHO. (2017, March 29). What Are the Differences Between CBD and THC? Retrieved from https://echoconnection.org/differences-cbd-thc/.
  18. Nora Volkow. NIDA. Researching Marijuana for Therapeutic Purposes: The Potential Promise of Cannabidiol (CBD). National Institute on Drug Abuse website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/noras-blog/2015/07/researching-marijuana-therapeutic-purposes-potential-promise-cannabidiol-cbd. July 20, 2015. Accessed January 31, 2020.
  19. Expert Committee on Drug Dependence Fortieth Meeting. Cannabidiol (CBD) Critical Review Report. June 2018.
  20. Bauer, B. (2018, Dec 20). What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use? Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700.
  21. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F. op. cit.
  22. Peachman, RB. (2019, Feb 26). Can CBD Help Your Child? Retrieved from https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/can-cbd-help-your-child/.
  23. Bonn-Miller MO, Loflin MJE, Thomas BF, Marcu JP, Hyke T, Vandrey R. Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online. JAMA. 2017;318(17):1708–1709. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.11909.
  24. The American Thyroid Association. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease (CAM). Retrieved from https://www.thyroid.org/thyroid-disease-cam/.
  25. The Anxiety and Depression Association of America. Physical Activity Reduces Stress. Retrieved from https://adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/related-illnesses/other-related-conditions/stress/physical-activity-reduces-st.
  26. The American Thyroid Association. op. cit.
  27. Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. 2019;23:18–041. doi:10.7812/TPP/18-041.
  28. Oláh A, Szekanecz Z, Bíró T. Targeting Cannabinoid Signaling in the Immune System: “High”-ly Exciting Questions, Possibilities, and Challenges. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1487. Published 2017 Nov 10. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.01487.
  29. Bruni N, Della Pepa C, Oliaro-Bosso S, Pessione E, Gastaldi D, Dosio F. Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules. 2018;23(10):2478. Published 2018 Sep 27. doi:10.3390/molecules23102478.
  30. Grinspoon, P. (2018, Aug 24). Cannabidiol (CBD) — what we know and what we don’t. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476.
  31. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F. op. cit.
  32. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. 2011 Sep 1;6(4):237-49.
  33. Narang, N. and Sharma, J. (2010, Dec 08). Sublingual Mucosa as A Route for Systemic Drug Delivery. https://innovareacademics.in/journal/ijpps/Vol3Suppl2/1092.pdf.
  34. Shmerling, R. (2019, Dec 10). Can vaping damage your lungs? What we do (and don’t) know. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/can-vaping-damage-your-lungs-what-we-do-and-dont-know-2019090417734
  35. MedlinePlus. (2020, Feb 26). Thyroid Antibodies. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/thyroid-antibodies/
  36. Mederi Center. Natural Strategies to Maximize Thyroid Function (Part 2 of 3). Retrieved from https://medericenter.org/the-mederi-blog/natural-strategies-to-maximize-thyroid-function-part-2-of-3.html
  37. MedlinePlus. (2018, June 13). Thyroid Diseases. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/thyroiddiseases.html 
  38. NIDDK. (2017, Sept). Graves’ Disease. Retrieved from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/graves-disease#symptoms.
  39. Mayo Clinic. (2017, Nov. 8). Hashimoto’s disease. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hashimotos-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20351855.
  40. Ibid. 
  41. MedlinePlus. (2019, Feb 15). Levothyroxine. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682461.html.
  42. Ibid. 
  43. MedlinePlus. (2020, Feb 26). Thyroid Antibodies. op. cit.

More Info

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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number:           510

CCOHS Chemical Name:   Iodine

Synonyms:

Elemental iodine

Iode

Chemical Name French:    Iode

Chemical Name Spanish:   Yodo

CAS Registry Number:      7553-56-2

RTECS Number(s):           NN1575000

EU EINECS/ELINCS Number:         231-442-4

Chemical Family: Inorganic halogen compound / inorganic iodine compound / elemental iodine / molecular iodine

Molecular Formula:          I2

Structural Formula:          I-I

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:

Solid iodine is greyish-black to purple with a metallic luster. It has a characteristic, irritating odour.

Odour Threshold:

No information available

Warning Properties:

Insufficient information for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:

The information in this record applies only to elemental iodine. For information on specific iodine compounds, refer to individual CHEMINFO records.

Uses and Occurrences:

Ingredient in germicides, antiseptics and other medicinal preparations. In some areas, iodine is added to swimming and drinking water as a disinfectant. Also used as a reagent in research and analytical chemistry. In industry, iodine is used to prepare other iodine-containing compounds.

SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:

Iodine vapour is a severe irritant (more irritating than the vapours of bromine or chlorine). Occupational reports indicate that concentrations of 0.1 ppm are tolerable, however work is difficult at 0.15 to 0.20 ppm and concentrations of 1 ppm are highly irritating.(5)

Symptoms include tightness in the chest, sore throat, and headache. Severe exposures result in symptoms such as airway constriction, shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing, accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) and death.(5) The development of pulmonary edema could be delayed several hours.

Skin Contact:

Crystalline iodine or strong solutions of iodine are severe skin irritants. Iodine crystals can cause severe penetrating injury (corrosive tissue destruction) at the point of contact.

Solutions have caused crusting, burns (inflammatory reactions), skin eruptions (weeping) and fever. Individual susceptibility to such reactions shows great variation; some persons react after momentary contact with weak solutions, whereas others do not react after repeated contact with strong solutions.

In one case, death occurred following the application of an iodine tincture (iodine in alcohol solution) to one third of the body surface.(6)

Iodine is absorbed when applied to the skin.

Eye Contact:

Iodine can cause severe eye irritation or injury. Vapour concentrations of 0.57 ppm were tolerated for five minutes without eye irritation. However, a concentration of 1.63 ppm caused irritation in two minutes.(5)

Crystalline iodine or strong solutions of iodine can probably cause severe eye irritation and permanent damage.

Ingestion:

Swallowing iodine can cause burning and pain in the mouth, throat and stomach, corrosion (destruction) of tissues lining the mouth, esophagus and stomach, severe vomiting, thirst, metallic taste, diarrhea, shock, fever, anuria, delirium, stupor and death from kidney failure.

If there is food present in the stomach it can react with iodine to form iodides which are relatively harmless in an acute exposure.(6)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

No human information, but chronic effects are unlikely because acute effects are so severe.

INGESTION: Prolonged ingestion of iodine or iodine compounds can lead to iodism: typical symptoms include bronchitis and laryngitis; redness, swelling and open sores on the skin, eyes and mouth; weight loss, sleepiness and nervous symptoms. Symptoms normally disappear quickly when exposure ceases.

SKIN SENSITIZATION: A solution of iodine and potassium iodide (iodophor) caused an allergic response in 9 of 25 volunteers.(16) The identity of the sensitizing agent is not known, but iodine solutions are recognized sensitizing agents.(6,16)

Carcinogenicity:

Animal data indicates iodine is not carcinogenic. No human information is available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

ACGIH has proposed a carcinogenicity designation of A4 (not classifiable as a human carcinogen).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:

No information available

Reproductive Toxicity:

No information available

Mutagenicity:

No information available

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:

None reported

Potential for Accumulation:

Iodine breaks down rapidly in the body. Iodine compounds (iodides) are concentrated in the thyroid gland. Iodides accumulate when exposure exceeds body needs. Excess iodides are cleared from the body within a few days when exposure ceases.

Health Comments:

The toxic effects attributed to radioactive iodine isotopes are due to the radiation rather than the iodine.

SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:

If airborne concentrations are irritating, take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue; e.g., wear appropriate protective equipment, use the “buddy” system. Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Oxygen may be beneficial if administered by a person trained in its use, preferably on a physician’s advice. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:

Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 20 minutes, by the clock. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g., watchbands, belts). If irritation persists, obtain medical attention immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:

Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for up to 60 minutes, by the clock, holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the non-affected eye. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:

Never give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:

Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).

Consult a physician and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.

Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a physician and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.

All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a physician familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.

SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:

Not applicable. Will not burn.

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):

Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):

Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:

Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:

Iodine alone is not sensitive to mechanical shock, however it does react with ammonia to form compounds sensitive to mechanical shock.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:

Not applicable

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:

None reported. Iodine vapours are extremely toxic and irritating.

Fire Hazard Summary:

Will not burn. However, iodine can react vigorously with certain reducing materials causing fire and explosion hazards. As well, high temperatures can sublime iodine releasing highly irritating vapours.

Extinguishing Media:

Iodine will not burn. Use extinguishing media appropriate for surrounding material.

Fire Fighting Instructions:

Iodine will not burn or react with water. Use fire fighting procedures appropriate for surrounding material.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight:            253.80

Conversion Factor:

1 ppm = 10.4 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.097 ppm at 20 deg C

Melting Point:      114 deg C (236 deg F)

Boiling Point:      184 deg C (363 deg F)

Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 4.93 (water = 1)

Solubility in Water:          Extremely low solubility (0.03 g/100 mL at 20 deg C). Solubility increases with increasing temperature.

Solubility in Other Liquids: Very soluble in benzene (16 g/100 g), ethyl ether (34 g/100 g), ethyl alcohol (27 g/100 g); moderately soluble in cyclohexane (3 g/100 g) and a number of other organic solvents.

Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient):     Not available

pH Value:           Not applicable

Vapour Density:   8.75 (air = 1)

Vapour Pressure: 0.3 mm Hg at 20 deg C (5,11)

Saturation Vapour Concentration:   400 ppm at 20 deg C (calc)

Evaporation Rate:            Not available

Critical Temperature:       512 deg C

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:

Stable

Hazardous Polymerization:

Does not occur

Incompatibility – Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.

AMMONIA (gaseous) and AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE (solution) – can form nitrogen iodide which is sensitive to shock and may explode spontaneously.

BASIC AMMONIUM SALTS – can react to form explosive nitrogen iodide.

ACETYLENE – reacts explosively.

CHLORINE (liquid) – reacts violently.

SODIUM PHOSPHINATE (anhydrous) – reacts in a violent, exothermic manner, causing ignition.

ANTIMONY – can produce a reaction generating heat, flame and even explosion if the quantities are great enough.

PHOSPHOROUS (white or yellow) – at ordinary temperatures, this will unite with iodine to produce a spontaneously flammable product. Red phosphorous does not react at ordinary temperatures.

ACTIVE METALS (lithium, magnesium) – can react violently.

REDUCING MATERIALS (sulfur, iron, alkali metals) – react violently.

OILS (turpentine) – can form explosive mixtures.

Hazardous Decomposition Products:

Not reported

Corrosivity to Metals:

Iron and steel are corroded under most conditions. Copper alloys are corroded at elevated temperatures.(11,15)

SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

EYE IRRITATION: Application of 2% solution of iodine in alcohol to rabbit eyes caused some damage which was reversible. A stronger solution (7% iodine) caused severe damage to rabbit and monkey eyes.(4)

Injection of an alcoholic solution of iodine into the eyes of dogs caused severe damage.(4)

ORAL TOXICITY: Values commonly reported for “iodine” are actually for iodine compounds and are not relevant. Values for elemental iodine were not found.

Iodine has a direct action on cells by precipitating proteins. The affected cells may be killed. The effects of iodine are thus similar to those produced by strong acids.

ACUTE INHALATION EXPOSURES: Dogs were exposed by inhalation (intratracheal) to vapours of iodine. Doses as low as 7-12 mg/kg caused inflammation of the lungs, breathing problems and coughing which persisted for weeks. Doses of 14-18 mg/kg caused fluid accumulation in the lungs (pulmonary edema) and death within 24 hours.(2)

In another study, iodine vapour at low concentrations (0.5 ppm) did not cause any detectable effects in guinea pigs. However, as the concentration of iodine was increased (up to 7 ppm), the breathing capacity of the guinea pigs was impaired.(3)

CARCINOGENICITY: There is limited animal data indicating that iodine is not carcinogenic. Application of solutions of 5-10% iodine to the skin of mice did not produce a carcinogenic effect.(9) In another study with hamsters, intratracheal administration of iodine (0.2 mg) along with benzo(a)pyrene increased the total number of tumours in comparison to hamsters given only benzo(a)pyrene. However, iodine on its own was not carcinogenic.(8)

SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:

(1) RTECS record for iodine. Last updated 8804; printed 1988 11 18

(2) Luckhardt, A.B., et al. The physiological action of the fumes of iodine. The Journal of Pharm. and Exper. Therap. Vol. XV. no. 1 (1920). p. 1-21

(3) Amdur, M.O. Respiratory response to iodine vapor alone and with sodium chloride aerosol. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Vol. 4 (1978). p. 619-630

(4) Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the eye. 3rd ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1986. p. 519-520

(5) Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 5th ed. ACGIH, 1986. p. 323

(6) Gosselin, R.E., et al. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Williams & Wilkins, 1984. p. III-213 – III-214

(7) Finkelstein, R., et al. Fatal iodine poisoning : a clinico-pathologic and experimental study. Ann. Internal Med. Vol. 10 (1937). p. 1283-1296

(8) Stenback, F., et al. Carcinogenic activation of benzo(a)pyrene by iodine and ferric chloride in the respiratory tract of Syrian golden hamsters. Experientia. Vol. 34 (1978). p. 1065-1066

(9) Rosenstirn, J. Iodine irritation does not produce cancer. J. Cancer Research. Vol. 10 (April 1926). p. 61-65

(10) HSDB record for iodine. Complete update on 07/12/88; printed 1988 11 18

(11) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Vol. 13. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, 1981. p. 649-677

(12) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1994. p. 172-173

(13) Patty’s industrial hygiene and toxicology. 3rd rev. ed. Vol. 2B. John Wiley & Sons, 1981. p. 2972-2978

(14) Fire protection guide on hazardous materials. 9th ed. National Fire Protection Association, 1986. p. 110-111

(15) Corrosion data survey : metals section. 6th ed. NACE, 1985. p. 72-73

(16) Kligman, A.M. The identification of contact allergens by human assay. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Vol. 47, no. 3 (1966). p. 393-409

(17) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002

(18) European Communities. Commission Directive 98/98/EC. December 15, 1998

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.

Review/Preparation Date: 1989-09-29

Revision Indicators:

PEL-C    1993-03-01

REGULATORY INFORMATION          1993-03-01

Trans PEL comments        1993-04-01

TDG      1994-02-01

Sampling            1996-05-01

EU number         1996-05-01

US transport       1996-05-01

Respiratory guidelines       1996-05-01

Resistance of materials     1998-05-01

Bibliography        1998-05-01

EU Class 2000-04-01

EU Risk  2000-04-01

EU Safety           2000-04-01

Bibliography        2000-04-01

ERPG     2001-03-01

Carcinogenicity    2003-07-24

PEL-C final          2003-10-28

PEL transitional comments 2003-10-28

PEL-TWA final     2003-10-28

Resistance of materials for PPE       2004-03-28

SELENIUM

  1. NAME

1.1 Substance

1.2 Group

1.3 Synonyms

1.4 Identification numbers

1.4.1 CAS

1.4.2 Other numbers

1.5 Main brand names/main trade names

1.6 Main manufacturers and/or importers

  1. SUMMARY

2.1 Main risks and target organs

2.2 Summary of clinical effects

2.3 Diagnosis

2.4 First-aid measures and management principles

  1. USES/HIGH RISK CIRCUMSTANCES OF POISONING

4.1 Uses

4.1.1 Uses

4.1.2 Description

4.2 High risk circumstances of poisoning

4.3 Occupationally exposed populations

  1. ROUTES OF EXPOSURE

5.1 Oral

5.2 Inhalation

5.3 Dermal

5.4 Eye

5.5 Parenteral

5.6 Others

  1. TOXICOLOGY

7.1 Mode of action

7.2 Toxicity

7.2.1 Human data

7.2.1.1 Adults

7.2.1.2 Children

7.2.2 Relevant animal data

7.2.3 Relevant in vitro data

7.2.4 Workplace standards

7.2.5 Acceptable daily intake (ADI) and other guidelines levels

7.3 Carcinogenicity

7.4 Teratogenicity

7.5 Mutagenicity

7.6 Interactions

  1. TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS

8.1 Material sampling plan

8.1.1 Sampling and specimen collection

8.1.1.1 Toxicological analyses

8.1.1.2 Biomedical analyses

8.1.1.3 Arterial blood gas analysis

8.1.1.4 Haematological analyses

8.1.1.5 Other (unspecified) analyses

8.1.2 Storage of laboratory samples and specimens

8.1.2.1 Toxicological analyses

8.1.2.2 Biomedical analyses

8.1.2.3 Arterial blood analysis

8.1.2.4 Haematological analyses

8.1.2.5 Other (unspecified) analyses

8.1.3 Transport of laboratory samples and specimens

8.1.3.1 Toxicological analyses

8.1.3.2 Biomedical analyses

8.1.3.3 Arterial blood gas analysis

8.1.3.4 Haematological analyses

8.1.3.5 Other (unspecified) analyses

8.2 Toxicological analyses and their interpretation

8.2.1 Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material

8.2.1.1 Simple qualitative test(s)

8.2.1.2 Advanced qualitative confirmation test(s)

8.2.1.3 Simple quantitative method(s)

8.2.1.4 Advanced quantitative method(s)

8.2.2 Tests for biological specimens

8.2.2.1 Simple qualitative test(s)

8.2.2.2 Advanced qualitative confirmation test(s)

8.2.2.3 Simple quantitative methods(s)

8.2.2.4 Advanced quantitative method(s)

8.2.2.5 Other dedicated method(s)

8.2.3 Interpretation of toxicological analyses

8.3 Biomedical investigations and their interpretation

8.3.1 Biochemical analysis

8.3.1.1 Blood, plasma or serum

8.3.1.2 Urine

8.3.1.3 Other fluids

8.3.2 Arterial blood gas analyses

8.3.3 Haematological analyses

8.3.4 Interpretation of biomedical investigations

8.4 Other biomedical (diagnostic) investigations and their interpretation

8.5 Overall interpretation of all toxicological analyses and toxicological investigations

8.6 References

  1. CLINICAL EFFECTS

9.1 Acute poisoning

9.1.1 Ingestion

9.1.2 Inhalation

9.1.3 Skin exposure

9.1.4 Eye contact

9.1.5 Parenteral exposure

9.1.6 Other

9.2 Chronic poisoning

9.2.1 Ingestion

9.2.2 Inhalation

9.2.3 Skin exposure

9.2.4 Eye contact

9.2.5 Parenteral exposure

9.2.6 Other

9.3 Course, prognosis, cause of death

9.4 Systematic description of clinical effects

9.4.1 Cardiovascular

9.4.2 Respiratory

9.4.3 Neurological

9.4.3.1 CNS

9.4.3.2 Peripheral nervous system

9.4.3.3 Autonomic nervous system

9.4.3.4 Skeletal and smooth muscle

9.4.4 Gastrointestinal

9.4.5 Hepatic

9.4.6 Urinary

9.4.6.1 Renal

9.4.6.2 Others

9.4.7 Endocrine and reproductive systems

9.4.8 Dermatological

9.4.9 Eye, ears, nose, throat: local effects

9.4.10 Hematological

9.4.11 Immunological

9.4.12 Metabolic

9.4.12.1 Acid base disturbances

9.4.12.2 Fluid and electrolyte disturbances

9.4.12.3 Others

9.4.13 Allergic reactions

9.4.14 Other clinical effects

9.4.15 Special risks: pregnancy, breast feeding, enzyme deficiencies

9.5 Others

  1. MANAGEMENT

10.1 General principles

10.2 Life supportive procedures and symptomatic treatment

10.3 Decontamination

10.4 Elimination

10.5 Antidote treatment

10.5.1 Adults

10.5.2 Children

10.6 Management discussion: alternatives, controversies and research needs

  1. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES

11.1 Case reports from literature

  1. REFERENCES

International Programme on Chemical Safety

Poison information Monograph 483

Chemical

  1. NAME

1.1 Substance

Selenium and its compounds

1.2 Group

Inorganic; selenium and its compounds.

The main substances of this group are:

Elemental selenium

Selenium salts: selenite and selenate

Selenious acid

Selenic acid

Selenium dioxide

Selenium disulfide

Selenium hexafluoride

Selenium monochloride

Selenium monosulfide

Selenium oxychloride

Selenium tetrachloride

1.3 Synonyms

1.4 Identification numbers

1.4.1 CAS

Elemental selenium: 7782-49-2

Selenic acid: 7783-08-6

Selenious acid: 7783-00-8

Selenium dioxide: 7446-08-4

Selenium disulfide: 7488-56-4

Selenium hexafluoride: 7783-79-1

Selenium monochloride: 10025-68-0

Selenium monosulfide: 7446-34-6

Selenium oxychloride: 7791-23-3

Selenium tetrachloride: 10026-03-6

1.4.2 Other numbers

1.5 Main brand names/main trade names

1.6 Main manufacturers and/or importers

  1. SUMMARY

2.1 Main risks and target organs

The toxicity depends on the chemical form of selenium.

Selenite is more toxic than selenate.

Target organs include: respiratory tract, CNS, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, skin.

2.2 Summary of clinical effects

Acute:

Inhalation of hydrogen selenide causes pulmonary oedema. Selenium dusts produce respiratory tract irritation. Exposure to selenium dioxide fumes causes signs and symptoms of metal fume fever.

Ingestion of selenious acid causes corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, stupor, respiratory depression and refractory hypotension and ARDS.

Dermal exposure to selenium dioxide or selenium oxychloride may produce skin burns.

Chronic:

Chronic selenosis is extremely rare but has been reported in an occupational setting. It may be associated with nausea and vomiting, muscle tenderness, tremor, emotional lability, garlicky breath, bitter metallic taste in the mouth, brittle hair and nails, and skin lesions.

2.3 Diagnosis

Diagnosis of acute poisoning is based on history and the presence of hypotension, loss of consciousness, respiratory depression and a garlicky odour of the breath after exposure to elemental selenium or its compounds.

Diagnosis of chronic poisoning is only confirmed on biological testing.

2.4 First-aid measures and management principles

Eye contact: immediate and copious irrigation with water.

Skin contact: wash contaminated area immediately and copiously with soap or a soft detergent and water. Contaminated clothes should be removed.

Inhalation: remove victim from exposure. Perform respiratory resuscitation as needed. Give supplemental oxygen.

Ingestion: management of acute and chronic intoxication of selenium poisoning is supportive only. Decontamination is not normally indicated (see treatment guide: acid ingestion). There are no antidotes.

  1. USES/HIGH RISK CIRCUMSTANCES OF POISONING

4.1 Uses

4.1.1 Uses

4.1.2 Description

Selenium and its compounds have many commercial uses, these include:

Electronics (photoelectric cells, semiconductors, low-voltage rectifiers)

Ceramics, glass (pigments and dyes)

Steel (alloy with copper)

Gun-bluing solutions (selenious acid and copper nitrate and nitric acid)

Rubber vulcanizing

Chemistry (catalyst)

Photocopy (xerographic properties)

Medicine: selenium sulfide is used for the treatment of pityriasis versicolor and palmar plantar mycosis as a 2.5% lotion and dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp.

4.2 High risk circumstances of poisoning

For the general population, the primary pathway of exposure to selenium is food (meats, fish, poultry, grains, cereal products), water (selenate) and air (combustion of fossil fuels and coal) but such exposures do not result in poisoning (Barceloux, 1999).

Serious toxicity most commonly occurs following ingestion of gun-bluing solutions.

4.3 Occupationally exposed populations

Occupational exposure can occur in all stages of mining and production of selenium containing compounds.

  1. ROUTES OF EXPOSURE

5.1 Oral

5.2 Inhalation

This is the usual and most dangerous route of entry of selenium compounds in occupational exposure to fumes, dusts or gas.

5.3 Dermal

Selenium compounds may be absorbed through intact skin (e.g. selenium sulfide in shampoos).

5.4 Eye

No data available.

5.5 Parenteral

No data available.

5.6 Others

No data available.

  1. TOXICOLOGY

7.1 Mode of action

The toxicity depends on the chemical form of selenium. Human toxicity from environmental exposure to elemental selenium and selenium salts is rare. Exposure to selenious acid or to selenium dioxide can cause serious toxicity (Barceloux, 1999).

Selenium facilitates the lowering of tissue peroxide levels in the body by destroying hydrogen peroxide through the action of the selenium-containing enzyme, glutathione peroxidase. Animal studies suggest that the cytotoxicity of selenium results from the pro-oxidant catalytic activity of the selenide anions, which produce super oxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and other reactive metabolites. Methylating reactions in plants and animals along with antioxidant defenses counteract the toxicity of selenium species (Barceloux, 1999).

7.2 Toxicity

7.2.1 Human data

7.2.1.1 Adults

Organic selenium compounds (dimethylselenide, trimethylselenonium ion, selenoethers, selenobetaine) and selenate are much less toxic in animal studies compared with selenite (Barceloux, 1999).

Ingestion of 22 mg sodium selenate/kg caused serious toxicity (Civil & Mc Donald, 1978); ingestion of 1-5 mg sodium selenite/kg caused toxicity which resolved in 24 hours (Barceloux, 1999).

A 30-60 ml ingestion of gun blue (2 % selenious acid) resulted in death (Pentel et al., 1985).

A 10 g oral dose of selenium dioxide resulted in death (Koppel et al., 1986).

7.2.1.2 Children

A 15 ml ingestion of gun blue (2 % selenious acid) by a two-year-old resulted in death (Nantel et al., 1985).

It is estimated that doses > 900 µg Se/day are necessary to cause selenium toxicity (Yang & Zhou, 1994)

7.2.2 Relevant animal data

Alkali disease in cattle and horses results from the ingestion of grain and forage containing 5-50 ppm Se.

A subacute form of the disease (blind staggers) occurred in livestock feeding on plants that contained up to 10 000 ppm Se. (Barceloux, 1999)

7.2.3 Relevant in vitro data

No data available.

7.2.4 Workplace standards

OSHA permissible exposure limit:

Selenium compounds (as Se): 0.2 mg/m3

Selenium hexafluoride: 0.05 ppm (USA)

NIOSH immediately dangerous to life or health level (IDHL)

Selenium compounds: 100 mg/m3

Selenium hexafluoride: 5 ppm

ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV-TWA)

Selenium and compounds as Se: 0.2 mg/m3

Selenium hexafluoride as Se: 0.05 ppm

7.2.5 Acceptable daily intake (ADI) and other guidelines levels

WHO standard for drinking water: 10 µg Se/L

EPA water quality criterion for chronic exposure to selenium: 5 µg Se/L.

ADI (EPA): 213 µg Se/d

Based on studies on chronic selenosis in China, a maximum safe dietary intake of 400 µg Se was recommended (Yang & Zhou, 1994).

7.3 Carcinogenicity

Several studies suggest that selenium is anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic (Bronzetti & Della Croce, 1993).

Human epidemiological and demographic studies do not suggest that selenium is carcinogenic and neither the IARC nor the US NTP lists selenium and its salts as suspected carcinogens (Barceloux, 1999).

However the US NTP (1994) lists selenium sulfide as a suspected carcinogen based on animal studies.

7.4 Teratogenicity

Although selenium is a demonstrated teratogen in birds, there is no evidence for a teratogenic effect in mammals (Barceloux, 1999).

7.5 Mutagenicity

No data available.

7.6 Interactions

Various substances (e.g. arsenic, cysteine, heavy metals, sulfate and vitamins C and E) can alter the toxicity of selenium (Wilber, 1980; Fan et al., 1988).

  1. TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS

8.1 Material sampling plan

8.1.1 Sampling and specimen collection

8.1.1.1 Toxicological analyses

8.1.1.2 Biomedical analyses

8.1.1.3 Arterial blood gas analysis

8.1.1.4 Haematological analyses

8.1.1.5 Other (unspecified) analyses

8.1.2 Storage of laboratory samples and specimens

8.1.2.1 Toxicological analyses

8.1.2.2 Biomedical analyses

8.1.2.3 Arterial blood analysis

8.1.2.4 Haematological analyses

8.1.2.5 Other (unspecified) analyses

8.1.3 Transport of laboratory samples and specimens

8.1.3.1 Toxicological analyses

8.1.3.2 Biomedical analyses

8.1.3.3 Arterial blood gas analysis

8.1.3.4 Haematological analyses

8.1.3.5 Other (unspecified) analyses

8.2 Toxicological analyses and their interpretation

8.2.1 Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material

8.2.1.1 Simple qualitative test(s)

8.2.1.2 Advanced qualitative confirmation test(s)

8.2.1.3 Simple quantitative method(s)

8.2.1.4 Advanced quantitative method(s)

8.2.2 Tests for biological specimens

8.2.2.1 Simple qualitative test(s)

8.2.2.2 Advanced qualitative confirmation test(s)

8.2.2.3 Simple quantitative methods(s)

8.2.2.4 Advanced quantitative method(s)

8.2.2.5 Other dedicated method(s)

8.2.3 Interpretation of toxicological analyses

8.3 Biomedical investigations and their interpretation

8.3.1 Biochemical analysis

8.3.1.1 Blood, plasma or serum

“Basic analyses”

“Dedicated analyses”

“Optional analyses”

8.3.1.2 Urine

“Basic analyses”

“Dedicated analyses”

“Optional analyses”

8.3.1.3 Other fluids

8.3.2 Arterial blood gas analyses

8.3.3 Haematological analyses

“Basic analyses”

“Dedicated analyses”

“Optional analyses”

8.3.4 Interpretation of biomedical investigations

8.4 Other biomedical (diagnostic) investigations and their interpretation

8.5 Overall interpretation of all toxicological analyses and toxicological investigations

The usual urine selenium is < 0.03 mg Se/L in normal individuals without occupational exposure (Robberecht & Deelsta, 1984).

Usually no symptoms are associated with urine levels < 0.1 mg Se/L.

Urine concentrations > 0.4 – 0.7 mg Se/L indicates excessive recent exposure.

Blood selenium levels are usually < 0.2 mg/L. The concentration in the erythrocyte is greater than the concentration in plasma and the ratio of plasma Se to erythrocyte Se decreases as the whole blood concentration increases. Plasma concentrations reflect changes in the intake of selenium more rapidly than concentrations of selenium in erythrocytes where proteins firmly bind selenium. Consequently whole blood and selenium content in the erythrocytes are better indicators of long-term exposure to selenium (Yang & Zhou, 1994; Barceloux, 1999)

8.6 References

Barceloux DG (1999) Selenium. Clin Toxicol, 37: 145-172

Robberecht Hj & Deelsta HAP (1984) Selenium in human urine: concentration levels and medical implications. Clin Chim Acta, 136: 107-120

Yang G & Zhou R (1994) Further observations on the human maximum safe dietary selenium intake in a seleniferous area in China. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis, 8: 159-165

  1. CLINICAL EFFECTS

9.1 Acute poisoning

9.1.1 Ingestion

Ingestion of selenious acid causes clinical features of corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, stupor, respiratory depression, hypotension and death. A garlic odour on the breath is characteristic of selenium poisoning (Carter, 1966).

9.1.2 Inhalation

Acute inhalation of high concentrations of hydrogen selenide produces intense upper respiratory tract irritation and metallic taste in the mouth followed by bronchopneumonia and pulmonary oedema.

Inhalation of selenium dusts or fumes is associated with respiratory tract irritation manifested by cough, nasal discharge, epistaxis, loss of smell and headache. Inhalation of selenium dioxide may cause signs and symptoms of metal fume fever (Barceloux, 1999).

9.1.3 Skin exposure

Dermal exposure to selenium dioxide or selenium oxychloride is associated with dermatitis and skin burns.

9.1.4 Eye contact

Eyes contact with selenious oxide may produce severe blepharoconjunctivitis.

9.1.5 Parenteral exposure

No data available.

9.1.6 Other

No data available.

9.2 Chronic poisoning

9.2.1 Ingestion

Chronic selenosis is a rare entity but has been reported following ingestion of selenium-rich foods. It manifests as morphological changes of the fingernails, alopecia, skin lesions, tooth decay and neurological disorders (Yang et al.,1983).

9.2.2 Inhalation

Chronic inhalation of hydrogen selenide is associated with chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, garlicky breath, a bitter metallic taste in the mouth and nail changes (Alderman & Bergin, 1986).

9.2.3 Skin exposure

No data available.

9.2.4 Eye contact

No data available.

9.2.5 Parenteral exposure

No data available.

9.2.6 Other

No data available.

9.3 Course, prognosis, cause of death

Acute ingestion of selenious acid is almost invariably fatal. Coma, respiratory depression, hypotension and death can occur several hours after ingestion (Barceloux, 1999).

9.4 Systematic description of clinical effects

9.4.1 Cardiovascular

Severe/refractory hypotension may develop after selenious acid ingestion, secondary to decreased cardiac contractility and low peripheral vascular resistance.

9.4.2 Respiratory

Inhalation of selenium dusts results in respiratory tract irritation. Inhalation of high concentrations of hydrogen selenide may cause bronchopneumonia and pulmonary oedema.

9.4.3 Neurological

9.4.3.1 CNS

Fatigue, irritability, tremor, hyperreflexia, coma have been described (Barceloux, 1999).

9.4.3.2 Peripheral nervous system

Neurological abnormalities including peripheral anesthesia, acroparesthesia, and pain in the extremities have been reported (Yang et al., 1993).

9.4.3.3 Autonomic nervous system

No data available.

9.4.3.4 Skeletal and smooth muscle

Muscle tenderness has been described.

9.4.4 Gastrointestinal

When ingested, selenium sulfide causes nausea, vomiting, metallic taste in the mouth and garlicky smell on the breath.

9.4.5 Hepatic

No data available.

9.4.6 Urinary

9.4.6.1 Renal

No data available.

9.4.6.2 Others

No data available.

9.4.7 Endocrine and reproductive systems

No data available.

9.4.8 Dermatological

Selenium oxychloride causes vesicles (Pillière, 1992).

Selenium dioxide is more than a primary irritant, it causes extremely painful burns on the skin which, however, always heal without a scar. Theoretically, the selenium dioxide powder itself does not burn the skin (and if dropped on to the skin should be immediately brushed off dry). However, in practice, in the industrial environment, there is sufficient moisture on the skin from sweating to be taken up by this white solid to form a sticky solution of selenious acid within seconds, or at the most, minutes, of coming into contact with the skin.

After skin exposure to 50 % solution of selenious acid, signs develop within several hours: unremitting intense pain, red and swollen skin, blisters, which may be followed by ulcerations.

Chronic exposure to selenium manifests as brittle nails and hair, pruritic skin rash; longitudinal streaks or transverse lines may appear on the surface of the nail in the form of yellowish-white or red discoloration (Barceloux, 1999).

9.4.9 Eye, ears, nose, throat: local effects

Nasal discharge, loss of smell, epistaxis have been described after selenium dust exposure (Barceloux, 1999).

9.4.10 Hematological

9.4.11 Immunological

9.4.12 Metabolic

9.4.12.1 Acid base disturbances

9.4.12.2 Fluid and electrolyte disturbances

9.4.12.3 Others

9.4.13 Allergic reactions

9.4.14 Other clinical effects

9.4.15 Special risks: pregnancy, breast feeding, enzyme deficiencies

9.5 Others

  1. MANAGEMENT

10.1 General principles

Eye contact: immediate and copious irrigation with water.

Skin contact: wash contaminated area immediately and copiously with soap or a soft detergent and water. Contaminated clothes should be removed.

Inhalation: remove victim from exposure. Perform respiratory resuscitation as needed. Give supplemental oxygen.

Ingestion: the management of acute and chronic intoxication of selenium poisoning is supportive only; there are no antidotes. Decontamination attempts are not normally indicated (refer treatment guide: acid ingestion).

10.2 Life supportive procedures and symptomatic treatment

Management hypotension and acute pulmonary edema as necessary.

10.3 Decontamination

Eye contact: immediate and copious irrigation with water.

Skin contact: wash contaminated area immediately and copiously with soap and water; 10 % sodium thiosulfate solutions may be of benefit in cases of exposure to selenium dioxide (Pillière, 1992). Contaminated clothes should be removed.

Gastrointestinal decontamination is not normally indicated.

10.4 Elimination

There are no methods to increase selenium elimination.

10.5 Antidote treatment

10.5.1 Adults

There are no antidotes

10.5.2 Children

There are no antidotes

10.6 Management discussion: alternatives, controversies and research needs

  1. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES

11.1 Case reports from literature

A young woman exposed repeatedly to hydrogen selenide gas developed gastrointestinal complaints, dental caries, conjunctivitis, nail deformities, and garlic smelling breath (Alderman & Bergin, 1986).

A 15 ml ingestion of gun blue (2% selenious acid) by a 2 year old and 30 to 60 ml ingestion by an adult resulted in death (Nantel et al., 1985; Pentel et al., 1985).

 

  1. REFERENCES

Alderman LC & Bergin JJ (1986) Hydrogen selenide poisoning: an illustrative case with review. Arch Environ Health, 41: 354-358

 

Barceloux DG (1999) Selenium. Clin Toxicol, 37: 145-172

 

Bronzetti G & Della Croce C (1993) Selenium: its important roles in life and contrasting aspects. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 12: 59-71

 

Carter RF (1966) Acute selenium poisoning. Med J Aust, 1: 525-528

 

Civil IDS & Mc Donald MJA (1978) Acute selenium poisoning. Case report. NZ Med J, 87: 354-356

 

Fan AM, Book SA, Neutra RR, Epstein DM (1988) Selenium and human health implications in California’s San Joaquin Valley. J Toxicol Environ Health, 23: 539-559

 

Koppel C, Baudisch H, Beyer KH, Kloppel I, Schneider V (1986) Fatal poisoning with selenium dioxide. Clin Toxicol, 24: 21-35

 

Nantel AJ, Brown M, Dery P, Lefebvre L (1985) Acute poisoning by selenious acid. Vet Hum Toxicol, 27: 531-533

 

NIOSH/OSHA Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards Editors (2000): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

 

National Toxicology Program (1994). Seventh annual report on carcinogens summary 1994. Washington DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service

 

Pentel P, Fletcher D, Jentzen J (1985) Fatal acute selenium toxicity. J Forensic Sci, 30: 556-562

 

Pillière F (1992) Indium et sélénium. Editions techniques. Encycl Med Chir (Paris, France) Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 16-002-1-10, 4p

 

Robberecht Hj & Deelsta HAP (1984) Selenium in human urine: concentration levels and medical implications. Clin Chim Acta, 136: 107-120

 

WHO (1984) Environmental Health Criteria. Selenium. N° 58. Geneva

 

Wilber CG (1980) Toxicology of selenium: a review. Clin Toxicol, 17: 171-230

 

Yang G, Wang S, Zhou R, Sun S (1983) Endemic selenium intoxication of humans in China. Am J Clin Nutr, 37: 872-881

 

Yang G & Zhou R (1994) Further observations on the human maximum safe dietary selenium intake in a seleniferous area in China. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis, 8: 159-165

 

  1. AUTHOR(S), REVIEWER(S) DATE

(INCLUDING EACH UP-DATE), COMPLETE ADDRESSES

Authors:

 

Dr E.A. Scarlato

Dr J. Higa

Sección Toxicología

Hospital de Clínicas

Date:

28 June 1990

Updated:

M-O Rambourg Schepens, March 2001

 

Peer review:

  1. Lefevre, L. Murray, A. Nantel,

Edinburgh, September 2001.

 

See Also:

Selenium (EHC 58, 1986)

Selenium (ICSC)

 

 

IODINEICSC: 0167
Date of Peer Review: April 2004

Jod

Iode

Iodio

Yodo

 

CAS #7553-56-2I2
RTECS #NN1575000Molecular mass: 253.8
UN #
EC Index #053-001-00-3

 

TYPES OF HAZARD / EXPOSUREACUTE HAZARDS / SYMPTOMSPREVENTIONFIRST AID / FIRE FIGHTING
FIRENot combustible but enhances combustion of other substances. Many reactions may cause fire or explosion. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.NO contact with flammable substances.In case of fire in the surroundings: use appropriate extinguishing media.
EXPLOSION

 

EXPOSURESTRICT HYGIENE!
InhalationCough. Wheezing. Laboured breathing. Symptoms may be delayed (see Notes).Ventilation (not if powder), local exhaust, or breathing protection.Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Artificial respiration may be needed. Refer for medical attention.
SkinRedness. Pain.Protective gloves. Protective clothing.First rinse with plenty of water, then remove contaminated clothes and rinse again.
EyesCauses watering of the eyes. Redness. Pain.Face shield or eye protection in combination with breathing protection.First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.
IngestionAbdominal pain. Diarrhoea. Nausea. Vomiting.Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work.Rinse mouth. Give plenty of water to drink. Refer for medical attention.

 

SPILLAGE DISPOSALPACKAGING & LABELLING
Sweep spilled substance into sealable containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Do NOT absorb in saw-dust or other combustible absorbents. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Personal protection: filter respirator for inorganic gases, vapours and halogens.EU Classification

Symbol: Xn, N

R: 20/21-50

S: (2-)-23-25-61

UN Classification

EMERGENCY RESPONSESTORAGE
Separated from incompatible materials. See Chemical Dangers. Well closed. Ventilation along the floor.
 

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IODINEICSC: 0167

 

IMPORTANT DATA
PHYSICAL STATE; APPEARANCE:

BLUISH BLACK OR DARK PURPLE CRYSTALS, WITH PUNGENT ODOUR.

 

PHYSICAL DANGERS:

Iodine readily sublimes.

 

CHEMICAL DANGERS:

Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed. The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials. Reacts violently with metal powders, antimony, ammonia, acetaldehyde, acetylene causing fire and explosion hazard.

 

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS:

TLV: 0.1 ppm; (Ceiling value); (ACGIH 2004).

MAK: IIb (not established but data is available); (DFG 2005).

ROUTES OF EXPOSURE:

The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its vapour, through the skin and by ingestion.

 

INHALATION RISK:

A harmful contamination of the air can be reached rather quickly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.

 

EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE:

Lachrymation. The substance is severely irritating to the eyes and the respiratory tract, and is irritating to the skin. Inhalation of the vapour may cause asthma-like reactions (RADS). Inhalation of the vapour may cause lung oedema (see Notes). The effects may be delayed. Medical observation is indicated.

 

EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OR REPEATED EXPOSURE:

Repeated or prolonged contact may cause skin sensitization in rare cases. Repeated or prolonged inhalation exposure may cause asthma-like syndrome (RADS). The substance may have effects on the thyroid.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Boiling point: 184°C

Melting point: 114°C

Relative density (water = 1): 4.9

Solubility in water, g/100 ml at 20°C: 0.03

Vapour pressure, kPa at 25°C: 0.04

Relative vapour density (air = 1): 8.8

Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1

Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 2.49

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
This substance may be hazardous in the environment; special attention should be given to fish.
NOTES
The occupational exposure limit value should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure. Rinse contaminated clothes (fire hazard) with plenty of water. The symptoms of lung oedema often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort. Rest and medical observation is therefore essential. Immediate administration of an appropriate inhalation therapy by a doctor or a person authorized by him/her, should be considered. The symptoms of asthma often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort. Rest and medical observation are therefore essential. Card has been partly updated in October 2005. See section Emergency Response.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
 

LEGAL NOTICENeither the CEC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the CEC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information
© IPCS, CEC 2005

See Also:

 Iodine (CHEMINFO)

 Iodine (PIM 280)

 

 

POTASSIUM PERCHLORATEICSC: 0714
Date of Peer Review: November 2003

Potassium hyperchlorate

Perchloric acid, potassium salt

Peroidin

 

CAS #7778-74-7KClO4
RTECS #SC9700000Molecular mass: 138.5
UN #1489 

EC #017-008-00-5

 

TYPES OF HAZARD / EXPOSUREACUTE HAZARDS / SYMPTOMSPREVENTIONFIRST AID / FIRE FIGHTING
FIRENot combustible but enhances combustion of other substances. Many reactions may cause fire or explosion. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.NO open flames, NO sparks, and NO smoking. NO contact with flammable substances.In case of fire in the surroundings: water in large amounts, water spray.
EXPLOSIONDo NOT expose to friction or shock.In case of fire: keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water. Combat fire from a sheltered position.

 

EXPOSUREPREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST!
InhalationCough. Sore throat.Local exhaust or breathing protection.Fresh air, rest. Refer for medical attention.
SkinRedness.Protective gloves.Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap.
EyesRedness. Pain.Safety goggles, or eye protection in combination with breathing protection.First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.
IngestionDo not eat, drink, or smoke during work.Rinse mouth. Refer for medical attention.

 

SPILLAGE DISPOSALPACKAGING & LABELLING
Sweep spilled substance into sealable containers. Wash away remainder with plenty of water. Do NOT absorb in saw-dust or other combustible absorbents. (Extra personal protection: P2 filter respirator for harmful particles).EU Classification

Symbol: O, Xn

R: 9-22

S: (2-)-13-22-27

UN Classification

UN Hazard Class: 5.1

UN Pack Group: II

EMERGENCY RESPONSESTORAGE
Transport Emergency Card: TEC (R)-51S1489

NFPA Code: H 1; F 0; R 2; ox

Separated from combustible and reducing substances. See Chemical Dangers.
 

IPCS

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POTASSIUM PERCHLORATEICSC: 0714

 

IMPORTANT DATA
PHYSICAL STATE; APPEARANCE:

COLOURLESS CRYSTALS OR WHITE CRYSTALLINE POWDER

 

CHEMICAL DANGERS:

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic and corrosive fumes (chlorine, chloroxides). The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials, causing fire and explosion hazard.

 

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS:

TLV not established.

ROUTES OF EXPOSURE:

The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol and by ingestion.

 

INHALATION RISK:

Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly when dispersed.

 

EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE:

The substance is irritating to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract.

 

EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OR REPEATED EXPOSURE:

The substance may have effects on the blood, resulting in formation of methaemoglobin. (See Notes).

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Melting point (decomposes): 400°C

Density: 2.5 g/cm³

Solubility in water, g/100 ml at 20°C: 1.8

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
NOTES
Will turn shock-sensitive if contaminated with organic substances. Specific treatment is necessary in case of poisoning with this substance; the appropriate means with instructions must be available. Rinse contaminated clothes (fire hazard) with plenty of water. Depending on the degree of exposure, periodic medical examination is indicated.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
 

LEGAL NOTICENeither the CEC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the CEC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information
© IPCS, CEC 1999

 

 

SELENIUMICSC: 0072
Date of Peer Review: April 1993

(powder)
 

CAS #7782-49-2Se
RTECS #VS7700000Atomic mass: 79.0
UN #
EC #034-001-00-2

 

TYPES OF HAZARD / EXPOSUREACUTE HAZARDS / SYMPTOMSPREVENTIONFIRST AID / FIRE FIGHTING
FIRECombustible. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.NO open flames. NO contact with oxidants.Powder, AFFF, foam, carbon dioxide. NO water.
EXPLOSIONRisk of fire and explosion on contact with oxidants.

 

EXPOSUREPREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST! STRICT HYGIENE!
InhalationIrritation of nose. Cough. Dizziness. Headache. Laboured breathing. Nausea. Sore throat. Vomiting. Weakness. Symptoms may be delayed (see Notes).Ventilation, local exhaust, or breathing protection.Fresh air, rest. Refer for medical attention.
SkinRedness. Skin burns. Pain. Discolouration.Protective gloves. Protective clothing.Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer for medical attention. Remove and isolate contaminated clothes.
EyesRedness. Pain. Blurred vision.Safety spectacles or eye protection in combination with breathing protection.First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor.
IngestionMetallic taste. Diarrhoea. Chills. Fever. (Further see Inhalation).Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work.Rinse mouth. Induce vomiting (ONLY IN CONSCIOUS PERSONS!). Refer for medical attention.

 

SPILLAGE DISPOSALPACKAGING & LABELLING
Do NOT wash away into sewer. Sweep spilled substance into containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Personal protection: P3 filter respirator for toxic particles.Airtight. Do not transport with food and feedstuffs.

EU Classification

Symbol: T

R: 23/25-33-53

S: (1/2-)-20/21-28-45-61

UN Classification

EMERGENCY RESPONSESAFE STORAGE
Fireproof. Separated from strong oxidants, strong acids, food and feedstuffs. Dry.
 

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SELENIUMICSC: 0072

 

IMPORTANT DATA
PHYSICAL STATE; APPEARANCE:

ODOURLESS SOLID IN VARIOUS FORMS. DARK RED-BROWN TO BLUISH-BLACK AMORPHOUS SOLID OR RED TRANSPARENT CRYSTALS OR METALLIC GREY TO BLACK CRYSTALS.

 

CHEMICAL DANGERS:

Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed. Reacts violently with oxidants strong acids. Reacts with water at 50°C forming flammable/explosive gas (hydrogen – see ICSC0001) and selenious acids. Reacts with incandescence on gentle heating with phosphorous and metals such as nickel, zinc, sodium, potassium, platinum.

 

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS:

TLV: 0.2 mg/m³ as TWA; (ACGIH 2004).

MAK: (Inhalable fraction) 0.05 mg/m³; Peak limitation category: II(4); Carcinogen category: 3B; Pregnancy risk group: C; (DFG 2004).

ROUTES OF EXPOSURE:

The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion.

 

INHALATION RISK:

Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly when dispersed.

 

EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE:

The substance is irritating to the eyes and the respiratory tract. Inhalation of dust may cause lung oedema (see Notes). Inhalation of fume may cause symptoms of asphyxiation, chills and fever and bronchitis. The effects may be delayed.

 

EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OR REPEATED EXPOSURE:

Repeated or prolonged contact with skin may cause dermatitis. The substance may have effects on the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and skin, resulting in nausea, vomiting, cough, yellowish skin discolouration, loss of nails, garlic breath and bad teeth.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Boiling point: 685°C

Melting point: 170-217°C

Relative density (water = 1): 4.8

Solubility in water: none

Vapour pressure, Pa at 20°C: 0.1

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
NOTES
Do NOT take working clothes home.

Card has been partly updated in April 2005. See sections Occupational Exposure Limits, EU classification, Emergency Response.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
 

LEGAL NOTICENeither the CEC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the CEC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information
© IPCS, CEC 2004

See Also:

 Selenium (EHC 58, 1986)

 Selenium (PIM 483)

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