CBD Oil for Candida

Can CBD oil help with Candida, and if so, how?

  • A 2011 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology showed that certain cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabichromene (CBC),  have moderate antifungal properties(1).
  • CBD binds to the CB2 receptors, activating caspase, an anti-inflammatory protein, and reducing cytokines, the proinflammatory cells that exacerbate the pain experienced in oral and vaginal thrush, as a 2012 study shows (2).
  • In the African Health Sciences Journal, a 2018 study shows that the reduction of cytokines restores a weakened immune system, one of the primary causes of thrush infection and overgrowth of candidiasis(3).
  • Consulting with a trusted medical practitioner experienced with cannabis use is the best course of action for anyone who may want to try CBD for the first time or include CBD in their current regimen.

Best CBD Oils to Help with Candida

1. Sagely Naturals Extra Strength Relief & Recovery Capsules

Sagely Naturals Extra Strength Relief & Recovery Capsules Bottle

Twice the CBD of their original formula, the Extra Strength Relief & Recovery CBD Capsules help ease inflammation and discomfort with plant-based ingredients and broad-spectrum CBD. Organic turmeric may help promote healthy joints and muscles and aid in occasional exercise-induced inflammation. Turmeric has natural anti-inflammatory compounds called curcuminoids. Black pepper extract facilitates the absorption of turmeric for highest possible efficacy.

Check Latest Price

2. CBDfx CBD Gummies with Turmeric and Spirulina 300mg

CBDfx CBD Gummies with Turmeric and Spirulina 300mg Bottle

These CBD gummies offer a twist on their CBD gummy bears by including turmeric and spirulina — two popular superfoods often used for their antioxidant and discomfort-fighting potential. The CBD in these vegan gummies is 100% organic, broad-spectrum, and free of harmful additives. CBDfx Gummies with Turmeric & Spirulina is made from hemp plants grown organically at select partner farms in the USA, which means one gets the purest CBD with high levels of terpenes, amino acids, essential fatty acids and vitamins.

Check Latest Price

3. Endoca CBD Suppositories 500mg

Endoca CBD Suppositories 500mg Box

Suppositories provide a targeted and effective dose if taking CBD by swallowing capsules or taking oil under the tongue is impossible. CBD suppositories can help accelerate cannabinoids getting into the bloodstream in high concentrations.  Rectal administration increases the uptake of CBD entering the bloodstream by almost 10 times as compared with oral consumption. CBD cannabis suppositories help prevent drug degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as bypass first-pass metabolism in the liver, allowing the cannabinoids to reach the blood in much higher concentrations.

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Why People are Turning to CBD for Candida

Candidiasis or thrush is a medical condition caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like fungus. This type of fungus spreads over within the mouth and throat, and it usually infects men and women alike. 

Certain cannabinoids, like CBD, have been shown as a natural, potent antifungal remedy that may help treat fungal and yeast infections effectively, making CBD a potential alternative treatment to candidiasis.

A 2011 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology showed that certain cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabichromene (CBC),  have moderate antifungal properties(4).

The study mostly examined the therapeutic benefits of THC, the cannabinoid that induces psychoactive effects on the user, and not CBD.

Still, the researchers noted that the three cannabinoids CBD, CBG, and CBC might boost the effects of an extremely potent antifungal, caryophyllene oxide.

Caryophyllene oxide is the oxidized form of beta-caryophyllene, one of the primary terpenes found in cannabis, basil, hops, pepper, and rosemary.

Terpenes, or isoprenoids, which are similar to essential oils, provide cannabis plants their distinctive aromas and flavors. Many of the terpenes have also been found to possess antifungal properties, as a study published in the Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Journal in 2018 indicated(5).

In the said study, the researchers noted that none of the essential oils was as effective as CBD. They also suggested that terpenoids (chemically-modified terpenes) may be used to reduce inflammation.

Inflammation promotes Candida colonization, which, in turn, delays healing(6).

Meanwhile, CBD’s anti-inflammatory characteristics have been shown in several human and animal studies, like that of a 2014 study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation and a 2012 research conducted by authors from the Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine in the University of São Paulo, Brazil(7).

Another research published in the Free Radical Biology & Medicine Journal by George Booz from the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology in the University of Mississippi Medical Center showed that CBD, which may interact with the endocannabinoid system, is a promising prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development(8).

Studies like these suggest that CBD, as a potent anti-inflammation compound, may also help with candidiasis. 

How CBD Oil Works to Help with Candida 

CBD works upon the CB2 receptors of the ECS and regulates the immune response. As an anti-inflammatory agent, CBD curbs inflammation and regulates the immune system. 

The proinflammatory cells cytokines activate the pain receptors of the nerve cells, and the longer they remain inside the system, the greater the stimulation of the pain receptors. This mechanism is explained in Chapter 8 of the book Translational Pain Research: From Mouse to Man by Lawrence Kruger and Alan R. Light(9).  

Cytokines heighten pathologic pain (caused by tissue damage) and also exacerbate the pain experienced in oral and vaginal thrush, as a 2012 study on cytokines and Candida vaginitis shows (10).

As CBD binds to the CB2 receptors of the immune cells that are overactive, it activates an anti-inflammatory protein known as the caspase. 

Once activated, the caspase transmits a signal that starts cell death of the immune cell, and then the inflammation gets regulated as cytokines production gets reduced. 

 In the African Health Sciences Journal, a 2018 study showed that the reduction of cytokines restores a weakened immune system, one of the primary causes of thrush infection and overgrowth of candidiasis(11).

However, besides the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD, could it also help reduce the skin itchiness and stinging felt in thrush?

Although there have been no studies specific to CBD’s effects on itchiness, there have been studies on how cannabinoids may help with alleviating itchy skin conditions resulting from candidiasis of the skin.

In a 2019 study published in the Journal of Dermatological Treatment, researchers found that cannabinoids have shown to demonstrate anti-inflammatory and antipruritic (anti-itch) properties, making it a potential alternative to conventional skin treatments(12).

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Candida 

The Pros

  • Studies mentioned previously show CBD’s anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antipruritic properties, which may help treat candidiasis or thrush.
  • CBD is non-addictive, says Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) in a 2015 article(13). This characteristic makes CBD safe for daily intake when fasting for an extended period.
  • CBD “is generally well tolerated with a good safety profile,” as the World Health Organization (WHO) stated in a critical review(14)
  • CBD oil may be purchased without a prescription in locations where they are legally available.

The Cons

  • Studies are too limited to determine whether or not CBD is an effective treatment for conditions other than the ones approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • As with the use of any natural chemical compound, there are risks involved in using CBD. According to the Mayo Clinic, possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, diarrhea, fatigue, and reduced appetite(15).
  • CBD can alter how the body metabolizes certain medications. Data from a 2019 study published in the Journal of Clinical Medicine indicate that antifungals and anti-inflammatory medicines are among those that adversely interact with CBD(16).
  • Dr Doris Trauner, professor of neurosciences and pediatrics at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and a physician at San Diego’s Rady Children’s Hospital, cautions that CBD products marketed online and in dispensaries are mostly unregulated(17).

The lack of regulation makes it difficult to determine whether the CBD gummies, tinctures, patches, balms, and gelcaps contain what the product label claims.

A 2107 review published in the Journal of the American Medical Association revealed labeling inaccuracies among CBD products. Some products had less CBD than stated, while others had more(18).

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Candida

In otherwise healthy individuals who have cutaneous candidiasis, thrush, or vaginal yeast infections, Candida infections can often be remedied with a short treatment or even a single dose of antifungal medication(19).  

However, in people with a weak immune system, Candida infections can be challenging to treat and can recur after treatment. 

Fortunately, several studies, like those mentioned previously, reveal that CBD possesses anti-inflammatory properties.

Most of the autoimmune diseases are caused by inflammation, and CBD tends to be very useful in strengthening the immune system, as results from a 2009 research suggested(20). When the immune system is robust, Candida infections may not be that difficult to treat.

In general, most Candida infections may be prevented by keeping the skin clean and dry, following a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition, and by using antibiotics only as the doctor prescribed.  

One adverse side effect of using antibiotics is that it can promote yeast infections, as results of a study suggested(21)

Published in the Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology Journal in 2008, the said study explored the effects of tetracycline, an antibiotic, on Candida albicans. Researchers found that low concentration levels of the antibiotic caused some vaginitis symptoms to appear.

 A problem occurs when an individual takes some antibiotics for an ailment but then has to deal with the unwanted symptoms of a yeast infection. In situations like this, CBD can help by acting as a potent antibiotic without causing yeast infection or overgrowth. 

According to an article posted by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) in June 2019, research has found that cannabidiol is active against Gram-positive bacteria, with a potency similar to that of established antibiotics such as vancomycin or daptomycin(22)

Dr Mark Blaskovich led the research at The University of Queensland’s Institute for Molecular Bioscience’s Centre for Superbug Solutions.

Blaskovich and his team found that CBD was remarkably effective at killing a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including those that are resistant to other antibiotics, and did not lose effectiveness after extended treatment.

Dr Blaskovich said, “The combination of inherent antimicrobial activity and potential to reduce damage caused by the inflammatory response to infections is particularly attractive.” 

The authors of the said study also noted that CBD was beneficial at disrupting biofilms, a type of bacteria growth that leads to difficult-to-treat infections.

The lab studies also showed that “CBD is much less likely to cause resistance than the existing antibiotics,” Blaskovich says.

How to Choose the Right CBD for Candida

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all phytonutrients from hemp, including trace amounts of THC, terpenes, flavonoids, and essential oils. These compounds work together to intensify the therapeutic benefits of each individual cannabinoid, resulting in the “entourage effect”.

Those with allergies to THC may opt to use broad-spectrum CBD oil, which is like full-spectrum CBD but without the THC that makes the user high.

Meanwhile, CBD isolates carry only pure, isolated cannabidiol. CBD isolates are typically derived hemp, due to hemp plants’ low to non-existent THC-content.

However, regardless of the form of CBD product of choice, careful consideration must still be employed in selecting the best CBD oil to help with inflammation, fungal infection, and itchiness.

The following factors are essential to ensure the safety and reliability of the CBD products purchased:

  1. Research on the exact legal stipulations applicable to CBD in the area where it would be purchased and used.
  2. Purchase only high-quality CBD products from legitimate and reliable brands. The majority of companies that manufacture the best CBD oil products grow their hemp from their farm, or they purchase from licensed hemp producers.
  3. Research product reviews before buying from an online store. When buying from a physical store or dispensary, check whether the store is authorized by the government to sell CBD.
  4. One important thing to look for in CBD products is certification codes. Several certification authorities approve certain products only after some thorough screening tests. 
  5. Compare company claims about their products’ potency with that of the third-party lab reports. 
  6. Consulting with a trusted medical professional who is experienced in CBD use is ideal before one purchases his or her first bottle of CBD. 

Best CBD to Help with Candida

1. Sagely Naturals Extra Strength Relief & Recovery Capsules

Sagely Naturals Extra Strength Relief & Recovery Capsules Bottle

Twice the CBD of their original formula, the Extra Strength Relief & Recovery CBD Capsules help ease inflammation and discomfort with plant-based ingredients and broad-spectrum CBD. Organic turmeric may help promote healthy joints and muscles and aid in occasional exercise-induced inflammation. Turmeric has natural anti-inflammatory compounds called curcuminoids. Black pepper extract facilitates the absorption of turmeric for highest possible efficacy.

Check Latest Price

2. CBDfx CBD Gummies with Turmeric and Spirulina 300mg

CBDfx CBD Gummies with Turmeric and Spirulina 300mg Bottle

These CBD gummies offer a twist on their CBD gummy bears by including turmeric and spirulina — two popular superfoods often used for their antioxidant and discomfort-fighting potential. The CBD in these vegan gummies is 100% organic, broad-spectrum, and free of harmful additives. CBDfx Gummies with Turmeric & Spirulina is made from hemp plants grown organically at select partner farms in the USA, which means one gets the purest CBD with high levels of terpenes, amino acids, essential fatty acids and vitamins.

Check Latest Price

3. Endoca CBD Suppositories 500mg

Endoca CBD Suppositories 500mg Box

Suppositories provide a targeted and effective dose if taking CBD by swallowing capsules or taking oil under the tongue is impossible. CBD suppositories can help accelerate cannabinoids getting into the bloodstream in high concentrations.  Rectal administration increases the uptake of CBD entering the bloodstream by almost 10 times as compared with oral consumption. CBD cannabis suppositories help prevent drug degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as bypass first-pass metabolism in the liver, allowing the cannabinoids to reach the blood in much higher concentrations.

Check Latest Price

CBD Dosage for Candida

There is no recommended CBD dosage specific for Candida.

According to an article written by Peter Grinspoon, MD, on Harvard Health in August 2019, experts do not know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition. 

Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies, effective doses cannot be determined. Also, Grinspoon says that given that BD is currently mostly available as an unregulated supplement, it is difficult to know what the consumers are getting. 

Grinspoon’s advice to those looking to try and purchase CBD products is to talk with their doctor to make sure that taking CBD would not cause adverse interactions with other medications that are currently taken(23).

In a 2017 study, researchers said that chronic CBD use and large doses of up to 1500 mg a day had been repeatedly shown to be well tolerated by humans(24)

While CBD is considered generally safe, as the 2011 review in the Current Drug Safety Journal suggests, the long-term effects are yet to be examined further(25).

How to Take CBD Oil for Candida 

There are different types of candidiasis, depending on the particular area of the body that was affected. Treatment also varies with each type. 

For CBD to be effective, it must go where it is needed. Thus, it is essential to know the location of the CBD’s target.

A consultation with a doctor can help determine the type of candidiasis that one has, and this information can help an individual set a specific target for the CBD.

One of the fastest ways to feel the effects of CBD is to vape it. However, if vaping is not an option, there are still other methods.

If the target is close to the skin or a mucous membrane, like the vagina, one could first try a localized CBD product, such as a topical or suppository. These products deliver the highest concentration of CBD in a specific area.

Topicals like CBD creams, lotions, and patches may be applied to a target area on the skin.

Otherwise, there are broad-spectrum CBD suppositories available that may be used vaginally or rectally. However, this should only be used upon the advice of a doctor.

In cases of inflammation, CBD needs to travel through the bloodstream to reach its target. Oral CBD products like tinctures are best for this purpose. Sublingual (under the tongue) absorption is an efficient method of taking CBD oil. 

In a 2010 review, published in the International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, researchers found that peak blood levels of most substances given sublingually are achieved in 10 to 15 minutes, which is faster than when those same drugs are ingested orally(26).

CBD gummies and capsules are CBD products that may also be taken orally. 

A Close Look at Candida

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) describes Candidiasis as a fungal infection caused by a yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida. Some Candida species, the most common of which is Candida albicans, can cause infection in people(27). The infection may cause discomfort, although it is typically harmless.

Many types of fungi live in the human body, and Candida is naturally found in minimum amounts in the gut microbiome, vaginal tract, oral cavity, and digestive tract, without inducing any problems. 

Candidiasis also impacts the skin in the armpits and between the fingers or groin. The presence of this type of fungus in those areas results in a red or painful scratch or a rash that becomes serious with a yellowish or white discharge. 

If an oral thrush infection is left untreated, it can lead to a systemic Candida infection. Systemic Candidiasis affects many parts of the body and is usually caused by an immune deficiency(28).

The CDC also said that when Candida species enter the bloodstream or impact internal organs, such as the kidney, heart, or brain, invasive candidiasis occurs(29).

Antifungal medication can cure invasive candidiasis. People with cancer or organ transplants may also receive antifungal medications to prevent invasive candidiasis, as explained in a 2016 study published in the Clinical Infectious Diseases Journal(30).

The other typical symptoms of Candida overgrowth include:

  • Fatigue that may be accompanied by fibromyalgia, a disorder characterized by chronic pain, stiffness, and tenderness of muscles and joints without detectable inflammation
  • Issues with the digestive system like gas, bloating, and constipation
  • Sugar cravings – Sugar is food for yeast.
  • Mercury overload – Yeast overgrowths may manifest to protect mercury in the body
  • Skin problems like dandruff, rashes, eczema, rosacea, hives, and tinea versicolor (a condition marked by the appearance of white spots when one’s skin gets exposed to the sun)
  • Seasonal allergies or chronic sinus infections
  • Leaky gut connected to autoimmune diseases due to the suppression of serotonin
  • Vaginal infections or urinary tract infections

Types of Candidiasis and Their Treatments

In a 2014 study published in the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, the researchers explored the different pharmaceuticals used to treat oral candidiasis(31). 

Although nystatin and amphotericin B were the drugs mostly used locally, fluconazole oral suspension is proving to be an effective drug as well in the treatment of oral candidiasis(32).

For cutaneous candidiasis (skin candidiasis), a variety of antifungal powders and creams can be an effective medication. Keeping the skin surrounding the affected area clean and dry during the treatment is also essential. 

Meanwhile, antifungal medications that are applied directly into the vagina work best to combat vaginal yeast infections. 

In an article posted in July 2019, Mayo Clinic says that the appropriate treatment for yeast infections is determined by the severity and frequency of infections(33). 

Medications come in the form of suppositories, creams, ointments, or tablets. 

Some complementary and alternative therapies may provide some relief when combined with a doctor’s supervision.

However, according to the same article, no alternative medicine therapies have been proved to treat vaginal yeast infections. 

The Seven Questions

Several methods could help diagnose candidiasis, and most of these examinations are best done through the directions and advice of a medical professional. 

In her book, Reset the Yeast Connection, Carolyn F. A. Dean MD ND talked about the seven questions she asks her patients to determine whether or not they have yeast overgrowth syndrome(34)

Yeast Overgrowth Syndrome (YOS) is a term Dean uses to refer to candidiasis, Candida-related complex, Candida hypersensitivity, and yeast allergies.

In the book, Dean also discussed the FRDQ-7 (Fungus Related Disease Questionnaire-7) that Dr Heiko Santelmann, a German physician from Oslo, Norway, designed to diagnose YOS(35).

Answering positively to two or more of these questions means there is yeast overgrowth. 

  1. Have you, at any time in your life, taken “broad-spectrum” antibiotics?
  2. Have you taken tetracycline or other broad-spectrum antibiotics for one month or longer?
  3. Are your symptoms worse on damp, muggy days or in moldy places?
  4. Do you crave sugar?
  5. Do you have a feeling of being “drained”?
  6. Are you bothered with vaginal (or penile) burning itching or discharge?
  7. Are you bothered by burning, itching or tearing of eyes?

Supplements for Yeast Overgrowth

Common antifungal supplements that are effective in treating yeast overgrowth include caprylic acid, which is naturally found in coconut oil(36).

Also, taking high-quality probiotic supplements may help during the treatment(37)

These supplements would protect the body against another episode of yeast overgrown that could arise in the future. 

The probiotics feed the good bacteria and yeast as well, so the supplements should only be taken after the Candida is already contained.

Understanding CBD

Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is a type of cannabis that is one of the most recognized ancient plants. Sativa is Latin for “useful”, and it is a term that is commonly used in plant names. 

Both hemp and marijuana plants belong to the plant genus cannabis. Cannabis is classified as a Schedule I drug in the United States but is legally accepted in 16 states and the District of Columbia for therapeutic purposes. 

CBD is naturally found in hemp plants, and this compound is commonly used to produce CBD hemp oil supplements. CBD is non-intoxicating and non-addictive. CBD derived from extracted from hemp is legal under United States federal law(38)

Although CBD and THC are similar in chemical structure, they do not share the same psychoactive effects. THC binds with the cannabinoid 1 or CB1 receptors in the brain and produces a sense of euphoria. 

CBD, however, binds inadequately to CB1 receptors. CBD can even disrupt the binding of THC and suppress its psychoactive effect, as researchers of a 2018 study published in the Neuropsychopharmacology Journal suggest. CBD, a non-psychoactive compound, does not induce the “high” associated with THC(39)

CBD and Drug Tests

Some people are apprehensive whether or not CBD would manifest on their drug test if they use CBD. The good news is that it would not. However, use only a pure broad-spectrum CBD product which does not have any THC added. 

Full-spectrum CBD products contain trace amounts of THC, and CBD may be detected during a drug test. To be sure that there would be no trace of THC in the body, choose a THC free product that has “broad spectrum” or “isolate THC free” on the label(40).

Note that medical marijuana is legal in some states. For a complete list with the corresponding laws, fees, and possession limits, click here(41).

Conclusion

In several studies mentioned previously, CBD has been shown to possess natural antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory properties that may help with Candida and treat yeast overgrowth. 

There are different types of candidiasis, depending on the particular area of the body that was affected. Treatments, even those with CBD products, also vary with each type. 

Keep in mind, however, that there is no recommended CBD dosage specific for Candida. Thus, consulting with a trusted medical practitioner experienced with cannabis use is the best course of action for anyone looking to try CBD for the first time or include CBD in their current regimen.

To learn more about the studies on Candida, go to PubMed.gov (42).


  1. Russo EB. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7):1344–1364. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x.
  2. Yano J, Noverr MC, Fidel PL Jr. Cytokines in the host response to Candida vaginitis: Identifying a role for non-classical immune mediators, S100 alarmins. Cytokine. 2012;58(1):118–128. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2011.11.021.
  3. Abd El-Kader SM, Al-Shreef FM. Inflammatory cytokines and immune system modulation by aerobic versus resisted exercise training for elderly. Afr Health Sci. 2018;18(1):120–131. doi:10.4314/ahs.v18i1.16.
  4. Russo EB. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7):1344–1364. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x
  5. Gallily R, Yekhtin Z, Hanuš LO. The Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Terpenoids from Cannabis. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2018;3(1):282–290. Published 2018 Dec 26. doi:10.1089/can.2018.0014.
  6. Kumamoto CA. Inflammation and gastrointestinal Candida colonization. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011;14(4):386–391. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2011.07.015.
  7. Oláh A, Tóth BI, Borbíró I, et al. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. J Clin Invest. 2014;124(9):3713–3724. doi:10.1172/JCI64628; Ribeiro A, Ferraz-de-Paula V, […], and Palermo-Neto J. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012 Mar 5;678(1-3):78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.12.043. Epub 2012 Jan 12.
  8. Booz GW. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51(5):1054–1061. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.01.007.
  9. Lawrence Kruger and Alan R. Light. Chapter 8. Translational Pain Research: From Mouse to Man. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2010.
  10. Yano J, Noverr MC, Fidel PL Jr. Cytokines in the host response to Candida vaginitis: Identifying a role for non-classical immune mediators, S100 alarmins. Cytokine. 2012;58(1):118–128. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2011.11.021.
  11. Abd El-Kader SM, Al-Shreef FM. Inflammatory cytokines and immune system modulation by aerobic versus resisted exercise training for elderly. Afr Health Sci. 2018;18(1):120–131. doi:10.4314/ahs.v18i1.16.
  12. Sheriff T, Lin MJ, Dubin D, Khorasani H. The potential role of cannabinoids in dermatology. J Dermatolog Treat. 2019 Oct 10:1-7. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2019.1675854. 
  13. Nora Volkow. NIDA. Researching Marijuana for Therapeutic Purposes: The Potential Promise of Cannabidiol (CBD). National Institute on Drug Abuse website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/noras-blog/2015/07/researching-marijuana-therapeutic-purposes-potential-promise-cannabidiol-cbd. July 20, 2015. Accessed January 31, 2020.
  14. Expert Committee on Drug Dependence Fortieth Meeting. Cannabidiol (CBD) Critical Review Report. June 2018.
  15. Bauer, B. (2018, Dec 20). What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use? Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700.
  16. Brown JD, Winterstein AG. Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug-Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer Cannabidiol (CBD) Use. J Clin Med. 2019;8(7):989. Published 2019 Jul 8. doi:10.3390/jcm8070989.
  17. Peachman, RB. (2019, Feb 26). Can CBD Help Your Child? Retrieved from https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/can-cbd-help-your-child/.
  18. Bonn-Miller MO, Loflin MJE, Thomas BF, Marcu JP, Hyke T, Vandrey R. Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online. JAMA. 2017;318(17):1708–1709. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.11909.
  19. Mukherjee PK, Sheehan DJ, Hitchcock CA, Ghannoum MA. Combination treatment of invasive fungal infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18(1):163–194. doi:10.1128/CMR.18.1.163-194.2005.
  20. Kaplan BL, Springs AE, Kaminski NE. The profile of immune modulation by cannabidiol (CBD) involves deregulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;76(6):726–737. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2008.06.022.
  21. McCool L, Mai H, Essmann M, Larsen B. Tetracycline effects on Candida albicans virulence factors. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2008;2008:493508. doi:10.1155/2008/493508.
  22. Khan, A. (2019, June 23). Cannabidiol is a Powerful New Antibiotic. Retrieved from https://www.asm.org/Press-Releases/2019/June/Cannabidiol-is-a-Powerful-New-Antibiotic.
  23. Grinspoon, P. (2018, Aug 24). Cannabidiol (CBD) — what we know and what we don’t. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476.
  24. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2(1):139–154. Published 2017 Jun 1. doi:10.1089/can.2016.0034.
  25. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. 2011 Sep 1;6(4):237-49.
  26. Narang, N. and Sharma, J. (2010, Dec 08). Sublingual Mucosa as A Route for Systemic Drug Delivery. https://innovareacademics.in/journal/ijpps/Vol3Suppl2/1092.pdf.
  27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2019, Nov 13). Candidiasis. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/index.html
  28. The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. Systemic candidiasis. (2016, Dec 15). Retrieved from https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/1076/systemic-candidiasis.
  29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2019, Dec 17). About Invasive Candidiasis. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/invasive/definition.html.
  30. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Candidiasis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(4):e1–e50. doi:10.1093/cid/civ933.
  31. Garcia-Cuesta C, Sarrion-Pérez MG, Bagán JV. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review. J Clin Exp Dent. 2014;6(5):e576–e582. Published 2014 Dec 1. doi:10.4317/jced.51798’
  32. Ibid.
  33. Mayo Clinic. (2019, July 16). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/yeast-infection/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20379004.
  34. Dean, C. Reset the Yeast Connection Ver 2. Retrieved from https://drcarolyndeanlive.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Yeast-ReSet-Ver-2-Final-Edit-May-22-2018.pdf.
  35. ibid.
  36. Bakker E. (2015, jan 28). Can Caprylic Acid Get Rid of Candida? Retrieved from https://www.yeastinfection.org/everything-you-need-to-know-about-caprylic-acid-and-how-it-can-help-against-candida/.
  37. Mundula T, Ricci F, Barbetta B, Baccini M, Amedei A. Effect of Probiotics on Oral Candidiasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2019;11(10):2449. Published 2019 Oct 14. doi:10.3390/nu11102449.
  38. Akpan N, Leventhal J. (2019, July 12). Is CBD legal? Here’s what you need to know, according to science. Retrieved from https://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/is-cbd-legal-heres-what-you-need-to-know-according-to-science.
  39. Boggs DL, Nguyen JD, Morgenson D, Taffe MA, Ranganathan M. Clinical and Preclinical Evidence for Functional Interactions of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018;43(1):142–154. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.209.
  40. Gill, L. (2019, May 15). Can You Take CBD and Pass a Drug Test? Retrieved from https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/can-you-take-cbd-and-pass-a-drug-test/.
  41. ProCon.org. (2019, July 24). Legal Medical Marijuana States and DC Laws, Fees, and Possession Limits. Retrieved from https://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/legal-medical-marijuana-states-and-dc/.
  42. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=candida.
Susan Lindeman

Latest posts by Susan Lindeman (see all)

Testing for Candidiasis

Several methods could help diagnose candidiasis, and most of these examinations are best done through the directions and advice of a medical professional. 

A swab of a yeast infection can be forwarded to a clinic or laboratory for analysis to ascertain which type of yeast an individual has. 

Another procedure that one may choose to do is the urine Organix dysbiosis test. This test makes a careful assessment of d-Arabinitol, the marker of the candida waste product. 

Yeast also excretes waste, and an increased level of d-Arabinitol is a manifestation of yeast overgrowth in the upper gut or small intestines.

If an individual chooses to do a stool test, he or she should consult a medical professional and ask for a comprehensive stool analysis, which would include a check for the presence of candida in the colon or in the lower intestines. 

The stool test would also examine the IgA level in the stool. Amplified levels of fecal secretory IgA have been related to increased immune response. 

The laboratory would utilize the stool test to identify the type of yeast and the most practical remedy to apply.

A complete blood count (CBC) is another test that may be used to test for candida. A low WBC (white blood cell count) has been interconnected with yeast overgrowth, as well as a high neutrophil and low lymphocyte count. A high neutrophil and low lymphocyte count could suggest candida overgrowth.

An analysis concerning the levels of antibodies in one’s system is also a useful tool to test for candida. Elevated levels of IgG, IgM, IgA antibodies are an indication that the body’s immune system is responding to an infection. 

A low level of IgA, however, could imply a suppressed immune system. An individual can have this test done even without consulting a doctor.

Denying The Spit Test

Anyone who has tried to Google yeast infections may have come across the Candida Spit Test.

Here is how the test is done. First thing in the morning, before brushing teeth or drinking water, spit into a clear glass of water. Wait 30 minutes. If the clot of saliva develops legs (threads that head to the bottom of the glass), presumably, there is yeast.

However, Dean believes this is not a reliable test for Candida. A simple build up of mucus from a diet high in sugar and dairy can produce excess mucus secretion and a positive spit test. Simple dehydration also thickens the mucus. 

When one gets up in the morning after 7 to 8 hours sleep and not having taken any water, the mouth is probably dry and has a coating of mucus. This mucus can have legs. 

Treating Yeast Overgrowth

A straightforward way to deal with yeast overgrowth may be summarized in three simple steps.

  • First, deprive the yeast of its food. 

In an article, Mayo Clinic says that some complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners recommend a Candida cleanse diet to cure the syndrome

The diet eliminates sugar, white flour (refined carbs), yeast and cheese, based on the theory that these foods promote Candida overgrowth.

However, there is little evidence that dietary changes can improve the effects of yeast overgrowth, says Brent A. Bauer, M.D., who wrote the article

Still, he says many people note an improvement in various symptoms when following this diet, and it could be because cutting out most processed foods in the diet makes people feel better in general.

Meanwhile, if the person is taking a broad-spectrum antibiotic, it is helpful to stop treatment so that the usual bacterial flora of the mucous membranes is restored. 

Also, people who are particularly prone to Candidiasis infections, like diabetics, should avoid taking the types of drugs that encourage the growth of fungus.

Take note, however, that stopping any treatment that involves pharmaceuticals should be done only after consulting with a doctor.

  • Once the yeast has been starved, subdue the yeast. 

Some people would require a prescription antifungal like Nystatin or Diflucan. Antifungal supplements can be as effective as well. 

Common antifungal supplements include caprylic acid, which is naturally found in coconut oil.

  • Finally, after keeping the yeast under control and relieving the symptoms of infection, replenish good bacteria. 

Taking high-quality probiotic supplements may help during the treatment, as a 2019 study published in Nutrients Journal suggests. These supplements would protect the body against another episode of yeast overgrown that could arise in the future. 

The probiotics feed the good bacteria and yeast as well, so the supplements should only be taken after the Candida is already contained.

Foods to Combat Candida

The following foods may be a healthy addition to one’s diet if he or she is looking to prevent candidiasis.

  • Apple cider vinegar – Its enzymes may help break down Candida. Apple cider vinegar is the only vinegar recommended for consumption while treating Candida overgrowth.
  • Cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, radish, kale, cauliflower, bok choy, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage – These vegetables have compounds that contain sulfur and nitrogen, which attack Candida.
  • Garlic contains allicin, a sulfur-containing compound with antifungal properties specific to Candida.
  • Wild salmon has omega-3 fatty acids that fight fungal infections.
  • Coconut oil contains caprylic acid, which kills yeast cells.
  • Olive oil contains antioxidants that may help the body exterminate Candida.
  • Clove oil can be used as a topical aid for infections.
  • Lemon also helps in liver detoxification aside from providing its antifungal benefits.
  • Cinnamon has antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties that could prevent yeast overgrowth.
  • Ginger also antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties and supports liver health.

The Entourage Effect

Terpenes are chemicals that influence how things smell. Terpenes are what gives lemon its citrusy aroma, and they are responsible for the calming effects of lavender. 

Cannabinoids are the compounds in the cannabis plant that causes healing, but terpenes play a significant role in therapy as well. 

A 2011 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology showed how terpenes might intensify or downplay the effects of cannabinoids

Cannabinoids and terpenes can also work together in synergy to create an entourage effect. 

Making use of all the compounds and terpenes in the whole plant is the best way to maximize its healing potential. 

CBD concentrates are a perfect way to appreciate the benefits of CBD. Large dosage of cannabinoids takes effect faster than other methods, often with the advantage of healing terpenes that are introduced again into the concentrate.

The Effects of CBD

The results on the body from CBD consumption differs from person to person. Some adverse side effects may include nausea, irritability, and lethargy. In several cases, CBD induces energy and makes a person active and more attentive. 

However, for other people, CBD brought about the contrary reaction. In high doses, the latter group reported feeling lethargic after taking CBD. Higher doses of CBD can cause a minimal drop in blood pressure. 

Meanwhile, according to the World Health Organization, CBD in extremely significant quantities can cause sleepiness, lethargy, upset stomach, nausea, tremors and diarrhea, not death.

Dr Bonni Goldstein is a distinguished figure in the field of Science associated with the utilization of cannabis for medical purposes. As a licensed physician for almost three decades, Dr Goldstein concentrated on medical cannabis for the last ten years. 

At present, she is the Medical Director of Canna-Centers, a California-based medical practice committed to educating patients about the use of cannabis for acute and chronic medical conditions. 

Dr Goldstein’s work has helped spread awareness and understanding of the world’s most misunderstood plant. Now, the benefits of CBD is becoming more recognized among those who are looking to find natural solutions to debilitating health issues.

CBD products may be purchased over the counter and online. One may consume CBD in various ways — from smoking and vaping to taking the oil or extract sublingually. 

CBD products may come in the form of pills, skin creams, and patches. CBD oil may be infused in edibles like gummies and brownies, as well as beverages like coffees and teas.

CBD and the Immune System

The endocannabinoid system is interrelated with the immune system. To comprehend how CBD affects the body’s immune system, one must understand how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) works. 

A 2008 study published in the Pharmacological Reviews Journal explored the endocannabinoid system and its regulatory functions in health and disease.

The ECS is a network of cannabinoids and receptors that regulates most functions in the human body. The ECS also acts as an immuno-cannabinoid modulator as it gathers and interprets signals from cannabinoids. 

The body is capable of producing some cannabinoids on its own, which are called endocannabinoids. The ECS helps to manage functions such as immune-system responses, sleep, and pain, influencing a person’s physiology, mood and everyday experience. 

The neurotransmitters in the brain provide instructions for the body’s immune system and signal it when to activate its line of defense, where to engage it, and how strongly to involve it. 

CBD also impacts non-cannabinoid chemicals. Dopamine, a type of neurotransmitter, affects the unique ability of humans to think and plan. Dopamine interacts with CBD and can intercept the sensitivity of the brain to react to drugs. 

A 2016 study published in the Translational Psychiatry Journal shows how CBD impacts dopamine receptors in the brain. CBD has been shown to block the brain’s dopamine pathways actively and may possess anti-addiction characteristics as well.

CBD’s Antifungal and Anti-Bacterial Characteristics

CBD’s antifungal benefits have been known since the 1980s, although there has not been enough research since then. CBD and other phytocannabinoids, cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabichromene (CBC), have manifested remarkable antifungal and antibacterial properties. 

The evolutionary function of these noteworthy characteristics has to do with defending the leaves and flowers of cannabis plants from bacterial or fungal infections. 

Inevitably, cannabis and hemp plants are favored by farmers and botanists as there is no need for pesticides and other toxic chemicals that can poison the soil. Terpene caryophyllene oxide, the chemical that drug-sniffing canines respond to in cannabis, also inhibits the growth of fungi in cannabis plants and humans.

Hemp oil extracted from pressed hemp seeds is devoid of any psychoactive properties. This oil is often utilized as an added ingredient to beauty products due to its intrinsic ability to moisturize and remedy dry skin. 

Using hemp oil could help preserve the elasticity of the skin and minimize wrinkles. The antiviral and antifungal characteristics of hemp oil also make it beneficial in treating dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, and acne. Hemp seed oil strengthens the skin’s ability to resist bacterial, viral and fungal infections. 

A study suggests that the compounds naturally found in hemp oil, called cannabidiol or CBDs, have potent antimicrobial characteristics that may help treat vancomycin-resistant MRSA pathogens.    

The antifungal properties of CBD have proven favorable in the treatment of athlete’s foot. CBD serves to curb cell multiplication of the fungus. 

As the growth of the fungus is constrained, this creates an environment where the cells of the fungus start to expire. Also, CBD’s inherent analgesic attribute can help in mitigating the irritation and stinging pain experienced in vaginal and esophageal thrush.

CBC and CBG are common antifungal agents, and their potencies are enhanced by caryophyllene oxide. 

In a study, both CBG and CBC induced the elimination of onychomycosis, a fungal infection in humans, at rates equivalent to that of two pharmaceutical antifungals, cyclopiroxolamine and sulconazole. Also, caryophyllene oxide alone was equally potent as amphotericin at inhibiting the growth of some fungi.

CBD is also an effective remedy for staph infection. Common symptoms for staph infection include boils and blisters. 

Staph can also cause food poisoning that may induce nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting. In rare cases, staph infections can be lethal if the bacteria permeate deeper into the body or passes into the bloodstream. A severe staph infection could result in fever and pain in the muscles and joints.

CBD and Other Drug Interactions

CBD and Blood-Thinning Drugs

CBD and other plant cannabinoids can intensify the effects of drugs used for blood-thinning, such as warfarin. Also, CBD impacts drugs that may come with a risk of blood-thinning, like ibuprofen. 

CBD decelerates the metabolism of these drugs, thereby preserving the medication’s durability and extending the duration of its presence in the body. 

The presence of CBD may prolong the effects of these drugs and aggravate the risks of bleeding. A medical professional must be able to monitor the simultaneous usage of CBD and these drugs.

CBD and Sedatives

Cannabinoids, when taken in conjunction with sedatives, may increase the effects of these medications.

The interaction between CBD and sedatives does not adversely affect the patient directly. The probable impact CBD can have on sedatives is still undetermined. It is wise to avoid combining CBD with sedatives.

CBD and Anti-Seizure Medications

CBD is recognized as an effective treatment for epileptic seizures. However, without medical supervision, CBD can present problems with some anti-seizure medications. 

In a study, researchers found that CBD in low dosage would not provide its anti-epileptic benefits. 

However, it would continue to inhibit the cytochrome p450 enzymes and result in concentrations of clobazam and norclobazam for an extended period, which can lead to more aggressive seizures. 

Consult a doctor to assess the proper CBD dosage of CBD to alleviate epileptic seizures.

CBD and Chemotherapy Drugs

Accurate dosages are essential in the administration of chemotherapy drugs. An insufficient amount may not be adequate, while an excessive amount may lead to toxicity. 

Many chemotherapy drugs are designed to be metabolized at a specific rate before entering the body. 

When CBD is taken in conjunction with drugs for chemotherapy treatment, CBD inhibits the metabolism process. 

By impeding metabolism, higher concentrations of the chemotherapy drug enter the bloodstream than intended. CBD may slow down the growth of cancer and alleviate cancer-related pain.

CBD and Thyroid Medications

CBD may also help influence normal thyroid hormone levels by working directly with CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the body. 

A study affirmed that CBD could prevent chronic pain brought about by osteoarthritis and malfunction of the nerves. Researchers found that CBD decreased joint inflammation and protected the nerves. 

Some people report no adverse side effects that resulted from taking CBD oil alongside their thyroid medications. However, there is still no substantial evidence on how CBD may interact with thyroid medicines. 

It is best to consult a medical professional before taking CBD together with medications for thyroid disorder.

CBD and Gut Health

CBD is a natural, plant-based remedy with proven demonstrated, valuable benefits for people struggling with various medical conditions. 

CBD administered at a high level supports the body’s ECS in reinstating the stability of biological functions that have been disrupted or damaged. Nowadays, many people turn to CBD to achieve and maintain general wellness as CBD is effective in rebalancing body functions. 

For people with gastrointestinal disorders, that rebalancing is focused on inflammation in the organs in the digestive tract like the gut and large intestine. CBD oil is beneficial in relieving the underlying symptoms of GI disorders, such as inflammation, pain, and anxiety.

Understanding Gastro-Intestinal Diseases

GI or gastro-intestinal diseases is a term used to describe issues in the digestive system.  Fortunately, CBD oil may be able to help alleviate many of the symptoms associated with GI disorders.

Occasionally, most people experience constipation. However, chronic constipation is marked by difficult or infrequent bowel movements for an extended period. 

Indications of constipation may include having fewer than three bowel movements a week, struggling during defecation, and excretion of lumpy or hard stools. Chronic constipation occurs when there are blockages or nerve issues in the colon or rectum. This disorder can also be an indication of diabetes.

IBS or irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by an inflammation in the large intestine. Symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain and cramps, gas, constipation, bloating, diarrhea, and weight loss. 

IBS affects at least one in ten people worldwide, and the disorder occurs twice as frequently among women. IBS is a chronic medical condition with no cure. 

However, an individual with IBS can manage the symptoms of the disease by adopting a healthy diet, taking fiber supplements and medications, and making some changes in lifestyle. 

Counselling and antidepressants may also help in managing IBS as stress may trigger or intensify symptoms.

Crohn’s disease, like ulcerative colitis, is a type of IBD or inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn’s disease is an indication of inflammation in the digestive tract. 

Symptoms are similar to that of IBS and may include lethargy, blood in the stool, and appetite decrease.

Crohn’s disease is incurable, which makes the disorder debilitating. Recommended medications to relieve the symptoms often entails a combination of diet and lifestyle changes, as well as taking antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs.

Ulcerative colitis is another IBD that induces inflammation and ulcers in the digestive tract. However, unlike Crohn’s disease, colitis specifically impacts the colon and rectum. 

Symptoms of Crohn’s disease include lethargy, fever, severe diarrhea that is often accompanied by pus or blood in the stool, abdominal pain, rectal pain and bleeding, problems with defecating and the urgency to defecate, and weight loss. 

Unfortunately, there is no hope for recovery from ulcerative colitis. Treatment to manage the symptoms may include taking immunosuppressive drugs in conjunction with anti-inflammatory medications, such as pain relievers.

Gastritis is another GI disorder marked by inflammation in the stomach lining. Gastritis can be caused by a bacterial infection or excessive consumption of pain relievers and alcohol. 

Certain IBDs like Crohn’s disease can also add risks of getting afflicted with gastritis. Symptoms of gastritis may include nausea, a painful burning sensation in the upper abdomen, vomiting, and a sense of satiety in the upper abdomen after eating. 

Gastritis may lead to stomach ulcers and later develop into stomach cancer if left untreated for an extended period. However, for most people, gastritis can be cured if given proper medication. 

Along with a healthy diet and lifestyle changes, treatment typically includes histamine blockers, a combination of antibiotics to stop the infection, and antacids.

Living with a gastrointestinal problem can be debilitating and cause unwarranted stress on an individual. The urgency and gravity of some of the physical symptoms of the disease can severely disrupt a person’s daily life.

The symptoms often cause discomposure and embarrassment that may intensify feelings of isolation, stress, and depression.

CBD Oil for GI Diseases

CBD interacts with cannabinoid receptors in the digestive and immune systems. Through this interaction, CBD oil can lessen inflammation in the digestive tract, enhance the immune response of the gut, and alleviate the anxiety and stress linked to gastrointestinal diseases.

Chronic pain relief is one of the primary reasons why people turn to CBD oil. CBD addresses pain by regulating the brain’s pain response, which then leads to the release of neurotransmitters acting as an antidepressant. 

Concurrently, CBD binds to CB2 receptors situated throughout the immune system to decrease inflammation.

People with a digestive disorder have problems with their gut being unable to control intestinal activity. This issue leads to cramping, muscle spasms, and intestinal paralysis. 

A study done on mice diagnosed with intestinal inflammation has found that their endocannabinoid system cannot regulate inflammation as successfully as it might in a healthy individual. 

However, upon the consumption of CBD oil, the cannabinoid surge inhibited intestinal motility in mice. This study suggests that CBD relieves gut inflammation and pain. 

Similar studies demonstrated that activating CB1 receptors in the colon can perform a self-protective role against inflammation in the colon.

Researchers also give credence to CBD’s potential as a remedy for IBDs because of its natural ability to regulate the neuroimmune axis. 

A hyperactive immune response in the gut can stimulate the propagation of enteric glial cells, intensifying inflammation and magnifying GI problems. CBD specifically counteracts the propagation, minimizing the possible occurrence of long-term intestinal impairment. Aside from reducing inflammation, CBD also reduces occurrences of cramping and other colitis-related disturbances.

Prescription medications prescribed to patients with GI issues often come with some adverse side effects. Reactions to these over-the-counter drugs may include amplified abdominal pain, constipation, and nausea. 

On the other hand, studies confirm that CBD oil rarely induces side effects. Many people now prefer CBD oil as a treatment for symptoms associated with GI disorders. CBD oil is a safe, plant-based alternative to prescription drugs that come with unwanted side effects.

CBD oil is an extremely safe medication even when taken on an extended period and in high doses. However, pregnant and breastfeeding women, children, and anyone taking other prescription drugs might be vulnerable to experiencing side effects when consuming CBD. 

Individuals with digestive disorders often take other medications. Therefore, it is crucial to exercise caution before one begins a CBD regimen. 

CBD can impact the way the liver metabolizes certain drugs, which may cause adverse reactions with one’s medications or lead to liver damage. One should speak to a medical professional before starting a CBD therapy. 

It is best to be well-informed of the optimal dose necessary for one’s particular medical concern, as well as the potential side effects that may come with using CBD in conjunction with other medications.

Safety Issues with CBD as Cure for GI Disorders

Prescription medications prescribed to patients with GI issues often come with some adverse side effects. Reactions to these over-the-counter drugs may include amplified abdominal pain, constipation, and nausea. 

On the other hand, studies confirm that CBD oil rarely induces side effects. Many people now prefer CBD oil as a treatment for symptoms associated with GI disorders. CBD oil is a safe, plant-based alternative to prescription drugs that come with unwanted side effects.

CBD oil is an extremely safe medication even when taken on an extended period and in high doses. However, pregnant and breastfeeding women, children, and anyone taking other prescription drugs might be vulnerable to experiencing side effects when consuming CBD. 

Individuals with digestive disorders often take other medications. Therefore, it is crucial to exercise caution before one begins a CBD regimen. 

CBD can impact the way the liver metabolizes certain drugs, which may cause adverse reactions with one’s medications or lead to liver damage. One should speak to a medical professional before starting a CBD therapy. 

It is best to be well-informed of the optimal dose necessary for one’s particular medical concern, as well as the potential side effects that may come with using CBD in conjunction with other medications.

One popular brand of CBD product that is specifically intended to help treat yeast overgrowth is Candida (CD – 1) Feminised Seeds from Medical Marijuana Genetics. Its CBD levels are between 20.6% and 10.9%, while THC is below 1%.  

The balance between CBD and THC remains more consistent than any similar strain. This product offers a 20:1 CBD:THC ratio, the highest CBD and the lowest THC content of any strain sold on the seed market today. 10 seeds sell for about US$90 online.

Amanita Muscaria and Amanita Pantherina

Species of the genus Amanita known to cause the majority of toxic exposures are Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina. The toxins are all isoxazole derivatives. Other Amanita mushrooms contain the same toxins and induce similar toxicity:

  • Amanita muscaria var. Kamtschatica Langsdorff ex. Fr.
  • Amanita regalis (Fr.) R. Mre. (A. muscaria var. umbrina Fr.)
  • Amanita muscaria var. formosa
  • Amanita muscaria var. alba
  • Amanita gemmata (Fr.) Bertillon
  • Amanita velatipes Atk.
  • Amanita cothurnata Atk.
  • Amanita flavovolvata Sing.
  • Amanita strobiliformis (Vitt.) Quel.
  • Amanita pantherina (DC ex Fr.) Secr.
  • Amanita pantherina multisquamosa
  • Amanita pantherina velatipes
  • Amanita pantherina pantherinoides
  • Tricholoma muscaria

Family is Agaricaceae (Agaricales). The genus is Amanita (Amanitaceae)

Common Names of Amanita Muscaria and Amanita Pantherina

Amanita Muscaria

  • English Fly Agaric
  • German   Fliegenpilz, Roter fliegenpilz
  • Spanish   Falsa oronja, Amanita matamoscas
  • French Amanite tue-mouche, Agaric aux mouches, fausse oronge
  • Italian Ovulo malefico, Uovolaccio
  • Polish Muchomor czerwony

Amanita Pantherina

  • English Panther cap.
  • German Pantherpilz, Braunner Knollenblätterpilz
  • Spanish Amanita pantera, galipiermo falso
  • French Amanite panthère, Fausse golmelle
  • Italian       Tignosa bigia, Tignosa regata, Agarico panterino
  • Polish Muchomor plamisty

Description of Amanita Muscaria

Cap: 8 to 12 cm diameter, occasionally over 20 cm; conical when young, flattening in age; viscid, adorned with white to pale yellow warts or small patches.  This mushroom has a variety of color variants, ranging from yellow through orange, orange-red to blood-red or scarlet. The yellow, orange or orange-red caps (A. muscaria var. formosa) occurs in eastern North America. The scarlet cap (A. muscaria var. muscaria) occurs in western North America, throughout Europe and Asia. Flesh firm, white throughout.

Gills (lamellae): crowded, free or just touching stalk, broad, white, minutely hairy edges.

Stalk: 8 to 15 cm long, 20 to 30 mm thick enlarging towards base and becoming bulbous; white, covered with silky hairs.

Ring: (annulus): large, membranous, white to yellowish, median to superior, resistant though margin usually frayed.

Cup (volva): the remains of the volva are often only 2 or 3 concentric rings above the bulb; white to straw.

Spores:  white spore print (in mass); 8 – 11 by 6 – 8 microns, ellipsoid, thin walled, no amyloid reaction.

Description of Amanita Pantherina

Habitat: Scattered or abundant, sometimes in fairy rings under hardwoods and conifers from spring to autumn.

Distribution: These species are widely distributed throughout the planet. Amanita muscaria grows in summer and autumn under coniferous and deciduous trees, from the lowland up to the subalpine zone. It occurs practically all over the temperate and subtropical zones in Europe, North Africa, South Africa, Asia, Japan, Australia, North America (in the Western States of the USA more often than in the Eastern States) and in South America.  (Seeger & Stijve, 1978).

Main Risks and Target Organs       

The most frequent cause of intoxication is the consumption of Amanita muscaria by people who mistake it and ignore its toxicity. Amanita muscaria might also be ingested in order to obtain mind-altering effects. The central nervous system is the major target organ.

Summary of Clinical Effects

Symptoms appear 30 to 90 minutes after ingestion and last usually for 6 hours but may persist for 12 to 24 hours. The primary effects are central nervous system depression and stimulation, which may alternate.  Symptoms usually begin with drowsiness followed by a state of confusion, with ataxia, dizziness, euphoria resembling alcohol intoxication and may proceed to increased activity, illusions, or even manic excitement.

These periods of excitement may alternate with periods of somnolence, deep sleep or stupor. The illusions are primarily a misinterpretation of sensory stimuli. The prognosis is usually good with symptomatic treatment. Death from these mushrooms is extremely rare.

Diagnosis Based Upon History of Ingestion and Clinical Features

First Aid Measures and Management Principles

Treatment includes prevention of absorption of the toxins and treatment of the signs and symptoms of intoxication as they occur.  Atropine is not recommended. Induction of emesis is NOT recommended because of the potential central nervous system depression and seizures. There is no specific antidote for Amantia muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning.

Description of the Fungus and Special Identification Features

Complete and precise identification of the mushroom (if available) should be accomplished by a mycologist.  If no mycologist is available, colour photographs may be helpful for a first identification. Identification is difficult when the mushrooms have been altered by cooking, eating or storage.

More Information on Fungal Toxins Inocybe, Clitocybe and Omphalotus 

Inocybe, clitocybe, and omphalotus belong to the following family:

  • Inocybe – Inocybe (English and French), Risspilz  (German)
  • Clitocybe – Clitocybe (English and French), Trichtering (German
  • Omphalotus –  “Jack O’lantern” (North America)

Muscarine containing mushrooms are responsible for parasympathicomimetic poisoning with a number of symptoms, of which the most severe signs are: bradycardia, hypotension and respiratory distress. The symptoms are similar to cholinergic poisoning are general hyper-secretion (sweating, lacrimation, salivation, rhinorrhea, bronchorrhea), bradycardia, miosis, blurred vision and digestive troubles (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain).

The muscarine is present in all the different parts of the fungi.  The toxic species contain between 0.1 and 0.3% of the dry weight of muscarine.  The species containing less are not responsible for cholinomimetic signs (example:  Amanita muscaria which contains less than 0.002% of the dry weight of muscarine is only occasionally responsible for muscarine symptoms). The main toxin in muscarine which is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid.  Its pharmacological activity is close to acetylcholine.

Inocybe species are very common in European forests of deciduous trees like oaks (for I. patouillardi) or conifers (other toxic Inocybe). Clitocybe species grow in grasslands or open woods. In North America, Omphalotus species grow on dead wood in clusters. In Europe, the small white mushrooms of the genus Inocybe and Clitocybe are eaten after misidentification concerning famous edible species like Tricholoma terreum, Tricholoma georgii and Marasme oreades (global common name for the three species in French of “Grisets”) (Lambert, 1988). In North America, “Jack O’lantern” mushrooms (genus Omphalotus) can be the origin of confusion with sulfur shelves (Laetiporus sulphureus) (French, 1988). In Japan, cases with accidental ingestion of Entoloma rhodopolium have been reported. All the different parts of the mushrooms contain muscarine, and are toxic.

In order to avoid all types of mushroom poisonings, people have to ingest only clearly identified species. Muscarine containing species like Inocybe sp. and Clitocybe sp. are able to grow in edible mushrooms groups (Lambert, 2000).  These small white mushrooms can be eaten by error with edible mushrooms, but the most common circumstance is the misidentification with edible Tricholoma species.

Psilocybe 

The psilocybin-containing species known to cause the majority of toxic exposures are psilocybe, panaeolus, copelandia, gymnopilus, pluteus, and conocybe. The main toxin is psilocybin. The main toxins (psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin, norbaeocystin) exert neurotoxic effects similar to those of LSD.  They all have a chemical structure closely related to serotonin and affect central and probably also peripheral 5-HT receptors, resulting in transient central nervous system symptoms, e.g. hallucinations, euphoria, anxiety and agitation. Recently, the presence of phenylethylamine in Psilocybe semilanceata has been demonstrated and it is suggested that unwanted reactions may be ascribed to this substance. End-stage renal failure following confusing toxic fungi belonging to the genus Cortinarius with psilocybe mushrooms have occurred.

Gyromita Species

Species known to cause poisoning include Gyromita esculenta, Gyromita ambigua, and Gyromita infula. Species suspected of causing poisoning include Gyromita gigas, Gyromita fastigiate, Gyromita californica, and Gyromita sphaerospora. The main toxin is Gyromitrin. This fungus is collected for food, with almost all collectors knowing exactly what they have collected. The problem arises from the fact that they refuse to believe that these fungi contain a toxin which may be harmful to them or others.

Main risks and target organs are the liver, nervous system, and gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include nausea, abdominal cramps, gassy feeling, vomiting, and watery diarrhea.  In severe cases one might see the development of jaundice, seizures, liver failure, and coma. Dialysis may be necessary if there is evidence of developing renal damage. Throughout the treatment procedure the condition of the liver must be continually monitored and liver support given where required. Deaths have been documented from this fungal toxin. All parts of the fungus are potentially toxic. Cooking, freezing, or drying the fungal material may still leave significant concentrations of the toxin in the tissue.

Amatoxins

Amatoxins are liver toxins.  The main risk is liver necrosis with acute hepatic failure and subsequent complications, including hepatic coma, coagulation disorders and renal failure. Other mushrooms that also contain amatoxins and/or may induce the same toxicity are Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota. All parts of mushrooms containing amatoxin are poisonous. Alpha, beta and gamma amanitins are the main toxins. Amatoxin poisoning occurs mainly in the Summer and Autumn (growing period of the mushrooms).  However, cases of amatoxin poisoning may also be seen in Spring following ingestion of mushrooms such as Amanita verna.

Amatoxins are absorbed rapidly in humans; they can be detected radioimmunologically in the urine as early as 90 – 120 minutes post-ingestion (Homann et al, 1986). Amatoxins are among the most lethal poisons known. As little as 0.1 mg/kg may be a lethal dose for an adult (Vesconi et al, 1985).  Concentrations of 5 – 15 mg amatoxin per 40 gram fresh mushrooms have been found. This means that one amanita cap or 15 – 20 Galerina caps could kill a healthy adult.

Management of Poisoning by Unknown Fungi Main Fungal Syndromes and Their Treatment

Symptomatic treatment of the patient should begin before identification of the fungus in question.  Knowledge of certain syndromes characteristic of fungal poisoning is important. Always keep in mind that there can be many causes of symptoms which are NOT directly related to an exogenous fungal toxin: panic reactions (fear of having ingested a highly poisonous fungus), difficulties to digest the fungi, bacterial contamination (Salmonella, Staphylococcus, in the worst botulism), raw fungi (many edible species give arise to gastrointestinal symptoms if not prepared properly), individualized allergic reactions or, rarely, pesticide residues.

It must be remembered that when dealing with fungal toxins, that the longer the time interval (usually > 6 to 12 hours) between ingestion and the onset of symptoms, the more severe the type of fungal toxin (e.g. amatoxin, orellanine, gyromitrin).  Long onset indicates the possibility of a severe poisoning.

Cyclopeptides

Cyclopeptides are a group of major fungal toxins, accounting for approximately 90% of the fungal fatalities internationally.  The fatality rate of cyclopeptides in untreated cases is between 20 and 30%. Patients show a relatively long-time interval, that goes from 6 to 24 hours, between exposure and onset of symptoms.  Multiple dose activated charcoal is warranted in an attempt to interrupt the entero-hepatic recycling that can occur with these toxins. Enhanced diuresis and the possibility of using specific antidotes could be considered. 

Patients generally pass through four phases: (1) latent asymptomatic period, (2) gastro-intestinal phase with massive diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration with metabolic consequences like metabolic acidosis and hypoglycemia, (3) lessening of symptoms with a period of apparent well-being, and (4) hepatic phase (normally starting 36 to 48 hours after ingestion) with a rise in liver enzymes and acute hepatic failure. Patients who might have been exposed to cyclopeptides, will need close monitoring for liver damage and possible kidney damage, and could possibly require a liver transplant in the most severe cases.  The principle is that unless these fungi containing cyclopeptide can NOT be ruled out from consideration in the case, it must be assumed that this is what the medical treatment team is facing. Example fungi of Cyclopeptides are Amanita bisporigera, Amanita ocreata, Amanita phalloides, Amanita virosa, Amanita verna, Gallerinaspp, Lepiota josserandii, Lepiota subincarnata and others.

Orellanine-Orelline

Cases of orellanine poisoning have been confirmed only in Europe. The toxin is mainly nephrotoxic with a very long delay (3 to 11 days) between exposure and onset of renal symptoms. Occasionally there may be mild gastrointestinal symptoms during the latency period.  The toxin is probably a bipyridyl oxide (orellanine).

The mortality rate is thought to be approximately 15%.  Patients usually present with: myalgia, particularly lumbar pain, headache, chills, rigors, a severe burning thirst and oliguria. On admission to hospital (often after several days post ingestion) the patients show signs of renal damage that may progress into complete renal failure.

Treatment is mainly symptomatic, but if the patient is admitted to hospital within 24 hours after the meal (very unusual), gastrointestinal decontamination and hemodialysis should be performed in an attempt to eliminate the toxin. Example fungi are Cortinarius gentilis, Cortinarius orellanus, Cortinarius semisanguineus, Cortinarius specciossimus and others.

Gyromitrin-Monomethylhydrazine (MMH)

The fungal toxin gyrometrin, yields upon hydrolysis the toxic compound monomethylhydrazine (MMH).  Gyromitrin-Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) has a boiling point of 87.5o C, and as it may be distilled off during the cooking process, it may produce a toxic atmosphere for the cook.  Once again, the relatively long onset of symptoms (6 to 12 hours) indicates that it may be a severe poisoning. The Gyromitrin-Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) intoxication is characterized by some initial effects, such as fatigue, dizziness, vertigo, severe headache, a feeling of bloatness, abdominal pain, and possibly emesis.  In more serious cases convulsions, coma, hemolysis and acute hepatitis may occur.

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) is the antidote for life-threatening symptoms of Gyromitrin-Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) such as convulsions and coma.  Otherwise treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Not all individuals who consume Gyromitrin-Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) may develop symptoms, as each person has their own individualized tolerance, below which there are no visible symptoms. Example fungi are Gyromitra esculenta, Gyromitra gigas, Gyromitra infula and others; see PIM gyromitrin containing mushrooms.

Coprine

The fungal toxin coprine, blocks the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which stops the metabolism of ethanol at the acetaldehyde stage.  Coprine acts very similar to the drug disulfiram used in the treatment of alcoholism. If ethanol is NOT consumed with the meal, coprine may be edible.  Onset of symptoms is generally short (30 minutes to 1 hour). The symptoms which generally only appear if ethanol has been consumed with the meal or within 24 hours after the meal, consist of skin flushing, anxiety, a feeling of swelling or paresthesia in hands and feet, nausea, vomiting, a metallic taste, tachycardia, and chest pain.  Treatment for coprine poisoning is symptomatic and supportive, and remission takes place in a few hours. Example fungi are Coprinus atramentarius, Coprinus insignis, Coprinus quadrificus and others.

Muscarine

The fungal toxin muscarine, is physiologically very similar to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and therefore causes a cholinergic syndrome.  The onset of symptoms is usually short (30 minutes to 2 hours), and consists of perspiration, salivation, and lacrimation, along with blurring of vision, abdominal cramps, loose-watery stools, flushing of the skin, miosis, hypotension, and bradycardia. Bronchorrea and bronchoconstriction may also be observed.  Atropine is the drug of choice for the treatment of cholinergic symptoms. Example fungi are Clitocybe spp., Inocybe spp., Mycena pura and others; see PIM on muscarine containing mushrooms.

Ibotenic Acid-Muscimol

The fungal toxin ibotenic acid and its reduction product muscimol, are compounds that act on the nervous system as agonists of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).  Central nervous symptoms may alternate between depression and stimulation. Ibotenic Acid-Muscimol poisoning symptoms appear after 30 to 90 minutes after ingestion of Ibotenic Acid-Muscimol. Symptoms include drowsiness, confusion, dizziness, euphoria, but may proceed to CNS excitation with agitation, illusions and manic excitement.  Seizures are observed primarily in children. Muscle jerks, fasciculations and muscle spasm in the extremities are observed. Treatment for Ibotenic Acid-Muscimol is symptomatic and supportive. For anxiety, agitation and convulsions benzodiazepines may be useful. Although one would think that the species named muscaria implies that muscarine is the main toxic agent found in the mushrooms, it is only present in small amounts. Example fungi are Amanita cothurnata, Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina and others; see PIM Isoxazole containing mushrooms.

Hallucinogenic Compounds (Including Psilocybin, Psilocin, Baeocystin)

These hallucinogenic fungal compounds including psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin affect the central nervous system, causing LSD-like symptoms. Usually after 30 to 60 minutes post exposure to these hallucinogenic compounds (including psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin), the patient will exhibit laughter, confusion, disorientation, depersonalization, derealization, visual and auditory hallucinations, hyperkinetic compulsive movements.  Treatment for psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin poisoning is symptomatic and supportive, in a quiet environment, talk-down therapy, and sedation when necessary. NOTE: Hallucinogenic fungi (including psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin) sold on the street as substances of abuse, may be either hallucinogenic fungi, or may have been adulterated with other mind-altering compounds, or merely have no mind-altering potential at all. Example fungi are Gymnopilus spp., Panaeolus spp ., Psilocybe spp. and others. 

Gastrointestinal Irritants

These fungal toxins are a collection of as yet mostly unidentified compounds which seem to cause most of their symptomatology in the gastro-intestinal tract: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Onset of symptoms is generally short (30 minutes to 2 hours).  Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Example fungi are Agaricus hondensis, Boletus eastwoodiae, Boletus frostii, Boletus satanus, Enteloma luridus, Hebeloma crustiliniforme, Lactarius torminosus, Omphalotus olearius, Paxillus involutus, Pholiota squarrosa, Ramaria formosa, Russula emetica, Scleroderma aurantium, Verpa bohemica and others.

Other Fungal Toxins

More research is required on other fungal toxins which seem to be associated with some unique toxic syndromes. Some of the fungi which have been implicated with toxic syndromes include: Amanita smithiana and A. proxima (renal failure), Auricularia auricula (easy bruising and excessive bleeding), Hypholoma fasiculare (hepatic injury), Paxillus involutus (immune hemolytic anemia), Clitocybe acromelalga , Lepiota inversa, Clitocybes amaenoens (erythromelalgia, paresthesia and dysesthesiaremaining for over one year – personal communication from J. Trestrail).

Follow-Up and Continuing Care of the Poisoned Patient

After diagnosis and initial treatment, an adequate observation period should be established, especially if the poisoning is severe. Psychiatric evaluation and counseling are indicated in the case of intentional poisoning (e.g. suicide, substance abuse). Education is recommended in cases of accidental poisoning by fungi, in order to prevent further poisoning incidents. Prevention and educational material is available in a number of poisons centres.

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