Can CBD Help with Sore Throat?

  • CBD may be a potential treatment for sore throat due to its reported antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties(1).
  • A study has shown that cannabidiol acted as a capable compound helper as it increased the antibacterial activity of certain antibiotic medications(2).
  • Another study revealed that CBD improved the ability of bacitracin to kill Gram-positive bacteria(3), a type of bacteria that can cause sore throat.
  • However, the evidence surrounding CBD‘s effectiveness against sore throat is lacking.
  • Interested CBD users are advised to consult a doctor before purchasing and using any cannabidiol product.

Best CBD Oils for Sore Throat

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
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  • Score breakdown
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  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for New CBD users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
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Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
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    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
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    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Check Latest Prices

Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Customer Service
  • Score breakdown
    Value
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  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Various delicious flavors to choose from
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Free shipping for this particular product within USA
    •  World-class customer service team
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1500mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    Flavours Natural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range $99.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Daily CBD oil users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why People Are Turning to CBD for Sore Throat

Cannabidiol (CBD) could be a potentially effective treatment for sore throat due to its supposed health benefits.

CBD is a chemical substance that can be obtained from cannabis strains, such as hemp plants.

In clinical trials, cannabidiol was found to exert antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties(4). Researchers even assumed that the antibacterial activity of hemp essential oils is perhaps due to the CBD content.

A study published in Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology revealed that CBD acts as a novel modulator of bacterial membrane vesicles(5)

Cannabidiol reportedly increased the bactericidal action of several antibiotics and also the antibiotic effects of kanamycin against Gram-positive bacteria. Kanamycin is an antibiotic used in treating a wide range of infections.

The study’s authors concluded that the compound might be used with specific antibiotic drugs as a potential agent to enhance antibacterial activity and reduce antibiotic resistance(6).

In another study, researchers learned that cannabidiol acted as a useful helper compound when combined with bacitracin to kill Gram-positive bacteria(7). Bacitracin is an antibiotic ointment used to help prevent minor skin infections.

Infection with specific Gram-positive bacteria can result in a sore throat(8).

Although these studies suggest that CBD may benefit patients with a sore throat, no direct evidence exists to prove that the compound can effectively treat the condition.

How CBD Oil Works to Help with Sore Throat

There is a lack of scientific information on how CBD exerts its supposed antimicrobial effects.

However, the compound is known to engage with both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors of the endocannabinoid system (ECS)(9).

The ECS is a part of the body that regulates certain functions, such as the immune system and central nervous system. Its contribution to regulating various bodily processes makes it an attractive therapeutic target for many medical fields, including studies on antibacterial activity(10).

The CB2 receptors are primarily involved in immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions(11). Activation of these receptors is believed to bring about these therapeutic benefits.

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Sore Throat

The Pros

  • Studies have shown that CBD has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties(12) that may benefit a person with a sore throat.
  • In another study, cannabidiol was found to increase the antibacterial activity of specific antibiotic drugs(13). Researchers also learned that CBD acted as a capable helper compound with bacitracin in killing Gram-positive bacteria(14).
  • Selling, transporting, and possessing cannabidiol is now legal, so long as the compound has been extracted from hemp plants. Even the transportation of hemp-derived products is now allowed across state lines(15).
  • Research on the potential medicinal uses of cannabis plants and its derivatives is supported by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)(16).
  • CBD is a non-psychoactive compound of cannabis, unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Although both are present in marijuana, it is the THC content that causes the mind-altering effects.

The Cons

  • There is a general lack of clinical data to prove that CBD can treat a sore throat.
  • Although it does not cause a sore throat, using CBD can lead to side effects, such as dry mouth, drowsiness, reduced appetite, diarrhea, and fatigue(17).
  • Apart from Epidiolex, a CBD drug used to treat epilepsy, no other marketing application for cannabidiol has been approved by the FDA(18).
  • A lack of standardization in the CBD industry has led many brands to inaccurately label their cannabidiol products, especially those sold on the internet(19).
  • Health insurance providers do not cover the use of CBD products as part of their plans.

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Sore Throat

Sage, thyme, and barberry are believed to have antibacterial properties that can counteract bacteria that cause sore throat(20).  

In a clinical trial, a combination treatment of sage and echinacea reportedly exhibited similar efficacy to chlorhexidine and lidocaine treatment in reducing symptoms of a sore throat(21).

Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic used to disinfect the skin before surgery, while lidocaine works as a local anesthetic. 

Thyme essential oil was found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, a type of bacteria that can cause sore throat(22).

Meanwhile, ethanol and aqueous extracts of barberry exhibited anti-inflammatory properties(23) that may be used to create health products for soothing sore throats.

In comparison, cannabidiol is believed to have properties that may help with a sore throat.

CBD also has anti-inflammatory effects(24) similar to the essential oil extracted from thyme.

How to Choose the Right CBD for Sore Throat

To choose the right cannabidiol product for sore throat, users must know the various types of CBD available today.

The three forms of CBD are full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, and isolate.

Full-spectrum is the type of cannabidiol that has all of the cannabinoids and other natural compounds of Cannabis sativa plants. It comes with flavonoids, terpenes, and THC.

High-quality full-spectrum CBD products are rich in cannabidiol while having small amounts of the other substances present.

The next type is known as broad-spectrum, a form of CBD that is similar to full-spectrum. Its primary difference is that it does not have tetrahydrocannabinol included.

Since THC is psychotropic, some people prefer not to use products that have it. Those who also want to benefit from all of the cannabis compounds except for THC often choose broad-spectrum.

The last type of CBD is called isolate. CBD isolates are made of pure cannabidiol and are typically found in crystalline form.

CBD isolates do not have a distinct taste or smell because of their purity.

Of the three, full-spectrum cannabidiol is perhaps the most potent form of CBD available. It is known for the synergism known as the “entourage effect.”

This effect is a proposed action wherein all cannabis constituents work more efficiently when consumed together(25).

Full-spectrum CBD oil could be an ideal option for treating sore throat.

No matter the form of cannabidiol desired, it is best to select high-quality products all the time to maximize the benefits of CBD.

Here are the following tips to help users choose the best CBD oil products for sore throat:

  • Acquire the certificate of analysis (COA) of the selected CBD product. This document provides an analysis report showing that the item has undergone proper testing and contains the specifications listed on its label.
  • The best source for cannabidiol is industrial hemp. Buy from CBD brands that use organic hemp for their products.
  • Make sure to read product and shop reviews before buying from an online CBD store. When purchasing from a dispensary, ensure that the establishment is authorized to sell cannabidiol.
  • Be knowledgeable of the legalities concerning CBD use in various states. Although CBD is currently legal, the laws surrounding its use may change at any time.
  • Talk to a medical professional, preferably someone knowledgeable with medical cannabis, before purchasing or using any CBD product.

CBD Dosage for Sore Throat

There is no official guide on CBD dosage for sore throat that has been approved by the FDA.

However, one can look at past clinical trials on human subjects to find a dose range that is safe and reliable.

In 2019, The Permanente Journal published a study on anxiety where patients took 25 mg to 175 mg of CBD per day(26). Besides eliciting an adequate clinical response, the compound was reportedly well-tolerated by the subjects, and the side effects were minimal.

A review in 2017 mentioned that humans could take as much as 1,500 mg of CBD per day. Its authors also noted that none of the studies that were assessed reported tolerance to cannabidiol(27).

How to Take CBD Oil for Sore Throat

Taking CBD hemp oil by using tinctures is a quick way of applying the compound when needed. These products usually come with droppers that make the mixture easy to administer under the tongue.

A straightforward approach is by consuming CBD in the form of gummies, cookies, capsules, and tablets. Edibles can be eaten like snacks, while capsules and tablets can be administered orally similar to dietary supplements.

Although vaping may be a quick way of getting cannabidiol in the system, it is not a recommended way of administering CBD for sore throat.

Smoking cannabis or using CBD vape devices can worsen one’s condition, primarily because the two are often associated with lung problems(28).

What Is a Sore Throat?

A sore throat, also called pharyngitis, is the feeling of pain, irritation, or scratchiness of the throat that could get worse when swallowing.

Viral infections (the common cold or flu) are the most common causes of a sore throat. It can also be a result of irritants, like chemicals or tobacco smoke.

Streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat) is a unique and less common type of sore throat caused by bacteria. It often requires treatment using antibiotics to prevent further complications(29).

A sore throat can have varying symptoms depending on its cause. These include:

  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Scratchy or painful sensation in the throat
  • Worsening pain when talking or swallowing
  • Swollen glands by the jaw or neck
  • Red and swollen tonsils
  • A muffled or hoarse voice
  • Presence of pus or white patches on the tonsils

Infections that cause a sore throat may also result in other symptoms, such as:

  • Runny nose
  • Cough
  • Sneezing
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Body aches
  • Vomiting or nausea

The following are some risk factors that can make a person more susceptible to a sore throat:

  • Age – Children ages three to fifteen years old are more likely to catch strep throat.
  • Allergies – Ongoing allergic reactions to molds, dust, or pet dander and seasonal allergies increase the likelihood that a person develops a sore throat.
  • Frequent sinus infections – Drainage from the nose can irritate the throat or spread viral diseases.
  • Weak immune system – A person is more susceptible to viral infections if their immune response is low.
  • Close quarters – Viruses and bacteria can quickly spread in places where people gather, especially in confined spaces.
  • Exposure to chemicals – Particles in the air coming from household chemicals and burning offal fuels can lead to throat irritation.

How Is a Sore Throat Treated?

A doctor determines the type of sore throat a person has by asking them about their symptoms. They also perform a physical examination and may sometimes carry out a swab test on the throat.

Since bacteria cause strep throat, antibiotics are required to get rid of an infection while preventing rheumatic fever and other conditions.

People who have strep throat should stay home from school or work until their fever subsides. They must also have taken antibiotics for a minimum of twenty-four hours.

However, antibiotics do not work against pharyngitis caused by cold viruses. A sore throat due to viral infection typically gets better within a week(30).

The following are tips that can help alleviate a sore throat:

  • Gargling with warm salt water several times a day
  • Drinking a glass of water containing lemon tea with honey
  • Eating lozenges or candies that can stimulate saliva production
  • Using a humidifier or cool-mist vaporizer to moisten the air and help soothe a dry throat
  • Taking over-the-counter pain medication, such as ibuprofen

Conclusion

The anti-inflammatory effects of CBD may be useful against viral infections that can lead to a sore throat.

According to studies, cannabidiol has been found to exert antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties that could help with sore throat symptoms.

CBD is also thought to interact with various receptors in the body to bring about its supposed therapeutic effects.

However, the lack of scientific evidence makes it difficult to prove that CBD is an effective treatment for sore throat.

Cannabidiol is not known to irritate the throat, but it can have adverse effects upon consumption. Studies have often reported side effects, including dry mouth, drowsiness, and diarrhea.

Unlike THC, CBD is a non-psychoactive compound that does not cause mind-altering effects when taken.

Still, a person should consult a doctor before deciding to use any CBD product for their condition. An expert who is experienced with medical marijuana is recommended.


  1. Iseppi R, Brighenti V, Licata M, et al. Chemical Characterization and Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Fibre-Type Cannabis sativa L. (Hemp). Molecules. 2019;24(12):2302. Published 2019 Jun 21. doi:10.3390/molecules24122302
  2. Kosgodage US, Matewele P, Awamaria B, et al. Cannabidiol Is a Novel Modulator of Bacterial Membrane Vesicles. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019;9:324. Published 2019 Sep 10. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2019.00324
  3. Wassmann CS, Højrup P, Klitgaard JK. Cannabidiol is an effective helper compound in combination with bacitracin to kill Gram-positive bacteria. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):4112. Published 2020 Mar 5. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-60952-0
  4. Iseppi R, Brighenti V, Licata M, et al. op. cit.
  5. Kosgodage US, Matewele P, Awamaria B, et al. op. cit.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Wassmann CS, Højrup P, Klitgaard JK. op. cit.
  8. Sizar O, Unakal CG. Gram Positive Bacteria. [Updated 2020 Jun 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470553/
  9. Wassmann CS, Højrup P, Klitgaard JK. op. cit.
  10. Bruni N, Della Pepa C, Oliaro-Bosso S, Pessione E, Gastaldi D, Dosio F. Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules. 2018;23(10):2478. Published 2018 Sep 27. doi:10.3390/molecules23102478
  11. Ashton JC, Glass M. The cannabinoid CB2 receptor as a target for inflammation-dependent neurodegeneration. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2007;5(2):73-80. doi:10.2174/157015907780866884
  12. Iseppi R, Brighenti V, Licata M, et al. op. cit.
  13. Kosgodage US, Matewele P, Awamaria B, et al. op. cit.
  14. Wassmann CS, Højrup P, Klitgaard JK. op. cit.
  15. Hudak, J (2018, December 14). The Farm Bill, hemp legalization and the status of CBD: An explainer. Retrieved from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2018/12/14/the-farm-bill-hemp-and-cbd-explainer/
  16. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2020, August 3). FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  17. Mayo Clinic. What are the benefits of CBD – and is it safe to use? Retrieved from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  18. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2020, August 3). op. cit.
  19. Bonn-Miller MO, Loflin MJE, Thomas BF, Marcu JP, Hyke T, Vandrey R. Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online. JAMA. 2017;318(17):1708-1709. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.11909
  20. Wijesundara NM, Rupasinghe HPV. Herbal Tea for the Management of Pharyngitis: Inhibition of Streptococcus pyogenes Growth and Biofilm Formation by Herbal Infusions. Biomedicines. 2019;7(3):63. Published 2019 Aug 24. doi:10.3390/biomedicines7030063
  21. Schapowal A, Berger D, Klein P, Suter A. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial. Eur J Med Res. 2009;14(9):406-412. doi:10.1186/2047-783x-14-9-406
  22. Sfeir J, Lefrançois C, Baudoux D, Derbré S, Licznar P. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:269161. doi:10.1155/2013/269161
  23. Wijesundara NM, Sekhon-Loodu S, Rupasinghe HV. op. cit.
  24. Atalay S, Jarocka-Karpowicz I, Skrzydlewska E. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019;9(1):21. Published 2019 Dec 25. doi:10.3390/antiox9010021
  25. Russo EB. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7):1344-1364. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x
  26. Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. 2019;23:18-041. doi:10.7812/TPP/18-041
  27. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2(1):139-154. Published 2017 Jun 1. doi:10.1089/can.2016.0034
  28. Chand HS, Muthumalage T, Maziak W, Rahman I. Pulmonary Toxicity and the Pathophysiology of Electronic Cigarette, or Vaping Product, Use Associated Lung Injury. Front Pharmacol. 2020;10:1619. Published 2020 Jan 14. doi:10.3389/fphar.2019.01619
  29. May Clinic. Sore throat. Retrieved from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sore-throat/symptoms-causes/syc-20351635
  30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sore Throat. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/for-patients/common-illnesses/sore-throat.html
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