Does CBD Work for Inflammation?
- A 2015 review stated that CBD might have anti-inflammatory properties useful in the treatment of arthritis pain and inflammatory bowel disease(1).
- There is growing evidence of CBD’s suggested benefits on inflammation-related conditions. A 2020 study reported CBD’s analgesic (pain-reducing) properties in patients with pain and mental health symptoms(2).
- A study in 2019 demonstrated topical CBD’s promise in treating inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis and eczema(3).
- There are also studies supporting CBD’s purported effects on arthritis, an inflammatory medical condition. A study in the journal Pain revealed that CBD might be helpful in the prevention of osteoarthritis in rodent test subjects(4).
- A 2017 study explored CBD’s neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer’s disease. The authors observed CBD’s suggested benefits on Alzheimer’s(5).
Best CBD Oils for Inflammation
Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD. Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes. Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits. cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.
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Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15 Source Colorado, USA Form Oil Tincture Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil Type Broad Spectrum Extraction CO2-extraction How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need Potency 1000 mg per bottle Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil Concentration 33.5 mg per dropper (1ml) Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana Flavours Peppermint Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each $/mg CBD Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007 Shipping 3-5 Business days Lab Tests Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website Contaminants Contaminant-free Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free Refund policy Within 30 days Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
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Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.
Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.
Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.
cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.
Why People Are Using CBD for Inflammation
Doctors prescribe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce inflammation, relieve pain, and lower fever(6). These medications also prevent blood clots.
However, NSAIDs may have several adverse effects, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, renal (kidney) toxicity, and cardiovascular side effects(7).
Compared to NSAIDs, cannabidiol (CBD) may have a more favorable safety profile. It has minimal side effects, like changes in appetite or weight, tiredness, and diarrhea(8).
A review published in the journal Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry stated CBD’s purported anti-inflammatory actions in various preclinical models.
The review included CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties in different conditions, such as arthritis pain, inflammatory bowel disease, and chemically-induced colitis(9).
CBD for Pain
Inflammation and pain are correlated. Any kind of pain originates from inflammation and the body’s inflammatory response(10).
In a study conducted in 24 patients with multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, and limb amputation, the researchers administered whole-plant extracts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD, a sublingual spray with a 1:1 ratio of CBD and THC, and a placebo(11).
THC is the active ingredient of the Cannabis sativa plant that has psychoactive effects on users.
The authors found that CBD and THC were significantly superior to placebo in relieving pain. The patients also reported improvement in impaired bladder control, muscle spasms, and spasticity (muscle tightening).
However, the test subjects who were dosed with THC-containing cannabis medical extracts reported low blood pressure (hypotension) and intoxication.
In another study, 64 patients with multiple sclerosis were administered an oral spray with CBD and THC, or a placebo(12).
The patients who were given the whole-plant cannabis-based medicine reported attenuation of their central neuropathic pain related to multiple sclerosis. The patients also observed reduced sleep disturbance.
A study published in the journal Transplantation Proceedings was conducted on seven kidney transplant patients. They were administered CBD twice a day for three weeks, with an initial dose of 50mg, which was gradually increased to 150mg(13).
Two patients reported that their pain improved significantly. Four had a partial response in the first 15 days, while one did not report any pain relief.
Side effects were also observed, including dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, and intermittent heat episodes.
In a 2020 study published in Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 29 patients with peripheral neuropathy were included. Fifteen patients were given CBD, while 14 patients were given a placebo(14).
Peripheral neuropathy is defined as the damage to the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord. It is characterized by pain, weakness, and numbness, typically felt in the hands or feet(15).
In the 2020 study, the CBD group reported that intense and sharp pain, cold, and itchy sensations were reduced after four weeks of transdermal CBD application. No adverse effects were observed during the duration of the study.
In another study, 397 patients with various mental health and chronic pain-related conditions were given CBD prescriptions(16).
Two hundred fifty-three patients reported that their quality of health became better overall. Pain and mental health symptoms also improved.
The researchers concluded that CBD might have analgesic (pain-reducing) and anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing) benefits in the test subjects.
They also concluded that CBD was well-tolerated and safe for use.
CBD for Wounds
An inflammatory response is essential to wound-healing(17). Inflammation is the body’s response to any kind of injury(18).
In an animal study, the researchers induced ulcers in 60 mice. They administered the rodents 5 to 10mg of CBD per kilogram of the test subjects’ weight daily(19).
The study has found that CBD use did not affect the wound area. However, on the third day after the wound was induced, the test subjects who received CBD treatment exhibited significantly lower inflammatory scores than those in the control group.
A 2019 study has found that CBD is involved in wound-healing and inflammatory processes in the skin. The researchers concluded that CBD might be promising in treating inflammation-based skin diseases(20).
CBD for Inflammatory Skin Diseases
Atopic dermatitis (eczema) and psoriasis are classified as chronic inflammatory skin diseases(21). These skin conditions are also autoimmune diseases.
A 2019 study published in La Clinica Terapeutica reported that 20 patients with eczema and psoriasis were administered CBD-enriched ointments(22).
The researchers applied CBD topicals to their lesioned skin areas twice a day for three months. The test subjects reported that there was a significant improvement in their inflammatory skin disorders and quality of life.
The authors concluded that CBD might be a safe and effective alternative treatment for such skin conditions.
A 2020 study published in Molecules outlined CBD’s purported health benefits on several inflammatory skin conditions, like acne and allergic contact dermatitis(23).
The researchers found that CBD suppresses the inflammatory response caused by allergic contact dermatitis. They also noted that CBD use did not result in effects toxic to living cells (cytotoxic).
The same study also revealed that CBD inhibits sebum secretion. CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties may be promising in acne treatment. The researchers noted that acne is caused by inflammation.
CBD for Arthritis
Arthritis, which is the swelling of an individual’s joints, is characterized by joint pain and stiffness. The most common arthritis types are rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis(24).
An animal study found in the European Journal of Pain showed that topically applied CBD might reduce pain and inflammation in the test subjects with arthritis.
The researchers administered CBD gels to the rodents for four consecutive days after the arthritis was induced(25).
The authors observed that there was a lack of side effects in the rat test subjects.
A study in the journal Pain explored CBD’s effects on rodents with osteoarthritis. The researchers found that CBD reduced acute inflammation in the test subjects’ joints(26).
The study also found that CBD treatment might prevent the development of pain and nerve damage in the rats’ osteoarthritic joints.
The authors noted CBD’s favorable safety profile as a potential neuropathic pain treatment for osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis is the deterioration of the protective cartilage at the end of the bones over time. This disorder commonly occurs in the joints, such as the knees, hands, hips, and spine(27).
A study conducted on mice with collagen-induced arthritis reported that CBD’s immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects might have therapeutic effects on arthritis(28).
The researchers observed that CBD administration after the onset of arthritis symptoms helped block arthritis progression.
More studies on humans are needed to prove CBD’s efficacy on inflammation. Results from research on animals may be useful in further studies to be conducted on humans.
CBD for Alzheimer’s Disease
A study reported that Alzheimer’s disease is linked to inflammation. The neurodegenerative disease is caused by the activation of inflammatory pathways(29).
To manage the disease and attenuate the risk of developing it, experts prescribe anti-inflammatory medications to individuals prone to Alzheimer’s.
The researchers concluded that managing inflammation might have potential therapeutic benefits, leading to the delay, prevention, or treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
A 2017 study showed that CBD combined with THC might have neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties that might be useful in treating Alzheimer’s disease. The authors also found that CBD, as an antioxidant, might reduce oxidative stress (30).
The study, which was done in animal models, explored CBD’s suggested contribution to the production of new neurons (neurogenesis).
Research also found that CBD antagonized the psychoactive effects of THC(31).
CBD for Diabetes
In a 2019 study, researchers linked diabetes (type 1 and type 2) to inflammation. They stated that inflammatory pathways are involved in both diabetes types(32).
The authors also noted that future research should focus on targeting inflammation to prevent diabetes or control the disease.
A study published in the journal Autoimmunity stated that CBD might significantly reduce the incidence of diabetes in non-obese, diabetic mice test subjects(33).
The researchers reported that CBD inhibited inflammatory cytokine production in diabetic mice.
Cytokines are compounds secreted by immune system cells that affect other cells of the body.
A 2016 study outlined the effects of CBD on non-obese diabetic mice. The authors found that CBD might lower the development of type 1 diabetes in the mice test subjects(34).
The rodents were administered 5mg of CBD per kilogram of their weight. They received CBD five times a week, for a total of 10 weeks.
Although the results were from research on animals, they may still be useful in further studies to be conducted on humans.
CBD for Heart Diseases
According to Johns Hopkins Medicine, sustained low levels of inflammation may irritate the blood vessels.
Inflammation may lead to the growth and loosening of artery plaques and eventually trigger blood clots(35). These blood clots are the leading causes of strokes and heart attacks.
A blood clot that blocks arteries to the brain may lead to a stroke, while a blood clot that blocks arteries to the heart may result in a heart attack.
Hence, Johns Hopkins Medicine suggests that fighting inflammation may prevent heart diseases(36).
A study found in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology stated CBD might have various benefits on the cardiovascular system.
These positive effects include CBD’s vasorelaxant (vascular tension-reducing) properties and the extract’s ability to reduce cardiovascular response to models of stress(37).
The study also found that CBD might reduce heart attack size and increase blood flow in animal models of stroke.
However, the authors recommend that more clinical trials exploring CBD’s effects on the human cardiovascular system should be conducted.
How CBD Oil Works to Alleviate Symptoms of Inflammation
To understand CBD’s effects on inflammation, one should first understand the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This system is responsible for essential body functions, such as pain perception, mood, appetite, and memory(38).
Cannabinoids interact with the ECS and its receptors, known as cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 receptor) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 receptor), to regulate vital body functions.
Cannabinoids, like CBD and THC, are called phytocannabinoids, as they come from the cannabis plant. Naturally-occurring cannabinoids are called endocannabinoids.
Cannabinoids have immunomodulatory properties that help them regulate the immune system(39).
According to a study published in Future Medicinal Chemistry, cannabinoids reduce symptoms of diseases related to inflammation by suppressing inflammatory responses(40).
These immunomodulatory properties include the role of cannabinoids in the induction of apoptosis (cell death) in activated immune cells and the cannabinoids’ ability to suppress cytokines and chemokines in inflammatory sites.
Cell death is essential in the regulation of inflammation. To maintain balance in the body, invading microbial pathogens (viruses) and dying cells should be cleared(41). Failure to clear apoptotic neutrophils may result in a prolonged inflammatory response.
Neutrophils are white blood cells that heal damaged tissues and fix infections. Meanwhile, cytokines refer to signaling molecules. Chemokines are cytokines that attract cells to inflammatory sites(42).
Researchers suggested that adenosine receptors suppress overactive immune cells, leading to the protection of several tissues from inflammatory damage.
CBD has also been suggested to enhance adenosine signaling, resulting in decreased inflammation(43).
The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Inflammation
- There are several animal and human studies supporting CBD’s suggested benefits on inflammation and inflammatory health conditions. Results from research on animals may be useful in further studies to be conducted on humans.
- Compared to NSAIDs and other anti-inflammatory prescription medications, CBD may have a more favorable safety profile(44).
- As long as state laws allow CBD use, CBD products may be bought over-the-counter without a prescription.
- The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes CBD’s potential therapeutic benefits, specifically for epilepsy treatment(45).
- World Health Organization (WHO) findings reported that CBD might not be addictive. The agency has no record of human dependence on the phytocannabinoid(46).
- Further research needs to be made on CBD’s effects on inflammation-related conditions in humans.
- CBD still has side effects, like tiredness, changes in weight or appetite, or diarrhea(47).
- Some NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, are metabolized by the enzyme system cytochrome p450(48). CBD may be an inhibitor of these enzymes and may have drug interactions with certain NSAIDs(49).
- The lack of regulation from the US FDA has resulted in incidences of CBD companies selling mislabeled products online(50).
How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Inflammation
Steroids and NSAIDs have significant side effect profiles, which may be detrimental to an individual’s health.
Thus, more people are taking an interest in natural compounds, like dietary supplements and herbal remedies, to reduce inflammation(51).
A study found that omega-3 fatty acids are one of the most effective natural inflammatory agents. This fish oil reduces degenerative enzymes and inflammation(52).
Green tea is also an anti-inflammatory agent with antioxidant, cardiovascular, and cancer-preventing properties(53). Individuals are typically recommended to drink three to four cups a day.
Curcumin or turmeric is believed to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It is conventionally used for digestive disorders, wounds, arthritis, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer(54).
The usual dosage of turmeric powder is 400 to 600mg, thrice a day. Long-term use may lead to stomach upset and gastric ulcers.
Compared with some of the alternative remedies mentioned, there is no standard dosage for CBD in treating inflammation.
Like green tea and curcumin, CBD may also have antioxidant properties(55).
Similar to green tea, CBD may have preventive effects on certain cancers, like colon cancer. It may also be a potential anti-cancer medication(56).
How to Choose the Right CBD for Inflammation
A study has shown that CBD combined with THC might have anti-inflammatory effects useful in treating pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis(57). However, THC has mind-altering properties.
Individuals seeking inflammation therapy through the use of both CBD and THC may purchase full-spectrum CBD products.
A full-spectrum CBD oil uses all the active ingredients of the cannabis plant, including terpenes, flavonoids, essential oils, fatty acids, and less than 0.3% THC, in compliance with federal laws.
It is believed that these active ingredients synergize to generate the maximum therapeutic benefits from the Cannabis sativa plant, through a mechanism known as the entourage effect.
Despite THC being limited to trace amounts, there is a chance that some drug tests may generate positive results.
Individuals who prefer THC-free CBD products for their chronic inflammation may use broad-spectrum CBD instead. This type of CBD has all the ingredients of a full-spectrum CBD except THC.
Meanwhile, those who want pure CBD may opt for CBD isolates.
Hemp oil may refer to CBD oil extracted from the flowers and leaves of the hemp plant. Hemp oil may also refer to hemp seed oil, which is derived from hemp seeds.
However, note that hemp seed oil contains little to no CBD.
Buyers who would like to purchase high-quality CBD products for treating inflammation should remember the following guidelines when looking for the right CBD:The laws on CBD vary per state. Check if the state laws permit CBD use.
- If it is non-GMO and certified organic hemp-derived CBD, the product is legitimate. Some areas in the United States, such as Colorado, have some of the best hemp farms. Always check the hemp source.
- It should first be verified if an online CBD brand has been authorized by the US government to manufacture and sell CBD. For more insights on a product, read the product reviews online.
- Research how the CBD oil was extracted before buying any CBD oil product. There are several extraction methods available, such as ethanol, solvent, or lipid extraction.
A study suggested that the CO2 extraction process has been recognized as a safe process by the US FDA in pharmaceutical manufacturing(58).
Carrier oils used in CBD products include medium-chain triglycerides oil (MCT oil), hemp seed oil, and extra-virgin olive oil. MCT oil comes from coconut oil.
- When buying any CBD product, ensure that its certificate of analysis (COA) is accessible. These lab analyses come from independent laboratories that conduct third-party testing. They verify the ingredients, potency, and quality of a CBD product.
- Consult with a doctor before making any CBD purchase.
CBD Dosage for Inflammation
There is no standard dosage for CBD use in treating inflammation and other inflammatory disorders. However, the main rule is to go low and slow at first.
Begin with a low CBD dosage and observe reactions. If there are no adverse effects, the dosage may be increased until CBD’s effects are felt.
When taking CBD, individuals should document their reactions to the substance through a journal. These notes may be brought during consultations with a medical professional.
Individuals are encouraged to seek professional advice before taking CBD for inflammation.
How to Take CBD for Inflammation
There are various CBD formats and formulations. For inflammation, CBD may be taken through tinctures (droppers).
When using CBD tinctures, the oil may be applied sublingually (under the tongue) for around a minute before swallowing. This format is useful as it is easily adjustable when changing the CBD dosage.
For pain management and relief, CBD topicals, such as balms, may be applied to the affected areas and rubbed or massaged for added therapeutic effects. Some CBD products have flavorings which may be soothing, such as peppermint.
Other topicals, like salves, lotions, and ointments, may be used for inflammatory skin diseases, like psoriasis and eczema. CBD topicals should not be applied directly to broken skin, as it may result in adverse reactions.
CBD oils may be used for arthritis. They may be massaged into the inflamed areas.
CBD may also be ingested. CBD oils may be mixed with food and beverages if they are unflavored. Gummies, gelcaps, pills, and CBD edibles are available.
For those who prefer CBD formats free from animal products, some CBD manufacturers offer vegan CBD formulations. Gluten-free options are also available.
Individuals who want to experience instantaneous CBD effects may want to consider using CBD vape pens. This format delivers CBD directly to the bloodstream through the lungs.
However, when vaping CBD, it may be challenging to determine how much CBD is inhaled. Vaping may also cause lung problems(59).
Inflammation is the immune system’s response to irritants, which could be germs or foreign objects.
There are different inflammation causes, including(60):
- Pathogens (bacteria, fungi, and viruses)
- External injuries (scrapes and damages caused by foreign objects)
- Chemical or radiation effects
To determine if a body part is inflamed, symptoms include the following:
- Loss of function
According to Harvard Medical School, there are two types of inflammation: acute and chronic(61).
Acute inflammation is the inflammation type familiar to most people. It is caused by injuries and characterized by warmth, swelling, redness, and pain around the tissues and joints involved.
Meanwhile, chronic inflammation occurs when the immune system continuously pumps out white blood cells and chemical messengers that prolong the inflammation process.
Chronic inflammation is indefinite as the immune system responds to consistent attacks on the body.
Chronic inflammation is dangerous as the body’s white blood cells may eventually attack nearby tissues and organs even if they are healthy.
This type of inflammation is also associated with several disorders, like diabetes, cancer, arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases, like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
Over-the-counter pain relievers or cold compresses may be used in treating acute inflammation.
Chronic inflammation treatment is more challenging to treat as the signs are not as visible as acute inflammation symptoms. To detect chronic inflammation, individuals should undergo doctor evaluation.
Inflammation is necessary for the body’s recovery when it has experienced trauma, infection, or other causes of harm. Inflammation protects injured tissues from being further infected and helps start these tissues’ healing processes(62).
How Inflammation Works
During inflammation, the body increases blood flow to damaged tissues to deliver the needed blood cells and proteins. It also removes the unwanted breakdown of substances or debris (for example, foreign objects)(63).
The inflammation process is best exhibited in the skin. During inflammation, the skin appears red and swollen because of blood flow increase and the intense activity of cells.
When these cells leak into the skin tissues, along with fluids and proteins, the infected area swells.
Inflammation caused by infection is sometimes characterized by the presence of pus, the accumulation of cells.
The inflammation process is the same in all body parts that are injured.
According to the Oxford University Hospitals, when inflammation happens by mistake, inflammatory diseases may occur(64).
When increased blood flow and cells arrive at an inflammation site, they may result in heat, swelling, loss of function, and pain. However, when there is no infection or trauma, inflammatory diseases may occur.
Autoimmunity is when cells attack the body without any external cause. This happens when one has arthritis.
Inflammation may also cause the loss of function of the kidney, blood vessels, and muscles. The kidney may also become enlarged.
Inflammation may last for short periods or several months or years. More severe inflammation types may result in detrimental effects on affected body organs or areas.
There is growing evidence that CBD may be useful in treating inflammation and related medical conditions.
These ailments include pain, wounds, inflammatory skin diseases, several types of arthritis, neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer’s, diabetes, and heart diseases, such as heart attacks and stroke.
Compared to conventional anti-inflammatory medications, like NSAIDs, CBD’s safety profile is more favorable.
NSAIDs may cause bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, renal toxicity, and heart problems. Meanwhile, CBD’s most common side effects are minimal, including appetite or weight changes, tiredness, and diarrhea.
Alternative treatments for inflammation include omega-3 fatty acids, green tea, and turmeric. Compared to these treatments, CBD may also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
CBD may have other therapeutic benefits, such as its neuroprotective and cardioprotective properties.
Before using CBD for inflammation, it is recommended that individuals seek professional advice.
- Burstein, Sumner. (2015). Cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogs: A review of their effects on inflammation. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 23. 10.1016/j.bmc.2015.01.059.
- Gulbransen, G., Xu, W., & Arroll, B. (2020, April 01). Cannabidiol prescription in clinical practice: An audit on the first 400 patients in New Zealand. Retrieved from https://bjgpopen.org/content/4/1/bjgpopen20X101010
- Palmieri, B., Laurino, C., & Vadalà, M. (2019). A therapeutic effect of CBD-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. La Clinica Terapeutica, 170(2), e93–e99. https://doi.org/10.7417/CT.2019.2116
- APA Philpott, Holly T.; O’Brien, Melissa; McDougall, Jason J.* Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis, PAIN: December 2017 – Volume 158 – Issue 12 – p 2442-2451 doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001052
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- What Are NSAIDs? – OrthoInfo – AAOS. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/treatment/what-are-nsaids/
- Wongrakpanich, S., Wongrakpanich, A., Melhado, K., & Rangaswami, J. (2018). A Comprehensive Review of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use in The Elderly. Aging and Disease, 9(1), 143–150. https://doi.org/10.14336/AD.2017.0306
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- Burstein, S. op. cit.
- Omoigui S. (2007). The biochemical origin of pain: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Part 2 of 3 – inflammatory profile of pain syndromes. Medical hypotheses, 69(6), 1169–1178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2007.06.033
- Wade, D. T., Robson, P., House, H., Makela, P., & Aram, J. (2003). A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clinical Rehabilitation, 17(1), 21–29. https://doi.org/10.1191/0269215503cr581oa
- Rog, D. J., Nurmikko, T. J., Friede, T., & Young, C. A. (2005). Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis. Neurology, 65(6), 812–819. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000176753.45410.8b
- Cuñetti, L., Manzo, L., Peyraube, R., Arnaiz, J., Curi, L., & Orihuela, S. (2018). Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay. Transplantation Proceedings, 50(2), 461–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2017.12.042
- Dixon H. Xu, B. (2020, March 31). The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in Symptomatic Relief of Peripheral Neuropathy of the Lower Extremities. Retrieved from https://www.eurekaselect.com/177080/article
- Peripheral neuropathy. (2019, May 22). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peripheral-neuropathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20352061
- Gulbransen, G. op. cit.
- Hart, J. (2002). Inflammation. 1: Its role in the healing of acute wounds.. Journal of wound care. 11. 205-9. 10.12968/jowc.2002.11.6.26411.
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