Can CBD Help with Multiple Sclerosis?

  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms often include pain, inflammation, muscle spasticity, MS fatigue, and depression(1)
  • Sativex, which contains a 1:1 CBD-THC ratio, is the only cannabis-based prescription medicine approved as an additional treatment for nerve pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients(2)
  • Researchers of a 2016 study in Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders found evidence of the potential efficacy and effectiveness of THC-CBD oromucosal spray in symptom management for those experiencing spasticity due to MS(3).
  • In 2017, a pre-clinical study on CBD alone was conducted. Published in CNS and Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets, results showed that CBD may produce beneficial effects in individuals with MS(4).

Best CBD Oils for Multiple Sclerosis

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for New CBD users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
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  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Check Latest Prices
Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Customer Service
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures Products
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Plenty of concentrations to choose from for all people with various kinds of needs
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    300 mg - 7500 mg / 30 ml bottle, 1000 mg - 1500 mg / 60 ml bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    30 ml: 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml), 750 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 50 mg per dropper (1ml), 3000 mg - 100 mg per dropper (1ml), 5000 mg - 166.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 7500 mg - 250 mg per dropper (1ml), 60 ml: 1000 mg - 16.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    Flavours Natural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range 30 ml Bottles: $29.99 for 300 mg, $69.99 for 750 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg, $149.99 for 3000 mg, $239.99 for 5000 mg, $339.99 for 7500 mg 60 ml Bottles: $74.99 for 1000 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    30 ml - $0.05 - $0.10, 60 ml - $0.06 - $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for CBD users with different needs
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why People Are Using CBD for Multiple Sclerosis

According to The National Multiple Sclerosis Society, approximately 85% of people with MS are initially diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS)(5).

RRMS is a type of MS characterized by inflammatory attacks on the nerve fibers and myelin, the layers of insulating membranes surrounding nerve fibers in the central nervous system (CNS).

While RRMS is defined by attacks or relapses of new MS symptoms, progressive forms of MS involve fewer attacks.

The progressive types of MS are secondary-progressive MS (SPMS), primary-progressive MS (PPMS), and progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS).

The symptoms of MS vary, but they often include pain, inflammation, muscle spasticity, MS fatigue, and depression. 

Spasticity is a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in muscle tone or stiffness of muscle, which might interfere with movement.

MS symptoms can reduce physical activity, negatively impact functional mobility, and have a detrimental effect on a person’s quality of life(6)

Although there have been recent significant advances in disease-modifying therapy, none of the current treatments stops or cures MS-related symptoms(7)

Thus, many people with MS look for alternative and complementary therapies, such as cannabis plants and their derivatives.

CBD for Multiple Sclerosis: What The Research Says

Sativex is a cannabis-based prescription medicine that contains a 1:1 CBD (cannabidiol)-THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) ratio. 

Approved as an additional treatment for nerve pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients, Sativex is administered as a mouth spray (oromucosal)(8).  

In a 2005 study published in Issues in Emerging Health Technologies, 368 patients with various neurological conditions, including MS, were given the THC:CBD spray(9)

Results showed that the spray significantly reduced nerve pain, spasticity, muscle spasms, and sleep disturbances among the human subjects. 

However, the researchers observed adverse events, like dizziness, sleepiness, fatigue, feeling of intoxication, and experiencing an unpleasant taste.

A 2016 study in Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders summarized the evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of THC-CBD oromucosal spray in symptom management for those experiencing spasticity due to MS(10)

Researchers believe that for individuals with resistant moderate to severe MS-induced spasticity, THC-CBD spray can be a treatment option. 

It was only in 2017 when a pre-clinical study on CBD alone was conducted. The study, published in CNS and Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets, showed that CBD could produce beneficial effects in individuals with MS(11).

How CBD Oil Works to Help With Multiple Sclerosis

The two primary cannabinoid receptors are CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are found in the CNS (the brain and spinal cord), intestines, connective tissues, and other glands.

CB2 receptors are mostly located in the spleen, tonsils, and immune cells. Only a few are in the brain.

Data suggests that CBD does bind to the receptors but does not directly activate them. Instead, it appears to adjust how the receptors respond to stimulation from other compounds, such as THC(12).

The authors of a study, published in the British Journal of Pharmacology in 2010, noted there had been anecdotal and scientific evidence of cannabis providing symptomatic relief in neurodegenerative disorders, including MS(13). 

The study results implied that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) impairment might be responsible for some disease symptoms.

The ECS plays an active role in regulating a wide range of body functions, including pain sensation, immune response, anxiety, mood, appetite, sleep, metabolism, and memory. 

The CBD-THC spray, Sativex, acts via cannabinoid receptors distributed throughout the CNS and in immune cells(14).

CB2 is involved in weakening inflammatory immune cell response to disease.

Meanwhile, the activation of CB1 receptors has been shown to block the release of glutamate, a chemical transmitter released by nerve cells in the brain(15)

Abnormal or excessive glutamate levels and signaling in the nervous system can contribute to MS(16).

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Multiple Sclerosis

Pros

  • Evidence suggests that CBD may reduce MS symptoms, such as MS fatigue, pain, and spasticity, and ultimately improve mobility(17).
  • The 2018 Farm Bill has legalized CBD products derived from hemp. However, individual states in the United States have their legislation(18). 
  • The American Academy of Neurology has highlighted the safety profile and benefits of cannabis in a review of medical marijuana (medical cannabis). 

The review was conducted to address the treatment of symptoms of MS, epilepsy, and movement disorders(19). 

  • No studies have investigated the effects of cannabis oil on mobility in individuals with MS. However, some studies have suggested that CBD may exert positive effects on health by reducing inflammation and relieving pain(20).

Cons

  • Studies are too limited to determine if CBD is an effective treatment for conditions other than those approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  • There are risks in using CBD. Possible side effects include dry mouth, drowsiness, diarrhea, fatigue, and reduced appetite(21).
  • CBD can interact with other drugs and alter how the body metabolizes certain medications, as a 2017 research noted(22). 
  • A 2017 review revealed labeling inaccuracies in some CBD products. Some products had less CBD than stated in the label, while others had more(23).

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Multiple Sclerosis

Some of the alternative or complementary therapy options for MS include massage and a healthy, well-balanced diet with linoleic acid supplementation(24).

Regular massage therapy can help MS patients relax and reduce stress and depression, which can exacerbate the disease. 

CBD oil tinctures can be combined with massage oils. Like massage oils, CBD-infused bath bombs can help provide relaxation and relief from physical tension and emotional stress. 

A study published in the journal CNS and Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets noted that CBD had therapeutic uses as an anti-anxiety-like and an antidepressant-like compound(25).

There is also evidence that taking an oral supplement of linoleic acid (found in evening primrose oil) may improve MS symptoms. 

Researchers of a 2019 study found that higher levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA) were associated with lower disease activity in MS patients(26).

Meanwhile, cannabis extracts from Sativa cultivars (Cannabaceae) are rich in linoleic acid (57.1%), according to researchers of a 2012 study published in the European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology(27).

How to Choose the Right CBD 

Consider the following to ensure the reliability and safety of the CBD products purchased.

  1. Research on the legal stipulations applicable to CBD in the area where it would be bought and used.
  2. Read product reviews before buying from an online store. Check if the store is authorized by the government to sell CBD.
  3. Look for the certificate of analysis (COA) of the CBD product. A COA is a laboratory report that includes cannabinoid content and other tested compounds.
  4. Compare company claims with that of third-party lab testing reports. 

CBD Dosage for Multiple Sclerosis

The appropriate dose of cannabinoids for specific medical conditions is not known. However, there are suggested doses for some multiple sclerosis symptoms, like pain and spasticity.

A 2011 systematic review that examined the effects of cannabinoids of any type (smoked cannabis, oral extracts, nabilone, synthetic THC, nabiximols) showed that cannabinoids provided pain relief(28). 

When using Sativex for the first time for MS-related pain and spasticity, follow the number of sprays on the days and times in the table below as reference(29).

Each 100 microlitre spray contains 2.7 mg THC and 2.5 mg CBD. 

Number of Sprays
Days Morning Sprays

(Between waking up and noon)

Evening Sprays

(Between 4 pm and bedtime)

Total Sprays/day 
Day 1 0 1 1
Day 2 0 1 1
Day 3 0 2 2
Day 4 0 2 2
Day 5 1 2 3
Day 6 1 3 4
Day 7 1 4 5
Day 8 2 4 6
Day 9 2 5 7
Day 10 3 5 8
Day 11 3 6 9
Day 12 4 6 10
Day 13 4 7 11
Day 14 5 7 12
Do not use more than 12 sprays in one day.

A 2011 study noted that high doses of 1,500 mg CBD a day is well-tolerated by humans(30). Still, always consult with a doctor before taking any CBD products.

How to Take CBD Oil for Multiple Sclerosis

A topical CBD cream or patch is ideal to use for inflammation or pain in a specific area. The CBD can target localized clusters of cannabinoid receptors, rather than interacting with the entire endocannabinoid system (ECS).

CBD oil capsules and edibles, such as gummies, brownies, and lozenges, are a convenient and straightforward way to take CBD oil, especially for beginners.

Meanwhile, CBD oil tinctures and sprays may be practical options for those who seek fast results and maximum dosage control. 

Conclusion

CBD alone or its combination with another cannabinoid, like THC, may help alleviate many common MS symptoms.

Unfortunately, studies on the use of CBD for specific medical conditions in humans are limited, and CBD’s long-term effects remain unknown. 

More longitudinal research is required to gather more scientific evidence and validate results from previous studies.

Consulting with a doctor experienced in CBD use is ideal before using CBD or any cannabis products.


  1. Rudroff, T., & Sosnoff, J. (2018). Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis. Frontiers in neurology, 9, 183. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00183.
  2. Perras C (2005). Sativex for the management of multiple sclerosis symptoms. Issues in emerging health technologies, (72), 1–4.
  3. Zettl, U. K., Rommer, P., Hipp, P., & Patejdl, R. (2016). Evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of THC-CBD oromucosal spray in symptom management of patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. Therapeutic advances in neurological disorders, 9(1), 9–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1756285615612659.
  4. Mannucci, C., Navarra, M., Calapai, F., Spagnolo, E. V., Busardò, F. P., Cas, R. D., Ippolito, F. M., & Calapai, G. (2017). Neurological Aspects of Medical Use of Cannabidiol. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets, 16(5), 541–553. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871527316666170413114210.
  5. The National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Retrieved from https://www.nationalmssociety.org/What-is-MS/Types-of-MS/Relapsing-remitting-MS.
  6. Rudroff, T., & Sosnoff, J. (2018). Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis. Frontiers in neurology, 9, 183. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00183.
  7. Ziemssen T, Derfuss T, de Stefano N, Giovanonni G, Palavra F, Tomic D, et al. Optimizing treatment success in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol (2016) 263:1053–65.10.1007/s00415-015-7986-y.
  8. Perras C (2005). Sativex for the management of multiple sclerosis symptoms. Issues in emerging health technologies, (72), 1–4.
  9. Perras C (2005). Sativex for the management of multiple sclerosis symptoms. Issues in emerging health technologies, (72), 1–4.
  10. Zettl, U. K., Rommer, P., Hipp, P., & Patejdl, R. (2016). Evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of THC-CBD oromucosal spray in symptom management of patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. Therapeutic advances in neurological disorders, 9(1), 9–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1756285615612659.
  11. Mannucci, C., Navarra, M., Calapai, F., Spagnolo, E. V., Busardò, F. P., Cas, R. D., Ippolito, F. M., & Calapai, G. (2017). Neurological Aspects of Medical Use of Cannabidiol. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets, 16(5), 541–553. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871527316666170413114210.
  12. Laprairie, R. B., Bagher, A. M., Kelly, M. E., & Denovan-Wright, E. M. (2015). Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. British journal of pharmacology, 172(20), 4790–4805. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.13250.
  13. Scotter, E. L., Abood, M. E., & Glass, M. (2010). The endocannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. British journal of pharmacology, 160(3), 480–498. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00735.x.
  14. Government of Canada. (2005, April 13). Fact Sheet – SATIVEX. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/drug-products/notice-compliance/conditions/fact-sheet-sativex.html.
  15. Shen M, Piser TM, Seybold US, et al: Cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal cultures. J Neurosci 1996; 16:4322–4334. 
  16. Levite M. (2017). Glutamate, T cells and multiple sclerosis. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996), 124(7), 775–798. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-016-1661-z
  17. Rudroff, T., & Sosnoff, J. (2018). Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis. Frontiers in neurology, 9, 183. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00183.
  18. US FDA. (2020, March 11). FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd.
  19. Koppel, B. S., Brust, J. C., Fife, T., Bronstein, J., Youssof, S., Gronseth, G., & Gloss, D. (2014). Systematic review: efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 82(17), 1556–1563. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000000363.
  20. Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Zuardi, A. W., & Crippa, J. A. (2011). Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Current drug safety, 6(4), 237–249. https://doi.org/10.2174/157488611798280924.
  21. Bauer, B. (2018, Dec 20). What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use? Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700.
  22. Iffland, K., & Grotenhermen, F. (2017). An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 2(1), 139–154. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2016.0034.
  23. Bonn-Miller, M. O., Loflin, M., Thomas, B. F., Marcu, J. P., Hyke, T., & Vandrey, R. (2017). Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online. JAMA, 318(17), 1708–1709. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.11909.
  24. Cleveland Clinic. (2014, Aug 22). Multiple Sclerosis: Alternative & Complementary Therapies. Retrieved from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/treatments/11666-multiple-sclerosis-alternative–complementary-therapies.
  25. De Mello A et al. “Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis sativa”, CNS & Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets (2014) 13: 953. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871527313666140612114838.
  26. Bjornevik, K., Myhr, K. M., Beiske, A., Bjerve, K. S., Holmøy, T., Hovdal, H., Midgard, R., Riise, T., Wergeland, S., & Torkildsen, Ø. (2019). α-Linolenic acid is associated with MRI activity in a prospective cohort of multiple sclerosis patients. Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England), 25(7), 987–993. https://doi.org/10.1177/1352458518779925.
  27. Kuhnt, K., Degen, C., Jaudszus, A., & Jahreis, G. (2012). Searching for health beneficial n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in plant seeds. European journal of lipid science and technology: EJLST, 114(2), 153–160. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201100008.
  28. Lynch, M. E., & Campbell, F. (2011). Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 72(5), 735–744. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x.
  29. NPS MedicineWise. (2019, Dec 9). Sativex. Retrieved from https://www.nps.org.au/medicine-finder/sativex-oromucosal-spray#how-to-use-sativex.
  30. Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Zuardi, A. W., & Crippa, J. A. (2011). Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Current drug safety, 6(4), 237–249. https://doi.org/10.2174/157488611798280924.
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CBDmd Review

cbdMD produces full-spectrum oils made from all-natural hemp using a CO2 extraction process. This process allows cbdMD to remove practically all traces of THC from its products without affecting the plants’ other beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes. This allows cbdMD to create high-quality products that are set apart from some offerings...

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