Can CBD help with pregnancy, and is it safe to use when pregnant?

  • Results of a 1986 research, published in the International Journal of Andrology, indicate that either of the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) or cannabinol (CBN) may cause problems with the reproductive system of developing male fetuses(1).
  • However, to date, there has been no comprehensive study on humans investigating the effects of CBD alone on the developing fetus, expectant mother, or breastfed baby.
  • Still, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warns that there may be serious risks to using cannabis products, including those containing CBD, when pregnant or while breastfeeding.
  • Experts advise expectant mothers and those who are contemplating pregnancy or breastfeeding to do more research and consult with a medical professional before commencing a CBD regimen.

Why Some Pregnant Women May Be Thinking of Taking CBD During Pregnancy

Expectant mothers are looking to relieve common symptoms of pregnancy, such as morning sickness, cramping, headaches, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and fatigue, and CBD is currently being marketed as a natural cure for most of these symptoms.

Those who seek a natural alternative to other pain medications may be inclined to turn to CBD, as anecdotal evidence shows that CBD may be used to help relieve and manage chronic pain in many cases.

A study, which was published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that using CBD can reduce inflammation and pain(2).

However, more research is still needed, especially in long-term studies with human subjects. To date, there has been no comprehensive research investigating the effects of CBD alone on the developing fetus, expectant mother, or breastfed baby.

The FDA continues to gather and study the data on the potential hazards of CBD on both mother and baby during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

The Dangers of Using CBD Oil When Pregnant

While testimonials abound on the many potential benefits of CBD, scientists recognize that there are more questions than answers with regards to the safety of CBD.

Furthermore, there have been no studies conducted on CBD’s effects when used by pregnant women. Consequently, the FDA warns that CBD has the potential to harm people and that harm can happen even before they become aware of it.

The FDA cautions people that there may be serious risks to using cannabis products, including those containing CBD, when pregnant or while breastfeeding.

Not all CBD products are created equal. Even product labels may not be a reliable indication of a product’s actual CBD content or potency.

Many CBD products tested by the FDA were found to contain trace amounts of THC and contaminants like toxic heavy metals, pesticides, bacteria, and fungus.

Thus, as a general rule, experts warn all pregnant, as well as breastfeeding mothers, to avoid CBD products altogether to keep themselves and their babies free from any potential danger.

Understanding CBD

Some people often use the terms cannabis and marijuana interchangeably, although the two terms do not mean the same thing.

Cannabis is the broad term for all products derived from the Cannabis sativa plant. A cannabis plant contains over 100 components, called cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids that come from plants are specifically called phytocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids, another group of cannabinoids, also exist in the body. Cannabis impacts the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) and helps create balance for optimal bodily functions.

In technical terms, the family genus cannabis is where both marijuana plants and hemp plants belong. Both of these plants contain varying amounts of cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Marijuana is a cannabis plant that contains substantial amounts of THC, the cannabinoid that is primarily responsible for inducing a euphoric and intoxicating effect on the user.

Farmers do not use the fibers and stalks of marijuana commercially. Instead, they cultivate marijuana plants specifically for the flowers, which, among all the parts, contain the highest levels of THC.

Medical marijuana is the term used to describe the whole, unprocessed marijuana plant or its essential extracts to help treat symptoms of illnesses and disorders.

However, to date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved or recognized the marijuana plant as medicine.

Cannabis plants that contain less than 0.3% THC in dry weight are legally considered as hemp. The seeds and stalks of hemp plants are used to create a wide range of products, including food, medicine, nutritional supplements, plastic composites, paper, textiles, and building materials.

Hemp naturally contains a substantial amount of CBD, and the level of THC in hemp is 33 times less than that of the least potent marijuana strains. Hence, oil extracted from hemp is non-intoxicating, making it generally safe for use.

People have an assumption that if it’s natural, then it’s safe, but that’s just not the case. We don’t have enough data to say if CBD is dangerous or safe.”

— Catherine Monk, Ph.D., Professor of Medical Psychology, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Psychiatry at Columbia University Irving Medical Center in New York

Side Effects of CBD Use

In recent years, cannabis and cannabis-derived products have become increasingly accessible in the market. People looking to use these products as a natural alternative to pharmaceutical prescriptions have contributed to CBD’s widespread use in the form of edibles, beverages, supplements, and cosmetics.

While new and different types of products continue to emerge, these products also raise questions and concerns for many consumers. Understandably, pregnant women have more concerns as the products may not only pose risks to themselves but to their unborn babies as well.

Generally, CBD’s side effects include the following:

  • Somnolence, characterized by sleepiness or drowsiness, impacts an individual’s alertness.
  • Gastrointestinal distress, which may manifest as a decrease in appetite or diarrhea, is another typical effect of CBD use.
  • Mood changes, which may come in the form of agitation and irritability, may also be experienced by some CBD users.

Although these side effects should improve once CBD use is terminated or its doses substantially reduced, keeping one’s self well-informed is crucial to ensure the safety of all concerned.

There are more severe side effects of high doses and prolonged use of CBD, and they include the following:

  • CBD may cause liver injury. A 2019 animal study, which was published in the Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Journal, concluded that CBD manifested visible signs of hepatotoxicity, possibly from a reduction or prevention of bile flow(3).
  • This research suggests that anyone taking CBD regularly and in high doses may be prone to developing liver disease.
  • CBD impacts the metabolism of other drugs and causes grave side effects. CBD can reduce or increase the effects of certain prescribed pharmaceuticals by interacting with cannabinoid receptors throughout the endocannabinoid system within the body and by inhibiting the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes.

A 2000 study, which was conducted by researchers from the Department of Pharmacy Services at Baylor University Medical Center in Texas, shows how CBD can temporarily deactivate the activity of cytochrome P450, which can affect how the body breaks down other compounds(4).

  • Both research and anecdotal evidence indicate that CBD use may cause nausea, drowsiness, diarrhea, reduced appetite, and dry mouth. Though they are often well-tolerated, these side effects may cause discomfort and pain.

The FDA’s Position on CBD

The use of CBD-infused products are widespread nowadays, and manufacturers are becoming increasingly creative as they offer CBD many forms and flavors that consumers would find appealing.

The 2018 Farm Bill legalized hemp, but the legal status of hemp-derived cannabidiol remains confusing.

While CBD can be derived from hemp or cannabis, it is technically a marijuana plant if the hemp plant contains over 0.3 percent THC.

The FDA released an advisory that reiterates the agency’s position on the regulation of CBD-infused products(5).

  • The FDA has seen only limited data about CBD safety. These data, while inconclusive in scope, point to factual risks that need to be considered before using CBD.
  • Some unscrupulous CBD product manufacturers market their goods with unproven medical claims to target buyers from different demographic groups.

The quality, potency, and purity of their products become questionable, primarily when they do not employ third-party lab testing to benefit the consumers.

  • The FDA emphasized in their consumer update that it is currently prohibited under federal law to add CBD to food products or label CBD as a dietary supplement.
  • The FDA has approved only one CBD product, Epidiolex, which is a prescription drug product to treat Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. These two rare and severe conditions usually manifest in early childhood or infancy.
  • The FDA recognizes that the drug approval process remains to be the best way to ensure that new medicines, including cannabis-derived drugs, are safe and effective to use by patients in need of proper medical therapy.

More Research Needed

The FDA is dedicated to supporting the discovery and development of new drugs, including cannabis and cannabis-derived drugs. The agency is presently working to gather more information about the safety of CBD and its byproducts, including conducting investigations that would address essential topics, such as:

  • Cumulative Exposure to CBD: How much CBD is ingested, and how much is absorbed through the skin if people utilize it through a wide variety of consumer products?

For instance, what would be the effect of consuming CBD edibles, such as CBD gummies and CBD-infused beverages, in conjunction with the application of CBD-rich cosmetic products on the same day for an extended period?

  • Specific Populations: The effects of CBD on other particular groups of people, such as children, adolescents, the elderly, expectant moms, and breastfeeding mothers.
  • CBD and Animals: Is CBD safe to use in pets and other animals? Other factors should also be considered, including the animal’s species, breed, or class, as well as the safety of the human food products manufactured, like meat, milk, cheese, or eggs from food-producing species that use CBD.

There is no comprehensive research studying the effects of CBD on the developing fetus, pregnant mothers, or breastfed babies.

Dishonest, misleading, unverified, or false claims associated with CBD products may lead consumers to delay getting critical medical care, such as proper diagnosis, treatment, and supportive care. Thus, women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy must consult with their doctor.

Medical professionals, such as obstetricians and gynecologists, can advise on the most effective remedy to alleviate typical pregnancy symptoms or treat other issues during pregnancy using available treatment options approved by the FDA.

The FDA pledges to continue to update the public as it learns more about CBD through its investigatory new drug process.

The FDA’s top priority is to defend and promote public health. This priority includes making sure that consumers are kept well-informed about products that may put their health and safety at the highest risk.

CBD vs. Marijuana on Pregnancy

Studies that show the impact of cannabis on pregnancy are limited. However, there have been studies done on subjects with prolonged exposure to marijuana.

A 2013 study “Cannabidiol changes P-gp and BCRP expression in trophoblast cell lines”, conducted by the Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel, concluded that CBD use during pregnancy might change the physiological characteristics of the placenta.

However, it must be noted that the aforementioned study was not based on the exclusive use of CBD, which traditionally contains low to zero levels of THC, but rather on marijuana, which contains high levels of THC.

Marijuana contains varying levels of THC and CBD.

Unlike THC, its psychoactive counterpart, CBD is a non-intoxicating cannabis compound. CBD is also not addictive and is believed to be relatively safe to use for an extended period.

However, CBD’s long-term effects are largely unknown, and most CBD products are untested.

Meanwhile, marijuana has changed over time, as the marijuana available in certain products today is much stronger than in the previous formulations.

A 2016 study was conducted by researchers from the National Center for Natural Products Research School of Pharmacy of the University of Mississippi and the Department of Computer Science of the University of West Georgia(6).

Results of the aforementioned study showed that between 1995 and 2014, the THC concentration in cultivated marijuana plants had surged three-fold.

The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, on its website, mentions a survey conducted among marijuana users in Washington. In the said survey, researchers found that marijuana available in dispensaries in some states has concentrations of THC between 17.7% and 23.2%(7).

Similarly, marijuana use by expectant mothers is on the rise, and the results of studies are alarming.

A 2017 study, which was published by the National Institutes of Health, was done to analyze the trends in marijuana use by females in California(8). Researchers of the study found that there was a 69% surge in marijuana use among pregnant women between 2009 and 2016.

In a 2018 study, researchers from the University of Colorado School of Medicine, the Colorado School of Public Health in Aurora, Colorado, the University of Utah Health in Salt Lake City, and Denver Health and Hospital Authority in Denver, Colorado, found that many retail dispensaries recommend marijuana to pregnant women for morning sickness(9).

Then, in 2019, a survey was conducted by researchers from the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration in Rockville, Maryland on pregnant women in the United States(10).

The researchers compared recent data on self-reported medical and non-medical cannabis use among the subjects with that of the period between 2002 and 2017. Results showed that marijuana use among pregnant women doubled.

More research is necessary to comprehend better how marijuana may affect an expectant mother and her baby during pregnancy. Still, experts recommend that pregnant women do not use marijuana.

CBD is not the same as marijuana. Thus, it is difficult to draw any conclusions from the aforementioned studies.

Limited and inconclusive studies make doctors cautious about recommending the non-psychoactive CBD because of its close association with marijuana and because of the lack of research around CBD alone.

“I am emphasizing the importance of protecting our Nation from the health risks of marijuana use in adolescence and during pregnancy. Recent increases in access to marijuana and in its potency, along with misperceptions of safety of marijuana endanger our most precious resource, our nation’s youth.”

— Surgeon General VADM Jerome Adams

How Marijuana Impacts the Developing Fetus

There are no studies that specifically examine the effects of CBD on pregnant women. However, there are studies that show how marijuana may impact a developing fetus.

  • When a pregnant woman consumes or smokes marijuana, cannabinoids enter the blood.

Based on a 1987 animal study, which was published in the Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology Journal, results demonstrate that through the bloodstream, THC rapidly crosses the placenta and enters the fetal brain(11).

Although the study was not done on humans, the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) functions the same way in people as it does in other animals.

The ECS maintains homeostasis (balance) among body functions and plays key roles in the control of metabolic, nervous,, digestive, reproductive, and immune functions.

  • A 2016 research, published by theYale Journal of Biology and Medicine, suggests that marijuana may interfere with the body’s endocannabinoid system, which is essential for a healthy pregnancy and fetal brain development(12). Marijuana may also interrupt the delicate equilibrium of the ECS in the female reproductive system.
  • A research conducted by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Washington University in St. Louis, and the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri indicated that the association between maternal marijuana use and adverse neonatal outcomes appears to be a result of concomitant tobacco use, among other confounding factors(13).
  • A 2017 review,“Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research”, which was published by the National Academy of Sciences, demonstrated that exposure to cannabis use in utero has an adverse influence on birth weight and increases the risk of an infant baby going into intensive care.
  • In the Pharmacology and Therapeutics Journal published in 2018, researchers of the study on “Cannabis Use during Pregnancy: Pharmacokinetics and Effects on Child Development” emphasized the fact that women should not smoke marijuana while pregnant. However, the study does not mention anything about CBD use during pregnancy.
  • In 2018, a study, which was published in the Journal of Pediatrics, was conducted to evaluate the relationship between prenatal cannabis use and adverse neonatal outcomes, such as small infant size for gestational age, low birth weight, and preterm birth(14).

It was reported that maternal marijuana use was linked to a 50% increased risk of low birth weight regardless of the mother’s age, ethnicity, education, and tobacco use.

However, since CBD and marijuana are not the same thing, it is difficult to draw any conclusions from the aforementioned studies.

Consequently, doctors are cautious about recommending the non-psychoactive CBD because of its close association with marijuana, and because of the lack of research around CBD alone.

Smoking, the most common route of administration of THC, cannot be medically condoned during pregnancy and lactation. Therefore, obstetrician-gynecologists should be discouraged from prescribing or suggesting the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes during preconception, pregnancy, and lactation.”

— The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)

As a safety measure, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) cautions pregnant women or those contemplating pregnancy not to start or discontinue marijuana use.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended in 2018 that it is imperative to advise all adolescents and young women that marijuana should not be used anytime during pregnancy.

Also, a pregnant woman who uses marijuana may unknowingly put the baby’s health at risk after birth.

According to a study published in AAP’s Pediatrics Journal, small quantities of THC have been found in breast milk even after six days from the last recorded use(15).

Breastmilk that is tainted with THC may impact the newborn baby’s brain development.

A 2015 review by researchers from Denver Health Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Denver, CO and University of Colorado School of Medicine in Aurora, CO, revealed that THC might cause problems with neurological development, which may lead to reduced or impaired poor cognitive function and hyperactivity(16).

Also, since marijuana smoke contains many of the same harmful components as tobacco smoke, researchers of a 2008 study, which was published in the Chemical Research in Toxicology Journal, strongly discourage smoking or vaping of marijuana or tobacco around a baby(17).

The aforementioned studies were focused on marijuana and its active component, THC, and not on CBD.

It is essential to note that CBD is entirely different from marijuana. Thus, it is difficult to draw any conclusions from the aforementioned studies.

Given CBD’s close association to marijuana and the lack of research around CBD alone, doctors are cautious about recommending the non-psychoactive CBD

Conclusion

Pregnant women must understand the risks involved in using CBD-infused products or other cannabis products. It is not only the mother’s health that is in danger when complications arise from the use of products that have not been proven safe for use during pregnancy.

Pregnant women should be wary of the potential harm that the exposure or ingestion of CBD products may have on themselves and their unborn babies. It is wise for expectant mothers to consult with their doctors before they start a CBD regimen during their pregnancy.


  1. Dalterio SL, deRooij DG. “Maternal cannabinoid exposure. Effects on spermatogenesis in male offspring.” DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.1986.tb00888.x.
  2. Wei Xiong, Tanxing Cui, Kejun Cheng, Fei Yang, Shao-Rui Chen, Dan Willenbring, Yun Guan, Hui-Lin Pan, Ke Ren, Yan Xu, and Li Zhang. “Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors.” J Exp Med. 2012 Jun 4; 209(6): 1121–1134. DOI: 10.1084/jem.20120242.
  3. Ewing, Skinner, Quick, Kennon-McGill, McGill, Walker, ElSohly, Gurley, and Koturbash. “Hepatotoxicity of a Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extract in the Mouse Model.” Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1694; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091694.
  4. Ogu and Maxa. “Drug interactions due to cytochrome P450.” Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2000 Oct; 13(4): 421–423. DOI: 10.1080/08998280.2000.11927719.
  5. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  6. ElSohly, Mehmedic, Foster, Gon, Chandra, and Church. “Changes in Cannabis Potency Over the Last 2 Decades (1995-2014): Analysis of Current Data in the United States.” Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Apr 1;79(7):613-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.01.004. Epub 2016 Jan 19.
  7. Jikomes, N., & Zoorob, M. (2018). The Cannabinoid Content of Legal Cannabis in Washington State Varies Systematically Across Testing Facilities and Popular Consumer Products. Scientific reports, 8(1), 4519. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22755-2.
  8. Young-Wolff, Tucker, Alexeeff, Armstrong, Conway, Weisner, and Goler. “Trends in Self-reported and Biochemically Tested Marijuana Use Among Pregnant Females in California From 2009-2016.” JAMA. 2017 Dec 26;318(24):2490-2491. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2017.17225.
  9. Dickson, Mansfield, Guiahi, Allshouse, Borgelt, Sheeder, Silver, and Metz. “Recommendations From Cannabis Dispensaries About First-Trimester Cannabis Use.” Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Jun;131(6):1031-1038. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002619.
  10. Volkow, Han, Compton,, and McCance-Katz. “Self-reported Medical and Nonmedical Cannabis Use Among Pregnant Women in the United States.” JAMA. 2019 Jul 9;322(2):167-169. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.7982.
  11. Bailey, Cunny, Paule, and Slikker Jr..”Fetal disposition of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during late pregnancy in the rhesus monkey.”Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Sep 15;90(2):315-21. DOI: 10.1016/0041-008x(87)90338-3.
  12. Brents LK. “Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System.” Yale J Biol Med. 2016 Jun 27;89(2):175-91. eCollection 2016 Jun. PMCID: PMC4918871.
  13. Conner,Bedell, Lipsey, Macones, Cahill,and Tuuli. “Maternal Marijuana Use and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Oct;128(4):713-23. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001649. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001649.
  14. Crume, Juhl, Brooks-Russell, Hall, Wymore, and Borgelt. “Cannabis Use During the Perinatal Period in a State With Legalized Recreational and Medical Marijuana: The Association Between Maternal Characteristics, Breastfeeding Patterns, and Neonatal Outcomes.” J Pediatr. 2018 Jun;197:90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.02.005. Epub 2018 Mar 28. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.02.005.
  15. Bertrand, Hanan, Honerkamp-Smith, Best, and Chambers. “Marijuana Use by Breastfeeding Mothers and Cannabinoid Concentrations in Breast Milk.” Pediatrics September 2018, 142 (3) e20181076; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1076.
  16. Metz and Stickrath. “Marijuana use in pregnancy and lactation: a review of the evidence.” Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Dec;213(6):761-78. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.05.025. Epub 2015 May 15. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.05.025.
  17. Moir, Rickert, Levasseur, Larose, Maertens, White, and Desjardins. “A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions.” Chem Res Toxicol. 2008 Feb;21(2):494-502. Epub 2007 Dec 7. DOI: 10.1021/tx700275p.

More Info

Less Info

Summary for UKPID

COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES

Helen Seymour, BPharm (Hons)

National Poisons Information Service (Newcastle Centre)
Regional Drug & Therapeutics Centre
Wolfson Building
Claremont Place
Newcastle upon Tyne
NE1 4LP
UK

This monograph has been produced by staff of a National Poisons
Information Service Centre in the United Kingdom. The work was
commissioned and funded by the UK Departments of Health, and was
designed as a source of detailed information for use by poisons
information centres.

Peer review group: Directors of the UK National Poisons Information
Service.

SUMMARY

Type of product

Contraceptive

Ingredients

Contains an oestrogen and a progestogen.

Toxicity

Very low.

Features

May cause nausea and vomiting.
Rarely, withdrawal bleeding may occur in pre-pubertal girls.

Treatment

None required.

SUBSTANCE

Combined Oral Contraceptives

ORIGIN OF SUBSTANCE

NAME

Brand Name/ Loestrin 20 (P-D)
Generic Name Norethisterone acetate 1mg, ethinylestradiol
20 micrograms – 21 tablets

Mercilon (Organon)
Desogestrel 150 micrograms, ethinylestradiol
20 micrograms – 21 tablets

Eugynon 30 (Schering Health)
Ovran 30 (Wyeth)
Levonorgestrel 250 micrograms,
ethinylestradiol 30 micrograms – 21 tablets

Logynon (Schering Health)
Trinordiol (Wyeth)
Ethinylestradiol 30 micrograms,
levonorgestrel 50 micrograms – 6 tablets
Ethinylestradiol 40 micrograms,
levonorgestrel 75 micrograms – 5 tablets
Ethinylestradiol 30 micrograms,
levonorgestrel 125 micrograms – 10 tablets

Logynon ED (Schering Health)
As above with the addition on 7 placebo
tablets

Microgynon 30 (Schering Health)
Ovranette (Wyeth)
Levonorgestrel 150 micrograms,
ethinylestradiol 30 micrograms – 21 tablets

Binovum (Ortho)
Ethinylestradiol 35 micrograms,
norethisterone 500 micrograms – 7 tablets
Ethinylestradiol 35 micrograms,
norethisterone 1mg – 14 tablets

Brevinor (Searle)
Ovysmen (Ortho)
Norethisterone 500 micrograms,
ethinylestradiol 35 micrograms – 21 tablets

Loestrin 30 (P-D)
Norethisterone acetate 1.5mg,
ethinylestradiol 30 micrograms – 21 tablets

Norimin (Searle)
Norethisterone 1mg, ethinylestradiol 35
micrograms – 21 tablets

Synphase (Searle)
Ethinylestradiol 35 micrograms,
norethisterone 500 micrograms – 7 tablets
Ethinylestradiol 35 micrograms,
norethisterone 1mg – 9 tablets
Ethinylestradiol 35 micrograms,
norethisterone 500 micrograms – 5 tablets

Trinovum (Ortho)
Ethinylestradiol 35 micrograms,
norethisterone 500 micrograms – 7 tablets
Ethinylestradiol 35 micrograms,
norethisterone 750 micrograms – 7 tablets
Ethinylestradiol 35 micrograms,
norethisterone 1mg – 7 tablets

Cilest (Cilag)
Norgestimate 250 micrograms, ethinylestradiol
35 micrograms – 21 tablets

Marvelon (Organon)
Desogestrel 150 micrograms, ethinylestradiol
30 micrograms – 21 tablets

Femodene (Schering Health)
Minulet (Wyeth)
Gestodene 75 micrograms, ethinylestradiol 30
micrograms – 21 tablets

Femodene ED (Schering Health)
As above plus 7 placebo tablets

Triadene (Schering Health)
Tri-Minulet (Wyeth)
Ethinylestradiol 30 micrograms, gestodene 50
micrograms – 6 tablets
Ethinylestradiol 40 micrograms, gestodene 70
micrograms – 5 tablets
Ethinylestradiol 30 micrograms, gestodene 100
micrograms – 10 tablets

Ovran (Wyeth)
Levonorgestrel 250 micrograms,
ethinylestradiol 50 micrograms – 21 tablets

Norinyl-1 (Searle)
Ortho-Novin 1.50 (Ortho)
Norethisterone 1mg, mestranol 50 micrograms –
21 tablets

Schering PC4 (Schering Health)
Levonorgestrel 250 micrograms,
ethinylestradiol 50 micrograms – 4 tablets

CHEMICAL GROUP

Combined oral contraceptives
BNF 7.3.1

SUBSTANCE IDENTITY

REFERENCE NUMBER

CAS

Product licence number:
Loestrin 20 – 0018/0086
Loestrin 30 – 0018/0087
Mercilon – 0065/0085
Marvelon – 0065/0071
Eugynon 30 – 0053/0049
Logynon – 0053/0085
Logynon ED – 0053/0115
Microgynon 30 – 0053/0064
Femodene – 0053/0179
Femodene ED – 0053/0180

Triadene – 0053/0205
Schering PC4 – 0053/0162
Ovran 30 – 0011/0050
Ovranette – 0011/0041
Trinordiol – 0011/0066
Minulet – 0011/0135
Tri-Minulet – 011/0140
Ovran – 0011/0015
BiNovum – 0242/0208
Ovysmen – 0242/0253
TriNovum – 0242/0279
Ortho-Novin 1/50 – 0242/0252
Brevinor – 08821/0019
Norimin –
Synphase –
Norinyl-1 –
Cilest – 0242/0209

MANUFACTURER

Janssen-Cilag Ltd
PO Box 79,
Saunderton,
High Wycombe,
Bucks
HP14 4HJ
01494 567567

Organon Laboratories Ltd
Cambridge Science Park,
Milton Road,
Cambridge
CB4 4FL
01223 423445

Ortho
see Janssen-Cilag

P-D
Parke-Davis Medical,
Lambert Court,
Chestnut Avenue,
Eastleigh,
Hants
SO53 3ZQ
01703 620500

Schering Health Care Ltd
The Brow,
Burgess Hill,
West Sussex
RH15 9NE
01444 232323

Searle Pharmaceuticals
PO Box 53,
Lane End Road,
High Wycombe,
Bucks
HP12 4HL
01494 521124

Wyeth Laboratories
Huntercombe Lane South,
Taplow,
Maidenhead,
Berks
SL6 0PH
01628 604377

PRESENTATION

Form Tablets – see above for details of constituents
Pack sizes See above under Brand name

PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Chemical structure

Ethinyloestradiol – 19-Nor-17alpha-pregna-1,3,5(10)-trien-20-yne-
3,17ß-diol

Mestranol – 3-Methoxy-19-nor-17alpha-pregna-1,3,5(10) trien-20-
yn-17ß-ol

Desogestrel – 13ß-Ethyl-11-methylene-18,19-dinor-17alpha-pregn-4-
en-20-yn-17ß-ol

Gestodene – 13ß-Ethyl-17ß-hydroxy-18,19-dinor-17alpha-pregna-
4,15-dien-20-yn-3-one

Levonorgestrel – 13-Ethyl-17ß-hydroxy-18,19-dinor-17alpha-pregn-
4-en-20-yn-3-one

Norethisterone – 17alpha-Ethinyl-19-nortestosterone, 17ß-hydroxy-
19-nor-17alpha-pregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one, 17alpha-ethinyl-17ß-
hydroxy-19-nor-androst-4-en-3-one

Norgestimate – 13ß-Ethyl-3-hydroxyimino-18,19-dinor-17alpha-
pregn-4-en-20-yn-17ß-yl acetate

Physical structure at room temperature

All are solid

Colour

Ethinyloestradiol – white – to creamy- or slightly yellowish-
white

Mestranol – white to creamy-white

Desogestrel – NIF

Gestodene – NIF

Levonorgestrel – white or almost white

Norethisterone – white or creamy-white

Norgestimate – NIF

Odour

Ethinyloestradiol – odourless

Mestranol – odourless

Desogestrel – NIF

Gestodene – NIF

Levonorgestrel – odourless

Norethisterone – odourless

Norgestimate – NIF

Viscosity

NA

pH

NA

Solubility

Ethinyloestradiol – practically insoluble in water; freely
soluble in alcohol and ether; sparingly soluble in
chloroform; dissolves in dilute solutions of alkali hydroxides

Mestranol – practically insoluble in water; sparingly soluble in
alcohol; soluble in acetone, in dioxan, and in ether; freely
soluble in chloroform; slightly soluble in methylalcohol.

Desogestrel – NIF

Gestodene – NIF

Levonorgestrel – practically insoluble in water; slightly
soluble in alcohol, in acetone and in ether; soluble in
chloroform; sparingly soluble in methylene chloride.

Norethisterone – practically insoluble in water; slight to
sparingly soluble in alcohol; soluble in chloroform and in
dioxan; slightly soluble in ether.

Norgestimate – NIF

USES

Indications

To prevent conception

Therapeutic Dose

One active tablet daily for 21 days and either 7 pill free days
or one placebo tablet daily for 7 days

Contraindications

Pregnancy; severe or multiple risk factors for arterial disease,
history of arterial or venous thromboembolis, valvular heart
disease associated with pulmonary hypertension or risk of mural
thrombi, ischaemic heart disease, severe hypertension, varicose
veins (during sclerosing treatment or where history of
thrombosis); conditions where risk of intravascular thrombosis is
higher such as an atherogenic lipid profile (e.g. familial
hyperlipidaemia together with cholesterol above 6.5 mmol/litre),
or any known prothombotic coagulation abnormality; focal
migraine, severe migraine, crescendo migraine, transient cerebral
ischaemic attacks without headaches; liver disease including
disorders of hepatic excretion (e.g. Dubin-Johnson or Rotor
syndromes), infective hepatitis (until liver function returns to
normal), porphyria and liver adenoma; gall-stones; after
evacuation of hydatidiform mole (until return to normal of urine
and plasma gonadotrophin values); history of haemolytic uraemic
syndrome or during pregnancy of pruritus, chorea, pemphigoid
gestationis, cholestatic jaundice, or deterioration of
otosclerosis; breast or genital tract carcinoma; undiagnosed
vaginal bleeding; breast feeding (until weaning or 6 months of
age).

Abuses

NIF

HAZARD/RISK CLASSIFICATION

NIF

PHARMACOKINETICS

Absorption

Ethinyloestradiol – 100%

Mestranol – >90%

Desogestrel – NIF

Gestodene – NIF

Levonorgestrel – 100%

Norethisterone- 100%

Norgestimate – NIF

Distribution

Ethinyloestradiol – Rapidly distributed throughout body tissues;
more than 95% is protein bound.

Mestranol – 98% protein bound

Desogestrel – NIF

Gestodene – NIF

Levonorgestrel – 93-95% plasma bound

Norethisterone- 95% plasma bound

Norgestimate – NIF

Metabolism

Ethinyloestradiol – 50% is metabolised pre-systemically. Some
hydroxylation occurs in the liver.

Mestranol – metabolised to ethinyloestradiol by the liver.
Ethinyloestradiol is metabolised by the gut wall and liver.

Desogestrel – NIF

Gestodene – NIF

Levonorgestrel – Extensively metabolised by the liver

Norethisterone- Metabolised in the intestinal wall and liver

Norgestimate – NIF

Elimination

Ethinyloestradiol – 60% of the dose is excreted in the urine and
40% in the faeces

Mestranol – Excreted in urine and bile

Desogestrel – NIF

Gestodene – NIF

Levonorgestrel – 20-30% eliminated via the faeces and the rest
via the urine

Norethisterone – via urine and faeces

Norgestimate – NIF

Half-life

Ethinyloestradiol – 8h

Mestranol – 6-20h

Desogestrel – NIF

Gestodene – NIF

Levonorgestrel – 10 – 26h

Norethisterone – 5 -12h

Norgestimate – NIF

Breast Milk

Ethinyloestradiol – oestrogens have been used to suppress
lactation. Very small amounts are excreted in breast milk.

Mestranol – As ethinyloestradiol

Desogestrel – NIF

Gestodene – NIF

Levonorgestrel – Approximately 0.1% of the daily dose passes into
breast milk

Norethisterone – small amounts are excreted into breast milk, the
concentration being 10-20% of that in plasma

Norgestimate – NIF

TOXICOKINETICS

NIF

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF POISONING

In 1994, 2007 calls were made to UK NPIS centres about hormonal
contraceptive poisoning.

ADVERSE EFFECTS

Nausea, vomiting, headache, breast tenderness, changes in body
weight, thrombosis (more common in blood groups A,B and AB than
O), changes in libido, depression, chloasma, hypertension,
contact lenses may irritate, impairment of liver function,
hepatic tumours, reduced menstrual loss, ‘spotting’ in early
cycles, absence of withdrawal bleeding; rarely photosensitivity.
Small increased risk of developing breast cancer during use and
10 years after stopping.

INTERACTIONS

Hepatic enzyme inducers such as barbiturates, primidone,
phenobarbitone, phenytoin, phenylbutazone, rifampicin,
carbamazepine, possibly lansoprazole and griseofulvin will
accelerate metabolism.

Broad spectrum antibiotics may impair absorption.

Anticoagulant effect of nicoumalone, phenidione and warfarin may
be antagonised.

ACE Inhibitors and other anti-hypertensives, hypotensive effect
may be antagonised.

Antidiabetics, antagonism of hypoglycaemic effect.

Cyclosporin, increased cyclosporin levels.

Theophylline, increased theophylline levels.

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Inhibition of ovulation by suppression of mid-cycle surge of
luteinising hormone, the inspissation of cervical mucus so as to
constitute a barrier to sperm, and the rendering of the
endometrium unreceptive to implantation.

FEATURES OF POISONING

Acute

Ingestion

Nausea and vomiting may occur. Withdrawal bleeding may occur in
females even in pre-pubertal girls.

Pregnancy

There is no conclusive evidence to indicate that exposure to oral
contraceptives during the first trimester of pregnancy is
associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations, or
any specific type of defect.

Where inadvertent exposure occurs during the first few weeks of
pregnancy, provided that there is no family history of
malformations, it is unlikely that the risk of fetal toxicity
will be any greater than that for the general population.

The European Network of Teratology Information Services have
prospective follow-up data on 15 women who took combined oral
contraceptives during pregnancy. 11 women had taken therapeutic
doses of oral contraceptives during the first trimester. There
were 3 elective terminations, 7 normal babies, 1 of whom had
severe birth asphyxia with neonatal convulsions and retinal
haemorrhage, 1 mild talipes. 4 women had taken oral contraceptive
overdoses; 1 at 9/40 together with alcohol abuse, she gave birth
to a normal baby; 1 at 12/40 who gave birth to a normal baby; 1
at 8/40 who had an elective termination at 9/40; 1 at 27/40 who
gave birth to a baby with an undescended right testicle.

Postcoital pill/pregnancy

There is no convincing evidence to suggest that the postcoital
pill when used in the recommended way is associated with an
increased risk of malformations or any particular pattern of
defects. The consensus of opinion amongst teratologists is that
even known teratogens will not produce malformations before
organogenesis starts, which is much later than the 72 hours after
fertilisation to which the use of Schering PC4 is licensed.
During the pre-embryonic phase, which lasts until 17 days post-
conception, the ‘all or nothing’ concept is thought to apply.
During this period, cells damaged by a toxic insult, such as a
drug exposure, will be replaced by extra divisions of the
remaining cells which will then develop normally. If extensive
damage occurs, failure of implantation and spontaneous abortion
may occur. Thus, if the pregnancy is maintained, the risks to the
fetus are likely to be no greater than those for the general
population.

If used after 6-9 weeks post conception (8-11/40) there is a
possibility of causing virulisation of female fetuses.
Approximately 1% of female fetuses exposed at this critical
period of development develop genital anomalies e.g. enlarged
clitoris and labial folds. Internal genitalia and subsequent
pubertal development are not affected by norethisterone taken
during pregnancy

Although there have been occasional reports of male
pseudohermaphroditism usually hypospadias, following maternal
treatment with progestogens., there is no good evidence to
suggest that any adverse effects occur in male fetuses.

However, a recent meta-analysis of 14 studies involving 65,567
women concluded that there was no association between 1st
trimester exposure to sex hormones generally, or to oral
contraceptives specifically, and external genital malformations.

NB. The post coital pill appears to affect only endometrial
implantation, If a tubal pregnancy had already occurred this is
unlikely to be affected & would remain in situ. There is no firm
evidence to suggest that the post coital pill “causes” ectopic
pregnancies.

The European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS)
have prospective follow-up data on 4 exposures to Schering PC4 in
the first trimester. Three women took Schering PC4 in the first
week post conception, 2 women had elective terminations and one
woman had a fullterm normal baby. One woman took Schering PC4 at
21 days post conception, she had a p.v. bleed 2 weeks later and
had a complete abortion confirmed by ultra sound scan at 8 weeks
of gestation.

MANAGEMENT

Symptomatic treatment only is required.

Parents of prepubertal girls should be warned of the possibility
of a withdrawal bleed several days after ingestion.

CASE DATA

Picchioni (1965) reported no untoward effects in children who
ingested up to 30 2mg Ortho Novum tablets, they were lavaged.

ANALYSIS

NIF

PREVENTION OF POISONING

NIF

OTHER TOXICOLOGICAL DATA

Carcinogenicity:

Long-term oral contraceptive use does not increase the risk of
breast cancer and prolactinoma.

Long-term oral contraceptive use has been shown to decrease the
risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers. The risk of developing
endometrial and ovarian cancer remained low even after stopping
the oral contraception.

Teratogenicity:

There is no conclusive evidence to indicate that exposure to oral
contraceptives during the first trimester of pregnancy is
associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations, or
any specific type of defect.

Where inadvertent exposure occurs during the first few weeks of
pregnancy, provided that there is no family history of
malformations, it is unlikely that the risk of fetal toxicity
will be any greater than that for the general population.

Postcoital pill/pregnancy

There is no convincing evidence to suggest that the postcoital
pill when used in the recommended way is associated with an
increased risk of malformations or any particular pattern of
defects.

If used after 6-9 weeks post conception (8-11/40) there is a
possibility of causing virulisation of female fetuses.
Approximately 1% of those fetuses exposed during this critical
period when genital development begins are likely to be affected.

NB. The post coital pill appears to affect only endometrial
implantation. If a tubal pregnancy had already occurred this is
unlikely to be affected & would remain in situ. There is no firm
evidence to suggest that the post coital pill “causes” ectopic
pregnancies.

Author

Helen Seymour, BPharm (Hons)

National Poisons Information Service (Newcastle Centre)
Regional Drug & Therapeutics Centre
Wolfson Building
Claremont Place
Newcastle upon Tyne
NE1 4LP
UK

This monograph was produced by the staff of the Newcastle Centre of
the National Poisons Information Service in the United Kingdom. The
work was commissioned and funded by the UK Departments of Health, and
was designed as a source of detailed information for use by poisons
information centres.

Peer review was undertaken by the Directors of the UK National Poisons
Information Service.

Last updated January 1997

REFERENCES

1. Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia. 31st Edition. Reynolds JEF
(Ed.). Pharmaceutical Press 1996.

2. Therapeutic Drugs. Dollery C. (Ed.). Churchill Livingstone 1991.

3. ABPI Compendium of Data Sheets and Summaries of Product
Characteristics. Datapharm Publications Ltd. 1996-97.

4. British National Formulary. Number 32 (September 1996). British
Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

5. Poisindex System(c), Micromedex, Inc., Denver Colorado, Edition
Expires 31.12.96.

6. National Teratology Information Service.

7. European Commission; Poison centres: Collection of the annual
reports 1994, Analysis and synthesis, Final Report 31.8.96.

8. Picchioni AL. Acute overdose of oral contraceptives. Am J Hosp
Pharm 1965; 22: 486.

Treating Diseases During Pregnancy

Treating the Common Cold During Pregnancy

Symptoms such as cough, nasal stuffiness, discharge, sneezing, and sore throat can be due to a mild upper respiratory illness also known as the common cold. It is caused by numerous viruses and is usually a self-limiting illness. However, sometimes the infection spreads to other nearby organs, leading to a serious bacterial infection. Because of immunologic changes during pregnancy, pregnant women are susceptible to many infections. Although there are many over-the-counter (OTC) medications that help to relieve symptoms of the common cold, there are only a few medicinal ingredients in these products.

Analgesics

Analgesics commonly found in OTC cold medications are acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). The safety of acetaminophen in pregnancy is well documented.

Acetylsalicylic acid use has been associated with delivery complications and adverse effects in newborns; therefore, use in analgesic doses is not recommended in late pregnancy. Low doses of ASA (40 to 150 mg) have not been associated with concerns at any stage of pregnancy. However, the use of NSAIDs, other than low-dose ASA, in the third trimester is associated with premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and should be avoided if possible.

Cough suppressants

Dextromethorphan (DM) is a cough suppressant commonly found in OTC cold medications. There are a number of human studies on the use of DM during pregnancy that did not find an association between this drug and an increased risk of birth defects. The Collaborative Perinatal Project, for example, followed 300 mother-child pairs who took DM during the first trimester and 580 mother-child pairs with exposure anytime during pregnancy.

Decongestants

Pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine are the most common oral decongestants in OTC cold medications. In some studies, decongestant use in the first trimester has been associated with a small increase of defects thought to arise, in some instances, from vascular disruption, such as gastroschisis, small intestinal atresia, and hemifacial microsomia.

Xylometazoline and oxymetazoline are inhaled decongestants, which are also available OTC. Oxymetazoline was evaluated in human pregnancies, and a single dose given to each of 12 pregnant women did not alter maternal or fetal circulation. It is important to note that although OTC inhaled decongestants are considered relatively safe for use during pregnancy, women should be cautioned regarding rebound effects from overuse of these products.

Antihistamines

Diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine are the most commonly used antihistamines in cold preparations. These first-generation antihistamines are associated with drowsiness but have not been found to increase the risk of malformations above baseline.

Expectorants

Guaifenesin is an expectorant also found in many cold medications. There have been several studies involving hundreds of pregnant women that did not report increased risk of major malformations.

Treating Constipation During Pregnancy

Although the recommended first-line therapy for constipation includes increasing fiber, fluids, and exercise, these are sometimes ineffective. Therefore, laxatives such as bulk-forming agents, lubricant laxatives, stool softeners, osmotic laxatives, and stimulant laxatives might be considered. Although few of the various types of laxatives have been assessed for safety in pregnancy, they have minimal systemic absorption. Therefore, they are not expected to be associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies. However, it is recommended that osmotic and stimulant laxatives be used only in the short term or occasionally to avoid dehydration or electrolyte imbalances in pregnant women.

Treatment

Many patients find relief from constipation with an increase in dietary fiber and fluids, as well as daily exercise. Probiotics that alter the colonic flora might also improve bowel function.

Bulk-forming agents

Bulk-forming agents are not absorbed or associated with increased risk of malformations 7; therefore, they are considered safe for long-term use during pregnancy. However, they are not always effective and might be associated with unpleasant side effects such as gas, bloating, and cramping. 4

Stool softeners

Docusate sodium has not been associated with adverse effects in pregnancy in a number of studies, and it is thus also considered safe to use. There is one case report of maternal chronic use of docusate sodium throughout pregnancy, which was associated with symptomatic hypomagnesemia in the neonate.

Lubricant laxatives

Mineral oil is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not appear to be associated with adverse effects. There is controversy about whether prolonged use reduces the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, although this appears to be a theoretical rather than actual risk.

Osmotic laxatives

Lactulose and polyethylene glycol are poorly absorbed systemically. Their use has not been associated with adverse effects; however, individuals might experience side effects such as flatulence and bloating. Theoretically, prolonged use of osmotic laxatives might lead to electrolyte imbalances.

Stimulant laxatives

Absorption of bisacodyl is minimal as it has poor bioavailability. Senna does not appear to be associated with increased risk of malformations and is not readily absorbed systemically. However, women might experience unpleasant side effects such as abdominal cramps with the use of stimulant laxatives. Similar to osmotic laxatives, prolonged use might theoretically lead to electrolyte imbalances.

Conclusion

The first line of therapy for constipation includes increasing dietary fiber and water intake and moderate amounts of daily exercise. 3 If these are ineffective, laxatives are the second line of therapy. Because most laxatives are not absorbed systemically, short-term use has not been, and is not expected to be, associated with an increased risk of malformations. However, as with the general population, it is recommended that osmotic and stimulant laxatives be used only in the short term or occasionally to avoid dehydration or electrolyte imbalances and the theoretical risk of “cathartic colon.”

HIV Treatment in Pregnancy

How do people get HIV?

HIV is found in blood, semen (the fluid containing sperm), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. A person can become infected in one or more of the following ways:

  • Sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) with a person who is infected with HIV.
  • Sharing needles contaminated with HIV-infected blood.
  • Receiving a transfusion of infected blood (extremely uncommon since 1985).
  • Perinatal transmission that involves a baby becoming infected while in the mother’s womb or during birth, if the mother has HIV.
  • Mothers can pass HIV to their babies through breastmilk.

Can HIV be prevented?

Since we know the ways that HIV is spread, we know how to keep people from getting infected. Contact with blood, semen or vaginal fluids should be AVOIDED and mothers with HIV should not breast feed their infants. Gloves should be warned when contact with blood is likely to occur. In the event of an accidental exposure to blood, immediate washing of the area with soap and water usually provides adequate protection unless the blood is able to enter the skin through an open wound.

I am/my female partner is HIV positive. Is pregnancy harmful to the health of women with HIV infection?

Studies indicate that pregnancy does not harm the health of women with HIV infection or increase the chance of women developing HIV related illnesses.

I am HIV positive and pregnant. Will my baby be infected as well?

Most babies born to HIV-positive mothers will not get HIV. But some will. A baby can get HIV from its mother during pregnancy (before birth), during delivery (the most common way babies get infected), and through breast feeding.

There is approximately a one-in-four chance of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection without any treatment. But treatments and interventions exist that have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of infection to babies. If you would like to learn more about mother-to-baby HIV infection, register with MEDSCAPE and use their search engine to find articles on “Perinatal HIV.”

During pregnancy and delivery, you can take antiretrovial drugs to reduce the risk of transmission. If you take a combination of antiretrovial drugs during pregnancy and delivery, and your newborn receives one of these drugs, the chance of transmission drops to about 1%.

Other strategies that can help to reduce the risk of infection include a shortened delivery time, and in some circumstances, delivery by Cesarean section.

Drugs in Pregnancy

Pregnancy, whether planned or a pleasant surprise, brings with it important concerns about prescription and over the counter drugs. Not every medication poses a risk to your unborn baby. However, some do. Talk to your doctor. Discuss the relative risks and benefits of any prescribed drug therapy and do NOT take over-the-counter drugs or naturopathic remedies without first consulting your physician. If you are currently planning your pregnancy, supplement your diet now with appropriate amounts of folic acid.

CBD Clinicals is reader-supported. When you buy through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. Learn more

Featured Posts


SabaiDee Review

28 views

SabaiDee CBD products are tested both in-house and by independent laboratories to verify the quality of every batch. Their products all come with SabaiDee’s Happiness Guarantee. 

Read more

Best CBD Oil for High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

23044 views

Why People Are Taking CBD for High Blood Pressure? According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), high blood pressure can harden the arteries, which decreases the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart, leading to heart disease(5). In a 2015 study conducted by researchers from the...

Read more

CBD Oil for Kids with Anxiety

6165 views

Why People are Turning to CBD for Children with Anxiety? CBD has become a popular OTC treatment that parents give their children, says Doris Trauner, M.D., professor of neurosciences and pediatrics at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and a physician at San Diego’s Rady Children’s Hospital....

Read more

CBD Oil for Cancer in Dogs

4970 views

Why Some People are Using CBD for Dogs with Cancer? An article posted by the American Kennel Club (AKC) says that there is no conclusive scientific data on using cannabidiol (CBD) to treat dogs specifically. However, there is anecdotal evidence from dog owners suggesting that CBD can help with neuropathic...

Read more

Best CBD for Neuropathy (Nerve Pain)

2625 views

As medical cannabis products have become more popular, people are turning to them to treat everything from anxiety to depression to chronic pain. Individuals who are suffering from neuropathy may show interest in trying CBD oil. What Is CBD? CBD comes from a plant that is part of the Cannabaceae...

Read more

CBD for Thyroid Health

3932 views

Why Some People Are Using CBD for Thyroid Disorders? Although the studies on cannabinoids and thyroid are limited, so far, findings suggest that CBD (cannabidiol) may be beneficial for promoting healthy thyroid conditions

Read more

CBD for the Immune System

2648 views

CBD has several indirect anti-inflammatory effects on the central nervous system, which amplify its therapeutic effects. Research has demonstrated that cannabinoids, like cannabidiol, can interfere with the release of cytokines(7). Cytokines are the proteins released by immune cells when the body experiences stress or trauma. Cytokines are involved in acute...

Read more

Spruce CBD Oil Review

2207 views

Spruce is a family-owned business based out of Raleigh, North Carolina. The company was founded in 2018 in the belief that modern medicine is broken and that there is a need for alternatives to dangerous pharmaceuticals. Spruce’s lab-grade CBD oil is 100% natural and tested by a third-party lab in...

Read more