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Can CBD help with vertigo and dizziness, and how?

  • CBD possesses anti-nausea, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties, according to a 2012 review by doctors from Hannover, Germany(1).
  • A study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology has shown that cannabidiol (CBD) suppresses nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy and other treatments(2).
  • In the Journal of Frontiers in Neurology, a 2018 study found that continuous and consistent doses of CBD oil, administered over an extended period helps reduce dizziness(3). However, the results do not provide a direct connection to CBD oil’s effects on vertigo.
  • CBD is not necessarily a treatment for vertigo itself, although it may help alleviate the symptoms. A consultation with a medical professional is the best course of action before using CBD for vertigo symptoms.

Best CBD For Vertigo

Healthy Option

Nuleaf Naturals 725mg Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Nuleaf Naturals 725mg Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Natural remedy for various illnesses. There are approximately 300 drops in this 0.5 FL OZ bottle, where 1 drop = 2.4 mg of CBD.

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Users' Top Choice

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle

Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

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Most Popular

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

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Top CBD Vape Juices

Hemp Bombs CBD Vape Oil

Hemp Bombs 300mg CBD Oil Bottle

The Hemp Bomb CBD product line is made with organic- certified, premium-grade industrial hemp. This brand’s quality control standard is high, and this too is a very popular brand. All the products offer third-party lab testing results, and customer service is reliable. This brand has numerous CBD mg dosing options, and pricing is very reasonable for an organic CBD product that is free of contaminants.

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CBDfx Vape Juice Range

CBDfx Vape Juice Range Bottle

CBDfx Vape Juice is made from high-quality cannabidiol isolates, and it is available in 250 mg, 500 mg, and 1000 mg CBD. They come in a variety of flavors including “Blue Raspberry”, “Wild Watermelon”, “Strawberry Milk” and more.

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Hemplucid Full Spectrum CBD Vape / Drip

Hemplucid Full Spectrum CBD Vape / Drip Bottle

HempLucid uses a whole-plant CBD hemp extract. It is USDA organic certified, with a mild natural flavor and aroma. Pricing is high, yet the product is worth it.

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Why People Are Turning To CBD For Vertigo

Treatment for vertigo symptoms depends on what is causing it. For those who want to go natural, CBD is an excellent option, given its many potential benefits.

In a study that utilized data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys to study dizziness, it was found that vertigo and dizziness rank among the most common reasons for consultation and referral to specialist care(4).

In a MedlinePlus article on dizziness and vertigo, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) says that dizziness makes people feel lightheaded or disoriented. If people feel like they or the room is spinning, they have vertigo. Both dizziness and vertigo make people lose their balance(5).

In a 2018 study published in the journal Frontiers in Neurology, CBD was shown to reduce the recurrence of adverse events when used as add-on therapy(6).

The authors of the study also found that CBD reduced fatigue, sleepiness, irritability, insomnia, appetite loss, aggressiveness, nausea, and dizziness in most of the subjects.

In another research, which was published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, results suggest that CBD may be an effective treatment for nausea and vomiting(7).

CBD has also been shown to wield potent anti-inflammatory effects, as one study, which was published in the American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology in 2007, shows(8).

The study mentioned above was done on animals. However, the authors also noted that since 2005, CBD had been approved for the treatment of pain, inflammation, and spasticity linked to multiple sclerosis in humans.

CBD’s anti-inflammatory characteristic may prove beneficial to alleviate the swelling of the inner ear, also referred to as labyrinthitis.

Vertigo is a symptom of labyrinthitis, National Health Service (NHS) UK says(9).

How CBD Works To Alleviate The Symptoms of Vertigo

Endocannabinoids are neurotransmitters that attach to cannabinoid receptors in the nervous system.

Within the human body is the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which regulates a variety of functions including appetite, sleep, pain and immune system response(10).

The ECS is composed of two primary cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2).

The role of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor in immune regulation was demonstrated in a 2009 study supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-NIH.

In the said study, the authors noted that CB2 receptors most often found on the cells of the immune system help moderate inflammation and immune response to pathogens(11).

Given that vertigo is a symptom of inflammation, it can be deduced that treating inflammation may help treat vertigo symptoms.

Anti-inflammatory drugs are also used to treat vertigo and dizziness, says Vestibular Disorders Association (VeDA)(12). But can CBD also help with inflammation, and how?

A 2018 study published in the Journal of Pain Research has demonstrated that CBD may help reduce chronic pain by influencing endocannabinoid receptor activity, reducing inflammation, and interacting with neurotransmitters(13).

In another study published in the Molecules Journal that same year, data have shown CBD’s ability to decrease swelling by signaling to the body to shut down its inflammation response(14).

Meanwhile, a 2018 study published in the Journal of Frontiers in Neurology found that continuous and consistent doses of CBD oil, administered over an extended period helps reduce dizziness(15).

However, the results do not provide a direct connection to CBD oil’s effects on vertigo. Given that vertigo occurs at an entirely different intensity level as compared to normal dizziness, it is difficult to assess whether CBD could treat conditions that cause vertigo as a symptom.

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Vertigo

The Pros

  • CBD “is generally well tolerated with a good safety profile,” as the World Health Organization (WHO) states in a critical review(16).
  • Scientific studies mentioned above show that CBD may help suppress dizziness, nausea, and vomiting, which are often linked to some cases of vertigo.
  • CBD’s anti-inflammatory characteristic, as shown in the studies mentioned previously, make CBD potentially beneficial in treating vertigo symptoms.
  • Unlike some commonly prescribed medications for vertigo, such as ondansetron, diazepam, lorazepam, and prednisone, CBD oil may be purchased without a prescription in locations where they are legally available.
  • In a review, CBD has been shown to be well-tolerated at doses of up to 1,500 mg per day(17).

The Cons

  • Studies are too limited to determine whether or not CBD is an effective treatment for conditions other than the ones approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  • As with the use of any natural chemical compound, there are risks involved in using CBD. According to the Mayo Clinic, possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, diarrhea, fatigue, and reduced appetite(18).
  • CBD can alter how the body metabolizes certain medications, as studies reveal(19).

Research indicates that the CYP450 family of enzymes is responsible for metabolizing several phytocannabinoids (cannabinoids that exist naturally in the cannabis plant), including CBD(20).

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Vertigo

Vertigo is a type of dizziness characterized by the illusion of rotational motion, says the American Academy of Family Physicians. Associated symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and excessive sweating. Because vertigo can have multiple concurrent causes, especially among the elderly, a specific diagnosis can be elusive(21).

Still, certain medications are prescribed by doctors to help with symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and dizziness.

The American Gastroenterological Association recommends antihistamines for the treatment of nausea associated with vertigo or motion sickness(22).

Meclizine is an antihistamine that works by blocking the signals to the brain that cause dizziness, nausea, and vomiting says Mayo Clinic(23).

Meclizine is also used for vertigo (dizziness or lightheadedness) caused by ear problems(24).

When there is no definite cause of vertigo, doctors may advise their patients to opt for vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT). This procedure strengthens the vestibular sensory symptom, which reduces the frequency and intensity of vertigo symptoms, as explained in the 2011 study published in the Journal of Clinical Neurology(25).

Another technique that can allay vertigo symptoms is the Epley maneuver, which involves a series of changes in the position of the head and body. This type of exercise, which can be done at home, helps to treat the symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), according to an article posted in Johns Hopkins Medicine(26).

Meanwhile, some essential oils are being advertised and/or recommended for ailments including vertigo and tinnitus (the perception of noise or ringing in the ears), says Robert M. DiSogra, AuD, who has more than 40 years of experience in audiology and has published and lectured extensively on pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals for hearing loss and tinnitus(27).

However, in an article published by the American Academy of Audiology, DiSogra says that, although essential oils possess numerous therapeutic properties, they do not help with vertigo or tinnitus.

More importantly, DiSograa advises against the ingestion of essential oils or its placement into the ear canal, saying that massage is the best way to apply essential oils to help relieve symptoms(28).

A 2013 study published in the Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Journal showed the anti-inflammatory effects of lavender on the central nervous system(29). However, note that using essential oils is not a recognized treatment for vertigo. Instead, these oils are used to help ease the symptoms linked to the disorder.

Magnesium therapy is another tool that may help with vertigo symptoms.

In a 2018 study published in Open Heart Journal, vertigo was presented as a less severe sign of magnesium deficiency(30).

However, there is no substantial evidence that links vertigo to magnesium deficiency. Neither is there a study that supports magnesium therapy as a treatment for vertigo. More studies are needed.

Also, despite the efficacy of prescription medications, like antihistamines, used to help with vertigo symptoms, these drugs bring about side effects.

Side effects that may be caused by antihistamines include clumsiness or unsteadiness, nausea, vomiting and headache(31). Ironically, these are the same symptoms of most vertigo cases(32).

Cannabidiol (CBD), on the other hand, is a natural alternative that has shown to have little side effects, and the side effects of CBD are less common than those associated with most pharmaceutical medications used to treat vertigo symptoms.

CBD may also be used as a dietary supplement like magnesium or as a topical like essential oils.

Given CBD’s potential to help with vertigo symptoms, as shown in the studies mentioned earlier, using it may help provide some much-needed and quick relief.

Still, before experimenting with different CBD products, speak to a doctor about a CBD treatment or using CBD oil for treating vertigo symptoms.

How to Choose The Right CBD for Vertigo

Pure CBD oil, tinctures, and concentrates are CBD products designed for the sublingual method of application, which is ideal when taking CBD for vertigo symptoms.

CBD products in these forms can easily be held in the mouth to give time for the active ingredients to be absorbed by the capillaries in the mouth before being swallowed(33).

However, regardless of the form of CBD product of choice, careful consideration must be employed in choosing the best CBD oil for vertigo symptoms.

The following factors are essential to ensure the safety and reliability of the CBD products purchased:

  1. Research on the exact legal stipulations applicable to CBD in the area where it would be purchased and used.
  2. Purchase only from legitimate and reliable big brands. Majority of companies that manufacture the best CBD oil products purchase their hemp from farms that are located in California, Texas, Europe, and Colorado.
  3. When buying from an online store, research product reviews. When buying from a physical store or dispensary, check whether the store is authorized by the government to sell CBD.
  4. One important thing to look for in CBD products is certification codes. Several certification authorities approve certain products only after some thorough screening tests.
  5. Compare company claims about their products’ potency with that of the third-party lab reports.
  6. Consulting with a trusted medical professional who is experienced in CBD use is ideal before one purchases his or her first bottle of CBD.

Best CBD Oils For Vertigo

Healthy Option

Nuleaf Naturals 725mg Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Nuleaf Naturals 725mg Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Natural remedy for various illnesses. There are approximately 300 drops in this 0.5 FL OZ bottle, where 1 drop = 2.4 mg of CBD.

Check Latest Price
Read our review

 

Users' Top Choice

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle

Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

Check Latest Price
Read our review

 

Most Popular

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

Check Latest Price

CBD Dosage For Vertigo

There are no standard CBD doses prescribed for vertigo. Thus, it may be best to start with a dosage that is recommended and displayed on the product label.

Recording any progress and side effects that may be experienced during the therapy may also be beneficial.

How to Take CBD Oil for Vertigo

As vertigo symptoms come on suddenly, the sublingual method of taking CBD may be ideal.

In this method, CBD oil is held under the tongue for up to 90 seconds, giving time for the mucous membranes in the mouth to absorb the oil’s active ingredients before the oil is swallowed.

The benefit of the sublingual process is that CBD oil bypasses the digestive system and liver metabolization, allowing the compounds to reach the bloodstream and interact with the ECS more quickly(34).

Pure CBD oil, tinctures, and concentrates are CBD products that are excellent for the sublingual method of application.

Still, a consultation with a physician is an excellent idea before using any CBD supplements to ensure there are no adverse reactions to existing medications.

Understanding Vertigo

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey revealed that about 35% percent of Americans over 40 years old had had some form of vestibular dysfunction, the most common of which is vertigo(35).

Researchers of a study published in the JAMA Internal Medicine Journal said that while dizziness and vertigo are common, the cause of this disorder often remains unexplained(36).

The authors also said, “The underestimation of dizziness and vertigo symptoms with regard to their effect on personal and health care is reflected in the fact that large percentages of the underlying disorders remain underdiagnosed and, therefore, are presumed to be insufficiently treated.”

What Causes Vertigo?

Vertigo could be caused by many factors, including inner ear infections and migraines. It could also be brought about by some medications, including those used to treat anxiety or high blood pressure or anxiety(37).

However, one of the most common causes is an inner-ear condition called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)(38).

BPPV is believed to be caused by calcium carbonate crystals (otoconia) coming loose within the ear canals. BPPV can also be caused by a head injury, damage caused by an inner ear disorder, or degeneration of the vestibular system in the inner ear due to ageing.

Although there is also an association between BPPV and osteoporosis, in a large number of cases, there is no known cause(39).

Ménière’s disease is an inner ear disorder that causes a feeling of fullness or congestion in the ear, severe dizziness (vertigo), ringing in the ears (tinnitus) and hearing loss. Usually, Ménière’s disease affects only one ear.

The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) estimates that more than 600,000 people in the United States are currently diagnosed with Ménière’s disease and, as of 2017, 45,500 cases are newly diagnosed each year(40).

Labyrinthitis is the irritation and swelling of the inner ear that can cause vertigo and hearing loss.

Labyrinthitis is often caused by a virus and, sometimes, by bacteria. Having a cold or flu can trigger the condition. Other causes include allergies or certain medicines that are damaging to the inner ear.

Smoking, drinking large amounts of alcohol, and stress may raise an individual’s risk for labyrinthitis(41).

While there are cases when vertigo is the side effect of other medical conditions, there are also times when doctors are baffled by the exact cause of vertigo in some people.

Understanding CBD

Medical marijuana is a natural medicine from the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica family of plants. Hemp and marijuana are both primary species of Cannabis sativa.

Medical cannabis is a broad term for any cannabis-based medicine, and it is often used interchangeably with the term medical marijuana.

Of the many active compounds found in a Cannabis sativa plant, two are of interest for medical purposes: THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol).

THC induces psychoactive effects like nausea and dizziness when consumed in high concentrations. CBD, a cannabinoid mostly derived from hemp, is best known for its therapeutic benefits without the euphoric high.

Medicines derived from Cannabis indica plants have higher CBD and lower THC counts. Meanwhile, medicines produced from Cannabis sativa plants have lower CBD and higher THC counts.

CBD oil is derived from the stalks, flowers, and leaves of the hemp plant. Hemp oil, or hemp seed oil, is made from hemp seeds, that contain little to no CBD.

Under U.S. federal law, the use of whole plant Cannabis sativa or its derivatives for any purpose is illegal. On the other hand, CBD derived from the hemp plant that contains < 0.3% THC is legal to consume(42).

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not recognized or approved the marijuana plant as medicine.

For more information on studies related to cannabis, go to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

Conclusion

There is a complexity involved with using CBD oil to treat vertigo directly. Vertigo is a complicated disorder, so it is also challenging to establish whether or not the sudden and intense dizziness is part of a specific medical condition.

Although CBD oil is a potential treatment for the underlying conditions that might cause vertigo, CBD is not necessarily a treatment for vertigo itself.

Still, CBD’s anti-nausea, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties, as shown in some studies, may be a potential remedy to vertigo symptoms that people experience.

However, before starting a CBD regimen, it would benefit individuals who would like to include CBD in their therapy to do some research and exercise caution when choosing which CBD products to use.


  1. Grotenhermen F, Müller-Vahl K. The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2012;109(29-30):495–501. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2012.0495.
  2. Parker LA, Rock EM, Limebeer CL. Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7):1411–1422. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01176.x.
  3. Pamplona FA, da Silva LR, Coan AC. Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis [published correction appears in Front Neurol. 2019 Jan 10;9:1050]. Front Neurol. 2018;9:759. Published 2018 Sep 12. doi:10.3389/fneur.2018.00759.
  4. Sloane PD. Dizziness in primary care. Results from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. J Fam Pract. 1989 Jul;29(1):33-8.
  5. MedlinePlus. (2016, Aug 8). Dizziness and Vertigo. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/dizzinessandvertigo.html.
  6. Pamplona FA, da Silva LR, Coan AC. Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis [published correction appears in Front Neurol. 2019 Jan 10;9:1050]. Front Neurol. 2018;9:759. Published 2018 Sep 12. doi:10.3389/fneur.2018.00759.
  7. Parker LA. op. cit.
  8. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Bátkai S, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293(1):H610–H619. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00236.2007.
  9. Barnes MP. Sativex: clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006;7:607–615; Pacher P, Batkai S, Kunos G. The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58:389–462.
  10. Alger BE. Getting High on the Endocannabinoid System. Cerebrum Dana Forum Brain Sci. 2013;2013; Maccarrone M, Bab I, Bíró T, et al. Endocannabinoid signaling at the periphery: 50 years after THC. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2015;36(5):277-296.doi:10.1016/j.tips.2015.02.008.
  11. Cabral GA, Griffin-Thomas L. Emerging role of the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in immune regulation: therapeutic prospects for neuroinflammation. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2009;11:e3. Published 2009 Jan 20. doi:10.1017/S1462399409000957.
  12. VeDA. Can medication help me feel better? Retrieved from https://vestibular.org/understanding-vestibular-disorders/treatment/vestibular-medication.
  13. Darkovska-Serafimovska M, Serafimovska T, Arsova-Sarafinovska Z, Stefanoski S, Keskovski Z, Balkanov T. Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for use of cannabinoids to relieve pain in patients with malignant diseases. J Pain Res. 2018;11:837–842. Published 2018 Apr 23. doi:10.2147/JPR.S160556.
  14. Bruni N, Della Pepa C, Oliaro-Bosso S, Pessione E, Gastaldi D, Dosio F. Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules. 2018;23(10):2478. Published 2018 Sep 27. doi:10.3390/molecules23102478.
  15. Pamplona FA, op. cit
  16. Expert Committee on Drug Dependence Fortieth Meeting. Cannabidiol (CBD) Critical Review Report. June 2018. https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/WHOCBDReportMay2018-2.pdf.
  17. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2(1):139–154. Published 2017 Jun 1. doi:10.1089/can.2016.0034.
  18. Bauer, B. (2018, Dec 20). What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use? Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700.
  19. Iffland K. op. cit.
  20. Alsherbiny MA, Li CG. Medicinal Cannabis-Potential Drug Interactions. Medicines (Basel). 2018;6(1):3. Published 2018 Dec 23. doi:10.3390/medicines6010003.
  21. Swartz R, Longwell P. Treatment of vertigo.Am Fam Physician. 2005 Mar 15;71(6):1115-22.
  22. Quigley EM, Hasler WL, Parkman HP. AGA technical review on nausea and vomiting. Gastroenterology. 2001;120:263–86.
  23. Mayo Clinic. Meclizine (Oral Route). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/meclizine-oral-route/side-effects/drg-20075849?p=1.
  24. Ibid.
  25. Han BI, Song HS, Kim JS. Vestibular rehabilitation therapy: review of indications, mechanisms, and key exercises. J Clin Neurol. 2011;7(4):184–196. doi:10.3988/jcn.2011.7.4.184.
  26. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Home Epley Maneuver. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/home-epley-maneuver.
  27. DiSogra, R. Audiology Today. (2019, July/August). Essential Oils for Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, and Vertigo. Retrieved from https://www.audiology.org/audiology-today-julyaugust-2019/essential-oils-hearing-loss-tinnitus-and-vertigo.
  28. Ibid.
  29. Koulivand PH, Khaleghi Ghadiri M, Gorji A. Lavender and the nervous system. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:681304. doi:10.1155/2013/681304.
  30. DiNicolantonio JJ, O’Keefe JH, Wilson W. Subclinical magnesium deficiency: a principal driver of cardiovascular disease and a public health crisis [published correction appears in Open Heart. 2018 Apr 5;5(1):e000668corr1]. Open Heart. 2018;5(1):e000668. Published 2018 Jan 13. doi:10.1136/openhrt-2017-000668.
  31. Mayo Clinic. (2020, Jan 1). Antihistamine (Oral Route, Parenteral Route, Rectal Route). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/antihistamine-oral-route-parenteral-route-rectal-route/side-effects/drg-20070373.
  32. Better Health Channel. Dizziness and vertigo. Retrieved from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/ConditionsAndTreatments/dizziness-and-vertigo.
  33. ECHO. (2017, April 24). How to Take CBD Oil: Ingestion, Sublingual, Topical and Inhalation Options. Retrieved from https://echoconnection.org/how-take-cbd-oil-options/.
  34. Ibid.
  35. Agrawal Y, Carey JP, Della Santina CC, Schubert MC, Minor LB. Disorders of Balance and Vestibular Function in US Adults: Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2004. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(10):938–944. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.66.
  36. Neuhauser HK, Radtke A, von Brevern M, Lezius F, Feldmann M, Lempert T. Burden of Dizziness and Vertigo in the Community. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(19):2118–2124. doi:10.1001/archinte.168.19.2118.
  37. Stepko, B. (2019, Oct 14). AARP. How to Stop Vertigo, What to do when the room starts spinning. Retrieved from https://www.aarp.org/health/conditions-treatments/info-2019/vertigo-causes-treatments.html.
  38. Ibid.
  39. Better Health Channel. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-bppv.
  40. NIDCD Information Clearinghouse. (2017, Feb 13). Ménière’s Disease. Retrieved from https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/menieres-disease.
  41. MedlinePlus. Labyrinthitis. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001054.htm.
  42. Mayo Clinic. Medical marijuana. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/in-depth/medical-marijuana/art-20137855.

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Notes on Ethylbenzene

Emergency Overview

Clear, colourless liquid with a characteristic, sweet, gasoline-like, aromatic odour. Flammable liquid and vapour. Liquid can accumulate static charge by flow, splashing and agitation. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Closed containers may rupture and explode in heat of fire. Toxic. May be harmful if inhaled. Central nervous system depressant. Vapour may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, unconsciousness and possibly death. Skin irritant. May cause skin irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration (breathing) into the lungs. Possible cancer hazard – may cause cancer, based on animal information.

Composition/Purity

Ethylbenzene is available in grades of purity of 99-99.5%. Commercial grades may contain small amounts of benzene (0.1-0.3 wt%), toluene (0.1-0.3 wt%), o-xylene and cumene (0.02 wt%), m-xylene (0.2 wt%), p-xylene (0.2 wt%), allylbenzene and ethyltoluene and n-propylbenzene (0.2 wt%), diethylbenzenes (20 mg/kg), chlorides and fluorides, as impurities.(7,19) Ethylbenzene is stored and transported in steel containers. However, it is mostly produced and used on the same site.

Uses and Occurrences

Ethylbenzene is used primarily as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of styrene and is the starting material for a wide variety of plastics, synthetic rubber and latex products based on styrene. It is also used as a solvent; as a constituent of asphalt and of naphtha; and as a raw material for the production of acetophenone, cellulose acetate, diethylbenzene, ethylanthraquinone, ethylbenzenesulfonic acids, propylene oxide, and alpha-methylbenzyl alcohol. It is also used as a minor component of gasoline and aviation fuels. Ethylbenzene is a constituent (15-20%) of commercial xylene, which is used as a solvent.

Ethylbenzene is naturally present in crude petroleum and is also present in refined products. It is produced by incomplete combustion of natural materials, and thus is a component of forest fires and cigarette smoke. It is widely distributed in the atmospheres as a result of the use of fuels and solvents, and through chemical manufacturing and production activities.

Carcinogenicity

Ethylbenzene is considered possibly carcinogenic to humans, based on animal evidence.(34) No conclusions can be drawn from a human study where there was exposure to ethylbenzene and several other chemicals at the same time.(26) Another human study reported no cases of malignancy in employees exposed to ethylbenzene for up to 20 years. However, no exposure information was reported and the exposure duration and follow-up period may be too short to detect any possible carcinogenicity.

The animal study showing carcinogenicity of ethylbenzene involved exposures to relatively high concentrations (up to 750 ppm). The increase in kidney cancer, which was clearly observed in male rats and to a lesser extent in female rats, was strongly associated with age-related kidney disease. Since, humans don’t develop chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN), the relevance of the kidney tumours to human cancer risk assessment is questionable. The same study also showed some evidence of carcinogenic activity in mice (lung cancer in female mice and liver cancer in male mice) exposed to high concentrations (750 ppm) of ethylbenzene. Ethylbenzene may contain trace levels ((0.1-0.3 wt%) of the carcinogen benzene.

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Cannabidiol (CBD) Oil for Children with Anxiety

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Why People are Turning to CBD for Children with Anxiety? CBD has become a popular OTC treatment that parents give their children, says Doris Trauner, M.D., professor of neurosciences and pediatrics at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and a physician at San Diego’s Rady Children’s Hospital....

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