• CBD or cannabidiol is a cannabinoid extracted from the Cannabis sativa plant. CBD is notable for its potential anti-inflammatory effects(1).
  • Aside from having purported anti-inflammatory benefits, a study suggests that CBD may also have immunosuppressive properties(2).
  • Although there is no direct study suggesting that CBD may help with fever, the nonspychoactive compound’s putative therapeutic benefits may support the human body fight infections. Infection causes most fevers(3).

How CBD May Work for Fever

No study has confirmed that CBD may directly work for individuals with fever. However, CBD may affect the body’s CNS (central nervous system), by indirectly acting on cannabinoid receptors of the ECS (endocannabinoid system)(4).

The endocannabinoid system is a collection of receptors and signals found in several body systems, particularly the central and peripheral nervous systems, and the immune system. 

Almost all diseases that cause fever must interact with the CNS(5)

The nervous system is composed of endogenous cannabinoids naturally produced by the body and cannabinoid receptors, mainly CB1 receptors(6).

Endogenous cannabinoids and cannabinoids receptors, such as CB1 and CB2, are part of the ECS.

A research paper from the British Journal of Pharmacology suggested that endogenous cannabinoids may induce fever through the activation of CB1 receptors(7).  

Plant-based cannabinoids like CBD may mimic the actions of endogenous cannabinoids(8). However, CBD appears to have a low affinity for the CB1 receptors(9). Since CBD may not activate CB1 receptors directly, the nonpsychoactive compound may not cause fever. 

One of the roles of the endocannabinoid system is the overall regulation of body functions to maintain balance(10).

Homeostasis pertains to the body’s ability to maintain internal balance amidst external circumstances that may affect or harm the body.

For example, a study from the Encyclopedia of Human Behavior defined animal homeostasis. Mammals experience homeostasis when their body temperature adapts to extreme conditions, increasing survival chances(11).

The endocannabinoid system contributes to homeostasis by managing symptoms of discomfort in the body(12).

Cannabinoid receptors receive signals, like pain signals, and alert the nervous system for pain management.

Afterward, cannabinoids, like CBD and cannabinoid receptors, restore balance in the body by signaling the nervous system to stop activity, preventing overexertion once the problem has been fixed(13).

Both natural and synthetic cannabinoids may work in the ECS. However, a study conducted by researchers from Semmelweis University noted that varying doses of cannabinoids, such as CBD, may have different effects on the body(14).

High cannabinoid levels in the body may cause hypothermia, which puts the body at a harmfully low temperature(15). Meanwhile, low levels of cannabinoids may induce hyperthermia, wherein the body becomes overheated.

The study suggested that rat subjects exhibited hypothermia as CB1 receptors were activated by cannabinoid agonists in the body(16). It is worth noting that CBD may act as an antagonist at CB1 receptors(17)

An antagonist binds to receptors without activating them. Instead, it decreases the ability of an agonist to activate receptors.

Since CBD is a cannabinoid that may behave as an antagonist at CB1 receptors, the compound may not cause low body temperature. 

On the other hand, fever may be a symptom of other illnesses as an immune response(18).

For example, sepsis is a potentially fatal infection caused by a weakened or dysfunctional immune system(19). The body may release body heat in the form of a fever and chills to adapt to the conditions induced by the illness(20).

While researchers observed that curing fever in sepsis patients will not be of any benefit, early diagnosis and treatment of sepsis are crucial to avoid fever and other complications(21).

A study published in the Antibiotics journal in 2020 suggested that cannabinoids like CBD have shown antimicrobial properties and may be effective against infections(22).

However, a study from the Medical Hypotheses journal postulated that fever may be the body’s way to cope with illnesses(23).

The study mentioned that a high body temperature, which is the main characteristic of fever, has antimicrobial effects that could aid in managing internal inflammation(24).

A fever, however, may be exhausting for the individual as fevers require energy to release body heat(25).

Meanwhile, a study from the Current Neuropharmacology journal stated that CBD may encourage alertness and wakefulness by interacting with dopamine in the hypothalamus(26).

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that promotes pleasure and positive emotions in the brain(27).

CBD’s potential therapeutic effects may apply to an individual’s sleep-wake cycle. A clinical trial on the effects of CBD on sleep resulted in some participants staying awake after taking CBD for sleep(28).

Another study published in the medical journal JAMA Network Open in 2021 noted that CBD may reduce burnout symptoms among healthcare providers(29).

While available evidence has not implied that CBD may directly influence fever, CBD may promote mental alertness and regulate neurological activity that could improve an individual’s well-being.

How CBD May Help Treat a Fever

A 2020 study from the journal Antioxidants suggested that CBD may have  anti-inflammatory properties(30).

Fever is a common indication of infectious and inflammatory diseases(31). Therefore, CBD’s purported anti-inflammatory effects may help with fever and illnesses associated with inflammation. 

Meanwhile, viral and bacterial infections can make an individual feel a dull pain all over the body. Muscle pain may also be associated with nausea, swollen lymph nodes, and fever(32).

No clinical research exists examining whether CBD use is good while an individual is sick or has a fever. However, CBD may have muscle relaxant properties and analgesic effects(33). These therapeutic potentials may benefit individuals who experience body pain while sick. 

It is also worth noting that untreated infections may worsen and cause other illnesses, like rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever may arise from infections like strep throat, a condition that causes the throat to itch(34)

Rheumatic fever may also cause heart disease and other cardiovascular injuries(35). A study from the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology suggested CBD’s positive effects on the cardiovascular system(36)

Additionally, studies have shown CBD’s potential antibiotic properties, including boosting antibiotic efficacy in individuals(37).

Therefore, using CBD as an antibiotic alternative may benefit an individual’s recovery from infections and, consequently, lessen the chances of getting a fever.

However, despite fevers working to regulate the body’s immune response, individuals may find fever symptoms uncomfortable. Besides a temperature of at least 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit, other signs of a fever include(38):

  • Confusion or dizziness
  • Dry mouth
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Loss of appetite or diarrhea
  • Headache and body pain

A study from the Current Neuropharmacology journal reported CBD’s health benefits on individuals experiencing somnolence or drowsiness(39).

Somnolence may be associated with confusion because of reduced alertness. 

Moreover, somnolence syndrome, a condition frequently experienced by children, may exhibit a slight fever.

Another study published in the Frontiers in Pharmacology journal suggested that CBD may encourage cognitive function, especially in individuals with psychological disorders(40). This observation may apply to individuals who experience confusion resulting from a fever.

Meanwhile, medications metabolized in the liver and kidney, like antibiotics, can cause dark urine resulting from fever(41). Likewise, dark urine may also be a symptom of a urinary tract infection.

A study on the antimicrobial properties of cannabinoids like CBD published in the Antibiotics journal suggested that bacteria may be adapting to the antibiotics present in the body, increasing their rate of survival(42)

Meanwhile, experts from the University of Queensland reported that CBD may not cause resistance among bacteria(43).

Therefore, CBD may possess an effective alternative treatment for infections to avoid adverse effects, like antibiotic resistance.

CBD may also manage an individual’s mood through the hypothalamus(44).

The hypothalamus is part of the body’s limbic system, responsible for an individual’s emotional well-being(45).

The hypothalamus also contributes to the body’s homeostatic activity by regulating triggers of pleasure and pain as well as appetite(46).

According to a study in the International Review of Psychiatry journal, cannabinoids like CBD may promote appetite by stimulating cannabinoid receptors in the brain(47).

The brain follows an internal reward system(48). When an individual performs a task that induces pleasure, the brain releases dopamine, a neurotransmitter that encourages positive emotions.

A study from the journal Temperature discussed psychogenic fever caused by stress(49). The study mentioned that an individual’s body temperature may rise in response to stressful situations, suggesting that mood enhancers may alleviate the fever.

With CBD’s potential effects on mood, an individual may heal from fever by taking CBD to manage stress.

A 2021 study from the Evidence-Based Practice journal also suggested that CBD combined with THC may alleviate chronic headaches(50).

Some CBD products come as full-spectrum CBD. A full-spectrum CBD product contains cannabis extract from the cannabis plant complete with CBD, THC, other phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids.

All components of full-spectrum CBD cause synergistic effects that may boost CBD’s therapeutic efficacy(51).

Cannabinoids like CBD may have analgesic effects(52). Individuals with headache due to fever may benefit from CBD’s purported analgesic properties. 

How to Safely Use CBD Oil for Fever

Cannabis oil products, such as CBD oil and tinctures, may be used to manage pain symptoms of fever, such as headaches and body pain.

Individuals may use CBD oils in a variety of methods. A common way to apply CBD oil is topical.

By applying CBD oil topically, cannabinoid receptors in the skin activate and send signals to the brain, also known as cutaneous cannabinoid signaling(53)

A 2019 study from the Molecules journal stated that topical application of CBD may promote healthy skin and reduce inflammation(54).

Although another study published in the Frontiers in Pharmacology journal stated that CBD exhibited no significant painkilling effect, individuals reported improved quality of life after CBD use, as CBD may promote better sleep quality(55).

An expert from the Mayo Clinic mentioned that ill individuals may heal better with good quality sleep as rest serves as an immunity boost for the body(56).

Another study from the Cureus journal observed that cannabis-derived products like CBD oil or tincture may decrease individuals’ need for analgesics or painkillers(57).

There are various ways to take CBD. Some individuals may prefer taking CBD oil with a vaporizer. 

Vaping involves taking a substance with a battery-operated heating device that turns liquid into a vapor that individuals may inhale(58).

Notably, no study has concluded that exposing CBD oil to heat destroys or reduces its efficacy.

Moreover, a Frontiers in Pharmacology journal study mentioned that vaping CBD may be safer than smoking. Vaping administers CBD without carcinogens or substances that may cause cancer, like burnt tobacco(59).

Another study on young individuals’ perception of vaping published in the Substance Abuse journal stated that some individuals may find vaping entertaining and convenient(60).

However, despite fewer side effects found in vaping, experts from John Hopkins Medicine released a disclaimer, suggesting that vape liquid contains vitamin E as a thickening agent, which could accumulate in the lungs(61) and cause inflammation(62).

Moreover, like cigarettes, vaporizers use nicotine, which contributes to the addictive nature of vaping(63). Research has also proven that nicotine is harmful to the respiratory system(64).

Therefore, individuals may only use CBD vaporizers as prescribed by healthcare professionals to avoid the side effects of vaping.

What Experts Say About the Effectiveness of CBD

A study from the Antioxidants journal proposed that CBD’s pharmacological makeup may benefit individuals experiencing oxidative stress(65).

Oxidative stress occurs when the abundance of free radicals in the body overwhelms the body’s antioxidating mechanism.

Excess free radicals in the body may cause a chemical imbalance, resulting in chronic illnesses like inflammation and cancer(66).

An animal study published in the European Journal of Pain noted that CBD may regulate pain and inflammation in arthritis(67).

Moreover, researchers observed that CBD may act as an antioxidant by altering free radicals’ activity and chemical profile, reducing the molecules’ harmful effects(68)

CBD’s antioxidant properties may also help with illnesses caused by infections.

For example, the Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology journal includes a study on the regulatory effects of CBD on bacteria’s membrane vesicle production(69).

Bacteria produce membrane vesicles as a protective layer that may prolong the life of a bacterial cell(70).

The study showed that CBD may interrupt the membrane vesicle production of E. coli, a bacteria known to cause diarrhea and urinary tract infections (UTIs)(71).

CBD may also help with neurological disorders, such as mental and psychological illnesses(72).

Numerous studies have tested the effects of CBD on individuals with multiple sclerosis, a neurological condition characterized by muscle spasticity or tightness and reduced mobility.

A study from the Frontiers in Neurology journal showed that CBD may encourage mobility and muscular activity in individuals with multiple sclerosis(73).

Besides physical aspects of the disease, multiple sclerosis may also affect an individual’s mental health(74).

Researchers observed that CBD may improve the overall mood of individuals with multiple sclerosis by reducing symptoms of depression(75).

The study indicated that mental health conditions like depression may contribute to the physical impairment evident among individuals with multiple sclerosis.

Moreover, in the book Pain and Disability, experts mentioned that mental health conditions may delay some individuals’ recovery from chronic pain(76).

Experts also mentioned that chronic pain may manifest through symptoms of mental unwellness, referred to as somatization(77).

Another study published in The Ochsner Journal mentioned that pain and depression may go hand in hand as depression may encourage immobility and physiological malfunction(78).

In a study from the Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Journal, some survey participants reported that CBD helped reduce pain and symptoms of depression(79).

Moreover, researchers from the psychology department of Syracuse University stated that CBD may address pain through the placebo effect, which may reduce the painful feeling individuals experience(80).

The placebo effect works by manipulating an individual’s perception of pain. 

According to researchers, CBD may bypass the standard method of pain relief by affecting the psychological aspects of pain instead of correcting the pain source(81)

Therefore, CBD may help individuals alleviate pain and depressive symptoms by sending signals to the nervous system and interacting with neuromodulatory substances, such as dopamine, thus offering overall wellness(82).

Despite evidence on CBD’s potential curative effects, a Penn Medicine study reported that some CBD companies market their products inaccurately(83).

The 2017 report stated that about 70 percent of the CBD products sold online contained unregulated amounts of THC and CBD that may cause harm to its users.

THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, is the principal phytocannabinoid known for its psychoactive properties.

THC is prominent in the cannabis strain called marijuana. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), marijuana contains more than 0.3% THC in dry weight, making the plant species a controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act(84).

Although some CBD companies claim that their CBD products contain safe amounts of THC, a few individuals may likely avoid the cannabinoid overall due to the possible risks of excessive THC consumption, mainly when used long-term. 

What Is Fever and How Do Individuals Get It?  

According to the National Library of Medicine, fever is primarily characterized by a body temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit and above(85)

Most individuals often misconstrue fever as an illness. However, fever occurs when the body detects a functional abnormality(86).

For example, when the hypothalamus detects an infection, body temperature rises to a level that exceeds normal, reducing the bacteria’s chances of survival. 

Inflammation, such as in arthritis, may also cause a fever. The immune system targets body tissue in such cases, resulting in high body temperature(87).

According to experts from Mayo Clinic, certain medications and vaccines may also cause fevers. A fever that occurs after taking medication may be the body’s way of processing a new substance(88)

Some medications may alter the body’s metabolism and cause an internal imbalance, triggering the immune system.

Medications for certain medical conditions may also cause stomach pains because of irritants in the drug(89). One of the symptoms of stomach pains is fever, which should be treated immediately(90).

Exhaustion and overexposure to warm conditions that cause the body to release heat rapidly may also lead to a fever. This phenomenon may also be called heat illness(91).

Effects of Fever in the Body

Commonly, individuals may experience irritability and general weakness during a fever(92).

Other effects may depend on the illness that triggered the fever. Among the most common causes of fever include(93):

  • Strep throat
  • Colds or flu
  • Bronchitis
  • Urinary tract infections 

Meanwhile, febrile seizures, which usually happen during childhood, can occurs within the first day of a fever and last between three to five minutes(94). Febrile seizures are different from epilepsy where one experiences recurring seizures without triggers.  

How to Prevent Fever

As infections may cause fever, individuals should maintain good hygiene by washing their hands regularly.

Individuals should also avoid touching their hands, eyes, and nose frequently as it could allow bacteria to enter the body quickly.

Individuals prone to heat illness must avoid staying out in the sun for long periods(95). If unavoidable, they must keep themselves dry as much as possible by changing their clothes when they get too sweaty.

First aid also includes taking paracetamol or ibuprofen to normalize body temperature(96). Individuals may also take plenty of fluids, particularly water.

  1. Cannabidiol
  2. Immune Responses Regulated by Cannabidiol
  3. Fever
  4. Cannabidiol
  5. Fever in neurologic diseases
  6. Cannabinoid Receptors in the Central Nervous System: Their Signaling and Roles in Disease. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2016.00294/full
  7. Endogenous cannabinoids induce fever through the activation of CB1 receptors
  8. The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator
  9. Cannabinoids and Cannabinoid Receptors: The Story So Far, page 12.
  10. The endocannabinoid system: Essential and mysterious. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-endocannabinoid-system-essential-and-mysterious-202108112569
  11. Homeostasis. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750006001919
  12. The endocannabinoid system: Essential and mysterious. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-endocannabinoid-system-essential-and-mysterious-202108112569
  13. Ibid.
  14. The role of endocannabinoids in the hypothalamic regulation of visceral function. https://pages.ucsd.edu/~mboyle/COGS163/pdf-files/The%20role%20of%20endocannabinoids%20in%20the%20hypothalamic%20regulation%20of%20visceral%20function-2002.pdf
  15. Ibid.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor
  18. Is fever after infection part of the illness or the cure? https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22519079/
  19. Sepsis. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sepsis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351214
  20. What is sepsis?
  21. A focus on treating fever does not improve survival in sepsis. https://evidence.nihr.ac.uk/alert/a-focus-on-treating-fever-does-not-improve-survival-in-sepsis/
  22. The Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabinoids. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400265/
  23. Fever and hypothermia: two adaptive thermoregulatory responses to systemic inflammation.
  24. Ibid.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Potential Effects of Cannabidiol as a Wake-Promoting Agent. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023456/
  27. Dopamine
  28. Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15118485/
  29. Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Plus Standard Care vs Standard Care Alone for the Treatment of Emotional Exhaustion and Burnout Among Frontline Health Care Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Randomized Clinical Trial. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34387679/
  30. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol
  31. Neural Mechanisms of Inflammation-Induced Fever
  32. Muscle Pain
  33. Cannabidiol
  34. Rheumatic fever. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/rheumatic-fever/symptoms-causes/syc-20354588
  35. Rheumatic Fever: All You Need to Know. https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/rheumatic-fever.html
  36. Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
  37. The Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabinoids. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400265/
  38. Fever
  39. Potential Effects of Cannabidiol as a Wake-Promoting Agent. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023456/
  40. The Impact of Cannabidiol on Human Brain Function: A Systematic Review. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.618184/full
  41. Urine color. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/urine-color/symptoms-causes/syc-20367333
  42. The Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabinoids. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400265/
  43. Research establishes antibiotic potential for cannabis molecule. https://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2021/01/research-establishes-antibiotic-potential-cannabis-molecule
  44. Cannabidiol regulates the expression of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis-related genes in response to acute restraint stress
  45. The Emotional Nervous System. https://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/limbicsystem.html
  46. Ibid.
  47. Cannabinoids and appetite: food craving and food pleasure. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19367510/
  48. Word of the Day: Brain Reward System. https://archives.drugabuse.gov/blog/post/word-day-brain-reward-system#
  49. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population
  50. Does cannabidiol (CBD) oil decrease the frequency and severity of chronic headaches? https://journals.lww.com/ebp/Citation/2021/07000/Does_cannabidiol__CBD__oil_decrease_the_frequency.20.aspx
  51. Cannabidiol primer for healthcare professionals. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  52. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2503660/
  53. Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin: Therapeutic Potential of the “C(ut)annabinoid” System. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429381/#sec4-molecules-24-00918title
  54. Ibid.
  55. A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204604/
  56. Lack of sleep: Can it make you sick? https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/insomnia/expert-answers/lack-of-sleep/faq-20057757
  57. Medical Cannabis, Headaches, and Migraines: A Review of the Current Literature
  58. Vaping Devices (Electronic Cigarettes). https://nida.nih.gov/sites/default/files/drugfacts-vaping-devices.pdf
  59. Evaluation of Two Commercially Available Cannabidiol Formulations for Use in Electronic Cigarettes
  60. Vaping Expectancies: A Qualitative Study among Young Adult Nonusers, Smokers, Vapers, and Dual Users. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6702779/
  61. 5 Vaping Facts You Need to Know. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/5-truths-you-need-to-know-about-vaping
  62. How vitamin E acetate might injure vapers’ lungs. https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/presspacs/2020/acs-presspac-september-16-2020/how-vitamin-e-acetate-might-injure-vapers-lungs.html
  63. 5 Vaping Facts You Need to Know. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/5-truths-you-need-to-know-about-vaping
  64. Harmful effects of nicotine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4363846/
  65. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol
  66. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/diet/antioxidants-fact-sheet
  67. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis
  68. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/
  69. Cannabidiol Is a Novel Modulator of Bacterial Membrane Vesicles. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6747004/
  70. Membrane vesicles: a common feature in the extracellular matter of cold-adapted antarctic bacteria
  71. Cannabidiol Is a Novel Modulator of Bacterial Membrane Vesicles. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6747004/
  72. The therapeutic role of Cannabidiol in mental health: a systematic review
  73. Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5874292/
  74. Ibid.
  75. Ibid.
  76. Pain and Disability: Clinical, Behavioral, and Public Policy Perspectives.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK219250/
  77. Ibid.
  78. Pain and Psychology—A Reciprocal Relationship. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5472077/
  79. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cannabidiol Users. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6043845/
  80. Research shows pain-relieving effects of CBD. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210423130221.htm
  81. Ibid.
  82. Ibid.
  83. Penn Study Shows Nearly 70 Percent of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online Are Mislabeled. https://www.pennmedicine.org/news/news-releases/2017/november/penn-study-shows-nearly-70-percent-of-cannabidiol-extracts-sold-online-are-mislabeled
  84. Hemp Production and the 2018 Farm Bill. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/congressional-testimony/hemp-production-and-2018-farm-bill-07252019
  85. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition.
  86. Fever. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fever/symptoms-causes/syc-20352759
  87. Does Rheumatoid Arthritis Cause Fevers? https://creakyjoints.org/symptoms/rheumatoid-arthritis-fever/
  88. Fever
  89. Medicines and the Digestive System. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/medicines-and-the-digestive-system
  90. Abdominal Pain. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/symptoms/4167-abdominal-pain
  91. Heat Illness. https://medlineplus.gov/heatillness.html
  92. Fever
  93. Fever
  94. Febrile Seizures
  95. Tips for Preventing Heat-Related Illness
  96. Fever
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