Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Joint Pain

Is your dog suffering from joint pain due to old age? You may be wondering how CBD oil may help your furry friend with its mobility-impaired issue. Keep reading some clinical studies about CBD oil and its therapeutic benefits for your dog’s needs.

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg

4.8 out of 5
  1. Has coconut oil as carrier which is generally easier on dogs
  2. Has milder taste and no flavorings
  3. Easy to use just sprinkle on dog’s food twice daily

Best CBD OIl For Dogs

Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs

4.1 out of 5
  1. Calming,
  2. Full Spectrum
  3. Contains other natural ingredients to boost immunity

Best High Potency

Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil

5 out of 5
  1. Concentrated to approximately 50mg CBD per ml of oil
  2. Great for cats, dogs and other four-legged friends
  3. Can also be used by humans

Best High Potency

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture

5 out of 5
  1. Generous on their options
  2. Different sizes and strengths available for your needs
  3. The flavor peanut butter is available perfect for pets who are picky when it comes to eating

Best Transparency

cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs

3.6 out of 5
  1. Uses hemp grown through organic farming methods.
  2. Contains CBD Oil and MCT Oil only
  3. With two yummy flavors

Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Joint Pain 2022

  1. Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg Best Overall
  2. Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs Best Immunity Support for Dogs
  3. Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil Best Organic
  4. 4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture Best High Potency
  5. cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs Best Range


Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Joint Pain in 2022

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg
4.8 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs
4.1 out of 5
1.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
3.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs
3.6 out of 5
1.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5

Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Joint Pain

1. Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg
cbdc overall score

4.8

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Same as human lab grade, full spectrum CBD oil

No other flavors

Easier on Dog's digestion

Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients

Overview

Spruce’s dog-friendly CBD has been specially formulated for dogs. Instead of hemp seed oil for the carrier oil, the product contains coconut oil, which is generally easier on the digestion for dogs. The taste is also milder with no flavorings, making it more likely that dogs will eat it with their food.

Using Spruce CBD for dogs is simple. All owners have to do is sprinkle the desired dose on the dog’s food at mealtime once or twice a day. Each dose should consist of about two to three drops per 20 pounds of dog weight.

2. Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs
cbdc overall score

4.1

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Product offering is extensive

Most products were not tested for solvents or mycotoxins

Products are made from 100% organic, non-GMO, and locally grown hemp

Limited information on the company

30-day money-back guarantee

Available in the US only

Free shipping for orders over $49.95

Expedited delivery option is available

Overview

A calming full-spectrum hemp oil that combines naturally occurring CBD with other ingredients for healthy immunity, calm moods, and a healthy brain.

3. Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

5.0

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Pure CBD hemp

No other flavors

All natural

Overview

CBD for dogs, cats and other four-legged friends! Our product is concentrated to approximately 50mg cannabinoids per milliliter of oil. While this product is designed for pets, it’s great for humans, too.

4. 4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture
cbdc overall score

5.0

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Has a wide variety of CBD strengths

A bit expensive

Free shipping on $100 and up

Incomplete lab test results

Overview

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tinctures are generous on their options since there are different sizes and strengths available for you exact needs. The flavor peanut butter is available perfect for pets who are picky when it comes to eating.

5. cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs
cbdc overall score

3.6

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Same CBD Oil benefits as for humans

Low terpene and cannabinoid profile

No THC Animal-specific products (dogs, cats, horses)

Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp

Overview

With nothing but MCT oil combined with CBD oil sourced from U.S. hemp that is grown using organic farming methods, these CBD Oil Tinctures for Dogs can be added to their favorite foods while still providing the same effects that you enjoy. We have two flavors to choose from: Natural and Peanut Butter.

How CBD May Help Dogs With Joint Pain

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the common types of arthritis in dogs, affecting around a quarter of the population(1). It is a chronic joint illness characterized by loss of joint cartilage, thickening of the joint capsule, and new bone development surrounding the joint (osteophytes). OA leads to chronic pain and limb impairment. 

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a chemical present in cannabis plants(2). In most instances, CBD oil does not include delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component that gives marijuana its euphoric characteristics. In essence, most CBD products are produced from hemp, not marijuana.

A study evaluated CBD’s therapeutic potential in collagen-induced arthritis in mice (CIA)(3). DBA/1 mice were immunized with type II collagen (CII) in Freund’s adjuvant to induce CIA. The CII utilized was either bovine or murine, resulting in either typical acute CIA or chronic relapsing CIA.

In both arthritis models in which CBD was provided after developing clinical signs, the therapy successfully halted the course of arthritis. CBD was just as effective whether supplied subcutaneously or orally. The dose-response curve was bell-shaped, with the optimum impact occurring at 5 mg/kg per day intravenously or 25 mg/kg per day orally.

The findings demonstrate that CBD may have a powerful anti-arthritic impact on CIA due to its putative immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties(4).

Thus, managing a dog’s arthritic symptoms of joint pain may benefit from these clinical findings.

Benefits of Using CBD for Dogs With Joint Pain

There is no cure for arthritis(5). However, there are various therapeutic choices available to manage dogs’ pain and inflammation and keep them active.

Some research suggests that dogs that receive CBD may experience a reduction in inflammatory symptoms(6)

CBD may interact with receptors in a region of dogs’ bodies known as the endocannabinoid system (ECS). These receptors are also known as CB1 and CB2 receptors

The ECS is nearly found in all animals, particularly mammals(7). Scientists noted that the ECS is responsible for maintaining balance within the body, producing hormones, and triggering reactions to modify how organs respond to stimuli from the outside world. 

CBD may affect how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) stimulates pain and inflammatory responses, possibly helping dogs feel less pain and swelling(8)

The ECS is also responsible for regulating pain relief and inflammatory signals(9). Endocannabinoids modify the neural conduction of pain signals by attenuating the nociceptive neural signal of pain and inflammation via the activation of cannabinoid receptors. There is the dual effect of lowering overall pain levels.

Studies on CBD Oil for Dogs With Arthritis

In a study published in 2018, researchers from Cornell University evaluated the effects of CBD given orally to dogs who had osteoarthritis(10).

The use of two different dosages of CBD-enriched oil (2mg/kg and 8mg/kg) and single-dose pharmacokinetics was conducted. A crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled, veterinarian- and an owner-blinded trial was done. 

Each dog got either CBD oil (2 mg/kg) or a placebo oil every 12 hours. Each treatment lasted four weeks, followed by a two-week washout interval.

Before and after treatment, a baseline veterinary assessment was performed, and owner questionnaires were administered. Various physical examinations, as well as serum chemistry and blood samples, were performed at each visit. Mixed model analysis was utilized to analyze the change in enrollment from baseline for all the other time points.

In clinical trials, the reduction in pain inventory and the increase in activity scores were observed with CBD oil. The owners reported no side effects, and serum chemistry also showed an increase in phosphatase.

Meanwhile, another study of cannabidiol-rich hemp oil extract to manage canine osteoarthritis-related pain was conducted(11)

The study’s goal was to determine the effects of a full-spectrum hemp extract and hemp seed oil product on the chronic maladaptive pain conditions of 37 dogs with osteoarthritis.

The dogs were evaluated for their physical condition through a series of procedures that included systematic pain palpation, mapping of pain patterns, and an owner interview. These assessments were performed every two weeks to identify trends and monitor progress.

The metabolic parameters of the 32 dogs that participated in the study were analyzed at the end of the study. After the study, 30 dogs improved their pain support. Ten of the 23 dogs taking the drug known as gabapentin were able to stop taking it, and 11 of them were able to reduce their daily dose of CBD oil.

The study results revealed that the addition of CBD oil to the management of chronic maladaptive pain significantly decreased the severity of the condition and improved the quality of life for the dogs. It is also believed that the reduction in the dose of gabapentin could be due to changes in analgesia.

How to Administer CBD Oil to a Dog for Joint Pain

High-quality CBD oil for dogs is available in numerous forms and administration methods. Here are some basic techniques for administering CBD oil to your furry friend:

  • CBD oil may be administered sublingually to dogs by their pet owners.
  • CBD-infused dog treats are available in soft chews, bits, and peanut butter flavors.
  • CBD topicals may be applied to a dog’s skin for localized pain alleviation from joint soreness, sunburn, and itching.

Dosing

One clinical study published in the American Journal of Veterinary Research examined CBD administered orally to healthy dogs(12).

The researchers administered 1mg to 12mg/kg of cannabidiol to 20 adult beagles for 28 days and observed no clinically significant changes in assessed safety outcomes. Veterinarians also noted no abnormalities.

​​On the CBD product label, you should be able to see how many milligrams of CBD are in each bottle or serving. One dropper is equal to one milliliter for CBD oils and tinctures.

Pet owners may start with the lowest dose and see how their pet does over the next week. If you can tell that things are getting better for your dog’s joint pain, you can keep the dose. If you don’t notice any improvement or if the progress from the low-end dose wears off after a while, move up to the mid-range dose and watch for a week.

CBD will be a strong anti-inflammatory that is ideal for elderly dogs whose movement has been restricted by stiff and unpleasant joints or for pets that suffer from inflammatory bowel conditions(13).

Remember, there is no standard CBD dosage for dogs because the FDA has not approved cannabis products and their derivatives for any use in animals(14)

Still, dog owners may initiate a conversation with a veterinarian expert in cannabis use to know what their dog needs(15). State veterinary medical boards in the U.S. regulate the extent to which veterinarians may advise customers on CBD product consumption.

How Long Does CBD Take to Help Dogs With Joint Pain?

Suppose you give your dog CBD oil to address joint pain. You can generally anticipate the compound to start working anywhere after two hours(16). A researcher observed that the experimental concentrations of CBD in dogs administered with oil-based products containing between 2 and 10 mg/kg of CBD reached between 100 and 600 nanograms per milliliter after two hours.

Depending on the amount of CBD and delivery route, CBD oil may provide advantages to your pooch.

CBD tinctures, often used sublingually, enable the substance to skip the digestive system and reach the bloodstream immediately, resulting in a faster onset.

Meanwhile, the liver absorbs CBD treats and chews after passing through the digestive system. This approach may have a delayed onset.

Furthermore, topical CBD solutions, such as lotions and salves, may take action depending on the thickness of the dog’s skin since the bloodstream directly absorbs topicals.

How Long Will CBD Help Dogs With Joint Pain?

When ingested, CBD oil’s effects on humans may last up to eight hours(17). However, although dogs also have ECS, canines are not small humans. 

Hence, CBD’s duration of action may depend on dogs’ metabolism. Various factors, such as their size, age, and health condition, can affect how long CBD’s effects kick in.

Another vital point to consider is pharmacokinetics, which refers to the movement of a particular drug into, through, or out of the body. 

Different dogs have different body functions. It is essential to monitor how long your pet’s CBD effects last before you start giving it to them.

How to Administer CBD Oil to a Dog for Joint Pain

High-quality CBD oil for dogs is available in numerous forms and administration methods. Here are some basic techniques for administering CBD oil to your furry friend:

  • CBD oil may be administered sublingually to dogs by their pet owners.
  • CBD-infused dog treats are available in soft chews, bits, and peanut butter flavors.
  • CBD topicals may be applied to a dog’s skin for localized pain alleviation from joint soreness, sunburn, and itching.

How to Choose Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Joint Pain 

For dog owners, here are some considerations in choosing the best CBD oil for dogs suffering from joint pain:

  • Consumers need to avoid CBD oil products designed for humans, which may include flavorings and other substances that are toxic to dogs. 

Additionally, dog owners should be aware that many CBD oils intended for humans may also contain high doses of THC

  • Consumers may choose organic hemp CBD oil. Dog owners may avoid choosing hemp oil, including additives, pesticides, and herbicides that are often used in industrial hemp. Some organic CBD oil brands offer tasty treats which also contain turmeric root.
  • Consumers may consider the extraction process. In general, solvent-free methods such as simple CO2 extraction and cold-press extraction are the most explored extraction(18). However, other CBD firms extract THC from the plant using inexpensive technologies and potentially dangerous solvents, such as propane, hexane, and butane.
  • Before purchasing, consumers should confirm the quality and concentration of any hemp oil they consider. Consumers may look for product testing from a third-party lab

Testing CBD products is essential to ensure purity and concentration. The mg of CBD should be specified on the label, and the product should be THC-free.

  • Consumers may choose full-spectrum CBD oil, containing all the essential compounds present in the whole hemp plant. The entourage effect says that the different parts of cannabis work together to make their impact stronger on the body.
  • Consumers may choose MCT coconut oil with no added preservatives. This type of oil may enhance the capacity to metabolize CBD oils. Pet owners may look for a broad-spectrum CBD or full-spectrum CBD oil. This CBD comes with an MCT carrier designed exclusively for dogs to guarantee they are purchasing a high-quality CBD product.

Broad-spectrum CBD products include a wide variety of therapeutic cannabinoids derived from hemp (CBD, CBG, CBC, terpenes (responsible for plant aroma), and other cannabinoids) but no detectable THC. It indicates that the extract does not contain THC.

  • Consumers may also choose CBD goods that are cruelty-free, non-GMO, gluten-free, and dairy-free. These organic vegan ingredients are primarily from organically-grown Colorado hemp.
  • Consumers may look for CBD brands that offer a money-back guarantee for their CBD pet products.
  • Other CBD manufacturers offer CBD products that contain omega-3, 6, and 9 fatty acids. Most hempseed oils contain omega-3. All those fatty acids may help improve brain function and the digestive process(19).

Research from 2018 revealed that CBD administered orally may reduce pain and inflammation in dogs with osteoarthritis(20).

However, future research will likely shed light on CBD’s unknowns. Consult with your veterinarian before considering CBD oil as a therapy option.

Risks and Side Effects of Using CBD for Dogs With Joint Pain

Pet owners may address their dog’s medical conditions such as joint pain, separation anxiety, or dog seizures.

Possible CBD-related side effects in dogs include(21):

  • Loss of appetite
  • Diarrhea
  • Lethargy
  • Vomiting

Although there are no scientific studies on the adverse effects of CBD use in dogs, there may be possible side effects based on how CBD affects people. To reduce the likelihood of adverse effects, adhere to the prescribed dose.

Research indicates that CBD may reduce saliva production(22). It might appear as increased thirst in dogs. Also, it has been shown that high doses of CBD produce a transient decrease in blood pressure. Even if the CBD drop is small, it may cause a momentary sense of dizziness.

Suppose dog owners have used CBD to address anxiety and drowsiness. In that case, CBD’s soothing impact may also induce mild sleepiness, particularly at larger dosages(23).

Meanwhile, one study determined the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) and its pharmacokinetics in healthy dogs(24). Thirty healthy dogs were given one of three formulations: oral CBD-infused oil, CBD-infused transdermal cream, or microencapsulated oil beads.

The plasma concentrations of cannabidiol were measured over a period of 12 hours. They were repeated at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The higher systemic exposure was observed with the formulation of CBD-infused oil. The favorable pharmacokinetic profile of the oil provides the most advantage.

Also, note that static ataxia is a common sign of toxicity in dogs(25). You can tell if your dog seems very stiff and has trouble standing. If you think your dog consumed too much THC, you should see a doctor.

Legality of CBD

Numerous veterinarians in the USA are hesitant to recommend CBD because of insufficient studies, or fear of professional or legal penalties(26)

The Food and Drug Administration or FDA has not authorized CBD products for dogs. 

However, the FDA approved popular supplements such as fish oil(27). Or the vast majority of human-approved prescription medications are often administered in veterinary practice.

Although vet practices can sell hemp-derived products having less than 0.3% THC, the American Veterinary Medical Association did not previously permit veterinarians to recommend cannabis products(28)

As the number of CBD goods containing marijuana and other cannabinoid-derived compounds continues to increase, the FDA will continue to adopt additional rules to clarify the public health responsibilities associated with these drugs(29). Moreover, the agency will continue to examine consumer-sold items.

Osteoarthritis Symptoms in Dogs

Osteoarthritis may be challenging to identify in its early stages, and symptoms generally do not manifest until the afflicted joint has been severely compromised(30)

Some canines may be very stoic and will conceal their suffering until the condition gets severe. Therefore, it is essential to observe middle-aged to elderly dogs and those prone to osteoarthritis for early indicators of joint illness. These indicators include:

  • Loss of muscle mass in the limbs and spine
  • Weakness in the limbs and spine
  • Lethargy
  • Inflexibility, lameness, limping, or trouble getting up
  • Weight increase
  • Reluctance to run, jump, or play
  • Irritability or behavioral changes
  • Pain when touched or petted
  • Difficulty urinating or defecating, or accidents at home 

Other Alternative Treatments for Dogs With Joint Pain

Although there is no known cure for osteoarthritis, it can be treated through various methods(31). One of these is by maintaining a healthy diet and regular exercise. 

Pet owners may prevent joint pain like osteoarthritis from developing by using supplements and reducing inflammation. When it gets worse, treatment usually focuses on controlling pain and improving the quality of life.

Pain control is also a vital part of the treatment process. Humans with this condition commonly take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)(32). These drugs can help decrease inflammation in the joints and reduce pain.

Disabled and older dogs with chronic diseases such as arthritis and hip dysplasia experience substantial discomfort due to inflammation(33). These disorders are often treated aggressively with NSAIDs.

Although NSAID therapy can help treat arthritis and other conditions in dogs, it can also cause side effects, such as kidney failure and liver damage(34).

Your veterinarian may also suggest various treatment methods such as acupuncture, cold laser, and physiotherapy(35). They may perform surgery to remove damaged tissue or even replace the joint entirely in severe cases.

Likewise, maintaining a healthy dog’s weight and regular exercise are the best ways to improve your dog’s joint health and wellness(36). Carrying too much weight can cause the cartilage to break down, leading to the development of osteoarthritis

Having a healthy body can also help prevent other conditions such as diabetes and arthritis from developing(37). If your dog is overweight, your veterinarian may help you create a diet and exercise plan that will help improve the dog’s health.

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD help dogs with joint pain?

    Some research shows that canines that take CBD may have decreased inflammatory symptoms(38). CBD may influence how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) triggers pain and inflammatory responses, reducing dogs’ pain and inflammation(39).

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps dogs with joint pain?

    Cornell University researchers studied the effects of CBD on osteoarthritic dogs in 2018(40). CBD oil may reduce pain and boosts activity in clinical studies. The serum chemistry indicated a rise in phosphatase and no adverse effects.

  • Is there any clinical evidence that CBD can make dogs with joint pain worse?

    There are no conclusive studies that CBD can make dogs with joint pain worsen. However, any drug or supplement may cause an adverse response(41). When introducing a new substance to your dog, it is generally preferable to start with tiny doses and thoroughly monitor the effects and always with your veterinarian first.

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication dogs may be taking for joint pain?

    CBD inhibits cytochrome P450 and affects medication metabolism(42). It may be relevant when CBD manages pet seizures diagnosed with epilepsy. Adjustments may be necessary with other anticonvulsants. Remember that owners may stop anticonvulsants if CBD controls their pet’s seizures.

    CBD raises liver enzymes dose-dependently, according to safety studies. It has not been seen in acute overdoses, but long-term CBD use might cause it. Recommended monitoring includes liver enzymes and total bilirubin.

  • Are there other treatments dogs should consider alongside CBD to help with joint pain?

    Supplements that decrease inflammation may prevent joint pain like osteoarthritis(43). Treatment focuses on pain management and quality of life as it worsens. Pain management is also essential and may be treated with NSAIDs (NSAIDs). These medications can alleviate joint pain and inflammation.

  • What is the dosage for dogs with joint pain?

    CBD was orally administered to healthy dogs in a 2021 research published in the American Journal of Veterinary Research(44). Cannabidiol doses of 1mg to 12mg of CBD per kilogram of the dog’s body weight were administered to 20 adult beagles for 28 days after the dogs were able to tolerate the dosage and had no harmful effects.

  • Does CBD dog treats help with joint problems?

    There are no conclusive studies linking CBD dog treats in helping with joint problems. However, clinical trials may show promise as to how CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties may help canines reduce inflammation(45).

  • Are there any side effects of CBD for dog joint pain?

    According to research, CBD may inhibit saliva production(46). It may manifest in dogs as increased thirst.

    In addition, it has been shown that large doses of CBD cause a temporary reduction in blood pressure. Even a little amount of CBD might induce a brief feeling of dizziness.

    If dog owners have used CBD to treat anxiety and drowsiness, CBD’s calming effect, especially at higher doses, may also produce moderate sleepiness(47).

  • How long does it take for CBD oil to work for joint pain in dogs?

    Suppose you give your dog CBD oil to address joint pain. You can generally anticipate the compound to start working anywhere after two hours(48). However, the lasting effect may depend on the metabolism of the canine. Several variables, such as the dog’s age, size, and health, might alter how long it takes for the health benefits of CBD.

     


  1. Osteoarthritis in Dogs
    https://www.acvs.org/small-animal/osteoarthritis-in-dogs
  2. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  3. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10920191/
  4. Ibid.
  5. CBD for dogs with arthritis: What does the science actually say?
    https://caninearthritis.org/cbd-for-dogs-with-arthritis-claims/
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. The Endocannabinoid System of Animals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770351/
  10. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00165/full
  11. The Use of Cannabidiol-Rich Hemp Oil Extract to Treat Canine Osteoarthritis-Related Pain: A Pilot Study
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339698157_The_Use_of_Cannabidiol-
  12. Rich_Hemp_Oil_Extract_to_Treat_Canine_Osteoarthritis-Related_Pain_A_Pilot_Study
    Randomized, placebo-controlled, 28-day safety and pharmacokinetics evaluation of repeated oral cannabidiol administration in healthy dogs
    https://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/full/10.2460/ajvr.82.5.405
  13. Ataxia in Dogs
    https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/ataxia-in-dogs
  14. Ibid.
  15. Hemp Oil for Pets: Everything You Need to Know
    https://veterinarycannabissociety.org/hemp-oil-for-pets-everything-you-need-to-know/
  16. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats
    https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/10/832/htm
  17. Healing with CBD, page 191
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  18. Solvent Extraction
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/nursing-and-health-professions/solvent-extraction
  19. Impact of Dietary Fats on Brain Functions
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6120115/
  20. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00165/full
  21. FAQs about CBD Use in Pets
    https://www.aspcapro.org/resource/faqs-about-cbd-use-pets
  22. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  23. Ibid.
  24. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs
    https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cvma/cjvr/2018/00000082/00000003/art00002
  25. Ataxia in Dogs
    https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/ataxia-in-dogs
  26. Does CBD Work for Dogs?
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/does-cbd-work-for-dogs/
  27. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements
    https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/fda-101-dietary-supplements
  28. Cannabis use and pets
    https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/animal-health-and-welfare/cannabis-use-and-pets
  29. Ibid.
  30. Osteoarthritis in Dogs — Signs and Treatment
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/osteoarthritis-signs-treatment/
  31. Ibid.
  32. NSAIDs
    https://www.arthritis.org/drug-guide/nsaids/nsaids
  33. Osteoarthritis in Dogs — Signs and Treatment
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/osteoarthritis-signs-treatment/
  34. Veterinary Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
    https://www.fda.gov/animal-veterinary/product-safety-information/veterinary-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids
  35. Osteoarthritis in Dogs — Signs and Treatment
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/osteoarthritis-signs-treatment/
  36. Healthy Exercise for Dogs
    https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/healthy-exercise-for-dogs
  37. Healthy Exercise for Dogs
    https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/healthy-exercise-for-dogs
  38. CBD for dogs with arthritis: What does the science actually say?
    https://caninearthritis.org/cbd-for-dogs-with-arthritis-claims/
  39. Ibid.
  40. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00165/full
  41. Osteoarthritis in Dogs — Signs and Treatment
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/osteoarthritis-signs-treatment/
  42. Randomized, placebo-controlled, 28-day safety and pharmacokinetics evaluation of repeated oral cannabidiol administration in healthy dogs
    https://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/full/10.2460/ajvr.82.5.405
  43. Osteoarthritis in Dogs — Signs and Treatment
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/osteoarthritis-signs-treatment/
  44. Randomized, placebo-controlled, 28-day safety and pharmacokinetics evaluation of repeated oral cannabidiol administration in healthy dogs
    https://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/full/10.2460/ajvr.82.5.405
  45. CBD for dogs with arthritis: What does the science actually say?
    https://caninearthritis.org/cbd-for-dogs-with-arthritis-claims/
  46. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  47. Ibid.
  48. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats
    https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/10/832/htm

What’s new

Why Trust CBD Clinicals?

    Our Medical Team

    The following medical professionals are part of the CBD Clinicals’ medical review team. We focus on ensuring our content is accurate, evidence-based, current and trustworthy.

    Read more

    Our Editorial Process

    The CBD Clinicals Team is committed to producing CBD-related content that is current, factual, unbiased, evidence-based, and medically reviewed.

    Read more

    Our Ethical Principles

    We are committed to helping individual consumers realize the full benefits of CBD to improve their health and that of their families (including their dogs, cats & other pets).

    Read more

Our mission at CBD Clinicals is to provide the most applicable, medically reviewed CBD content on the web.

Cracked PC Software crack microsoft office