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Best CBD Oil for Cats

A particular CBD oil for one cat may not always work for another. Before making a purchase, check out our list of recommended CBD oils for cats. We’ve broken down the pros and cons to help you choose the best CBD oil for your cat.

Rating
Highlights

Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Pet Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Contains 60 mg of CBD per mL of oil
  2. Great for cats, dogs and other four-legged furry creatures
  3. Can be used by humans too

Best CBD Purity

Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Cats


4.2 out of 5
  1. GMO – Free
  2. Purity and potency are tested by third-party labs
  3. Relieves stiffness and takes away joint pains

Best High Poteny

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture


5.0 out of 5
  1. Offers a wide range of sizes
  2. Offers choices for strengths
  3. There is peanut butter flavour

Most Natural

HolistaPet Full Spectrum CBD Oil for Dogs and Cats


4.8 out of 5
  1. All Natural
  2. GMO-Free
  3. Vegan

Best Value For Full Spectrum CBD

CBDistillery CBD Pet Tincture


4.2 out of 5
  1. Uses cold-pressed hemp seed oil
  2. Full-spectrum
  3. Has the same effects in pets as in humans

Compare the Best CBD Oil for Cats in 2021

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
NuLeaf Naturals Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Pet Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Cats
4.2 out of 5

1.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

3.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
HolistaPet Full Spectrum CBD Oil for Dogs and Cats
4.8 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
CBDistillery CBD Oil Pet Tinctures
4.2 out of 5

1.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

Best CBD Oil for Cats

1. NuLeaf Naturals Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Pet Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

CBD for dogs, cats and other four-legged friends! Our product is concentrated to approximately 60mg cannabinoids per milliliter of oil. While this product is designed for pets, it’s great for humans, too.

2. Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Cats
cbdc overall score
4.2
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Made from 100% organic, non-GMO, and locally grown hemp  Available in the US only
 30-day money-back guarantee  Limited information on the company
 Free shipping for orders over $49.95
 Expedited delivery option is available
Pros
 Made from 100% organic, non-GMO, and locally grown hemp
 30-day money-back guarantee
 Free shipping for orders over $49.95
 Expedited delivery option is available
Cons
 Available in the US only
 Limited information on the company
Overview

Product is organic full-spectrum hemp oils are free of GMOs, soy, corn and other contaminants. It is third-party tested for purity and potency. designed to relieve joint pains and stiffness associated with strenuous activities, natural aging, or conditions such as arthritis.

3. 4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Has a wide variety of CBD strengths  A bit expensive
 Free shipping on $100 and up  Incomplete lab test results
Pros
 Has a wide variety of CBD strengths
 Free shipping on $100 and up
Cons
 A bit expensive
 Incomplete lab test results
Overview

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tinctures are generous on their options since there are different sizes and strengths available for you exact needs. The flavor peanut butter is available perfect for pets who are picky when it comes to eating.

4. HolistaPet Full Spectrum CBD Oil for Dogs and Cats
cbdc overall score
4.8
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 100% natural  A little bit pricey compared to other brands
 Formulated specifically for Pets
 Organic Superfoods +CBD
Pros
 100% natural
 Formulated specifically for Pets
 Organic Superfoods +CBD
Cons
 A little bit pricey compared to other brands
Overview

HolistaPet CBD Oil only use all-natural, non-GMO organic & vegan ingredients and never put any wheat, animal by-products, cornmeal, artificial flavors or colors in any of the products.

5. CBDistillery CBD Pet Tincture
cbdc overall score
4.2
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee  Dropper is a bit shaky
 Hemp seed oil is safe for pets and aids in easy digestion
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Pros
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee
 Hemp seed oil is safe for pets and aids in easy digestion
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Cons
 Dropper is a bit shaky
Overview

CBDistillery’s Full Spectrum CBD Oil Pet Tinctures were made with your pets in mind. Formulated with cold-pressed hemp seed oil, your pets can now enjoy all of the same benefits of CBD that you do.

How CBD Oil Can Help Cats

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid or compound found naturally in cannabis plants. Since CBD is non-psychoactive, it does not make users feel high upon use.

CBD oil may be sold and purchased under federal laws as long as it contains less than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis(1).

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is another phytocannabinoid found in cannabis plants. Unlike CBD, however, THC is psychoactive. THC is the chemical responsible for the psychological or mind-altering effects of marijuana.

Commercially available CBD products are derived from industrial hemp, specifically bred to have low THC concentrations.

Although the available findings on CBD are still inconclusive, various studies noted that CBD has promising health benefits.

CBD and other cannabinoids’ therapeutic effects stem from their interaction with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). 

Humans and other mammals, including cats, all have an ECS, which is responsible for maintaining homeostasis or balance within the body.

The ECS helps regulate daily bodily functions, including immune response, pain management, anxiety, mood, sleep cycle, and appetite.

CBD works by interacting with and stimulating the cannabinoid receptors, such as the CB1 and CB2 receptors, found in the ECS.

Studies showed that CB1 receptors are mainly found in the central nervous system and involved in brain activities(2).

Meanwhile, the CB2 receptors are usually found in the peripheral nervous system and are involved with the immune system(3).

The CB1 receptors influence pain sensation, memory processing, sleep patterns, mood, appetite, and motor function(4).

Activated CB2 receptors trigger an anti-inflammatory response and neuropathic (nerve damage or injury) pain response(5), which may help suppress inflammation and pain.

Research indicated that this anti-inflammatory response is promising in treating different inflammatory conditions in humans, such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and atherosclerosis(6).

Benefits of Using CBD Oil for Cats

Like humans, cats experience inflammation-related medical conditions. According to a study, CBD may provide therapeutic relief for cat osteoarthritis and feline inflammatory bowel disease(7).

CBD’s anti-inflammatory effects were also highlighted in a 2017 study on dogs. Published in Frontiers in Veterinary Science, the study noted that CBD oil treatments may be useful to dogs with osteoarthritis.

The findings indicated a significant decrease in pain and increased physical activity among the dogs that received CBD oil. The researchers suggested a CBD dosage of 2mg/kg twice daily for greater comfort and favorable results.

As all dogs and cats have the same endocannabinoid system, pet CBD oil tinctures may also help reduce osteoarthritis pain and allow cats to move around more.

This is particularly helpful for senior and overweight cats who are prone to feline osteoarthritis(8)

The benefits of CBD for cats are not limited to reduced inflammation and chronic pain. CBD oil may also help with anxiety, depression, and mental wellness.

Like their human owners, cats also experience anxiety and seizures.

A study published in PLOS ONE found that 13.45% of surveyed cats and dogs displayed behavior included in the criteria for defining separation-related problems(9).

The behavioral criteria included agitation-anxiety, depression-apathy, and aggressiveness(10).

Meanwhile, in another study, scientists noted that human participants that took CBD oil displayed less anxiety and better sleep quality(11)

CBD may also help with other anxiety-related disorders in humans, like post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder(12).

Separate findings also indicated CBD’s promising benefits in reducing the frequency of seizures by more than 50%(13)

CBD balms and salves may offer therapeutic relief for dry skin, itchiness, and other skin conditions, according to research(14).

Atopic dermatitis or eczema is a common inflammatory skin disorder in humans, particularly in children and infants(15).

Cats also experience a similar condition to atopic dermatitis, called feline atopy(16). Symptoms of feline atopy include over-grooming, cutaneous lesions, head and neck scratching, and bilateral symmetrical alopecia or hair loss.

CBD also contains essential vitamins and minerals, including vitamins A, C, and E, which can help facilitate better skin health and provide antioxidant benefits(17).

Moreover, findings indicated that topical CBD ointment may have therapeutic effects on human psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and other skin inflammatory conditions(18).

Although the study was not conducted on cats, it is possible for CBD’s potential skin benefits to extend to cats, as both cats and humans share the same ECS.

Choosing high-quality products may help ensure our furry friends get the most benefits from their CBD intake.

How Soon Can CBD’s Effects Be Felt?

The speed at which cats feel the effects of pet CBD oil would depend on the chosen delivery method, potency, and health condition of each cat.

When given sublingually or placed under the tongue, CBD works fast, and its effects may be felt between 15 and 45 minutes in humans(19).

However, it is difficult for cats to hold the CBD oil under their tongue for at least thirty seconds. Immediately swallowing the CBD oil affects the time it takes for the oil to take effect.

Ingested CBD products, like capsules and food, may have a delayed onset of effect of up to one to two hours(20).

Cats may feel the effects of CBD within 30 to 60 minutes after ingesting it.

The type of carrier oil used by the CBD oil also affects CBD bioavailability. Bioavailability refers to the speed and amount of CBD absorbed into the bloodstream.

Some of the popular carrier oils for CBD are fractionated coconut oil or medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil and hempseed oil.

MCT oil is a common carrier oil because it can be quickly absorbed by the body without being emulsified in the digestive tract or undergoing hydrolysis (chemical breakdown due to water)(21).

The effects of CBD hemp oil and other CBD oil products on cats may last between four and six hours. However, this may depend on the amount of CBD taken and how it was delivered.

Research results published in the journal Animals showed that the time it takes for CBD oil to reach maximum concentration or effect is two hours for cats(22).

The study also suggested that cats absorb or eliminate CBD at a different rate and way than dogs. 

Cats exhibit lower serum concentrations in their system and more behavioral changes, like excessive licking, pacing, and head-shaking(23).

Possible Adverse Effects of Using CBD Oil for Cats

Cats that take other medications for existing health issues may encounter possible side effects due to CBD’s interaction with other medications, such as blood thinners(24).

Similar to catnip, ingesting CBD oil can commonly cause sedation and cause pets to mellow out or become lethargic(25)

Other possible side effects of pet CBD oil include diarrhea, vomiting, and polyphagia (excessive hunger)(26).

Cat owners may avoid potential adverse effects by ensuring the CBD products they buy have been independently tested and do not contain any harmful contaminants, such as residual solvents, pesticides, and heavy metals.

CBD oil and CBD products are generally safe for both humans and cats as studies mentioned above suggest. However, CBD oil formulated for humans may not be safe for cats, as some products may contain THC. 

Even trace amounts of THC can be fatal to cats, causing intoxication and adverse effects, such as aggression and agitation in cats(27).

Pet owners are advised to consult with their veterinarians about how to use CBD oil for pets. However, note that “under current federal and state law, veterinarians may not administer, dispense, prescribe or recommend cannabis or its products for animals,” according to the American Veterinary Medical Association(28).

Vegan, gluten-free, and all-natural CBD oil may also be safer options. It may be safely given to cats either before or after a meal.

In a 2019 study, the researchers gave CBD-infused fish oil to unfed cats without seeing any major adverse effects(29).

As of December 2020, there are only a few studies available on CBD oil use in cats. Moreover, CBD is still not approved as a drug medication by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)(30).

Different Ways to Administer CBD Oil to Cats

CBD pet products are available in different forms, including traditional oils and tinctures, cat treats and chewables, pet capsules, and topical balms or salves.

Pet CBD tinctures usually come with a graduated dropper for accurate dosage measurement and easy administration.

CBD oils and tinctures may be given to cats sublingually. This method allows the CBD oil to be absorbed directly into the bloodstream through the blood vessels underneath the tongue.

Studies suggested that sublingual CBD delivery may have the highest bioavailability after CBD inhalation(31).

Sublingual delivery may be difficult, especially if the cat does not like the natural grassy taste of CBD oil. Fortunately, some CBD companies offer bacon, chicken, and other flavored pet CBD oil.

CBD oil may also be added to wet or dry food for ease of delivery. Cat owners may also open up and mix the contents of CBD capsules or softgels onto the food.

CBD pet treats are an easy and effective way to get cats to take CBD. These products often have cat-friendly flavors and contain a predetermined amount of CBD per piece for easier dosage calculation.

Cat owners experiencing difficulty in giving CBD to their pets may place or dab some oil on cats’ paws for them to lick.

Additionally, CBD may be applied topically or directly onto the cat’s skin, ears, or nose. Since cats may lick off CBD balms and salves, it would be better to use organic CBD oil with natural ingredients safe to ingest.

A veterinarian experienced with CBD use may give more accurate recommendations on which delivery method would work best depending on the medical conditions and health needs of the cat.

Recommended CBD Dosage for Cats

CBD is not yet an FDA-approved drug(32). Thus, no official CBD dosage guidelines direct pet owners on how much CBD oil to give to their cats.

Determining CBD dosage for cats would depend on the cat’s size, body weight, age, diet, and health condition.

Brands also often provide dosing recommendations for their pet CBD oils and tinctures, based on the potency and concentration.

Some brands also provide CBD dosage calculators and dosing charts online.

A common dosing rule from different brands and pet care websites is giving 1mg to 5mg CBD for the average 10lb cat.

CBD oil may be given up to two times a day, although some sites recommend giving CBD every eight hours or as needed for cats with chronic pain and inflammation.

Note that 5mg of CBD counts as a strong CBD dose for small cats. Experienced CBD users recommend starting out with a low CBD dose to err on the side of caution and increasing the dosage based on any health condition changes.

Additionally, it is important to consider CBD potency and concentration when determining CBD dosage. The hemp source, cultivation methods, and extraction process may affect the CBD potency.

One mg of CBD oil with a 500mg CBD concentration is much more potent than 1mg of CBD oil with only 250mg CBD.

Pet owners must always check the labels and the certificates of analysis (COAs) of any pet CBD product and verify the CBD content before making the purchase.

Pet CBD edibles and treats may be more advisable for first-time CBD users, as they no longer have to compute and measure the right amount of CBD oil each time.

The set concentration of CBD in each pet CBD treat makes dosage and administration easier. 

Still, the right amount of CBD to give to one cat may not always work with another cat. Consulting a veterinarian familiar with CBD use may help ensure optimal feline health and well-being.

How to Buy the Best CBD Products for Cats

There are several factors that cat owners need to consider when looking to buy the highest quality CBD products.

  • Overall Brand Transparency

  • Trustworthy CBD brands and products are those that are transparent with their hemp sourcing, farming practices, extraction process, licenses, accreditation, and product lab test results.
  • Look for brands that provide comprehensive product information without making any unsubstantiated health claims. Take note that CBD is not an approved FDA drug and may only be recommended for therapeutic relief rather than for medical treatment.
  • Verify the claims that a CBD brand gives. Vital information, such as the product’s CBD potency and contaminant testing, should be readily available for consumers.
  • As CBD is still mostly unregulated, third-party laboratory testing and the resulting COAs allow customers to ensure that the product is safe and authentic.
  • More importantly, the third-party lab results can help verify a brand’s claims about the THC content and make sure the product is entirely legal.
  • Kind of Hemp and Ingredients Used

  • Choose high-quality CBD oil that uses non-genetically modified (non-GMO) and organic hemp.
  • Organically grown hemp plants are free of harmful pesticides and chemical fertilizers that may negatively impact a cat’s health.
  • Certified organic industrial hemp must follow strict guidelines and undergo rigorous inspections to receive certification. Seals of approval and certifications help ensure the quality of the hemp used.
  • Organic CBD oil with natural ingredients and without added preservatives makes for some of the best CBD oil for cats, as well.
  • THC-Free CBD for Cats

  • Full-spectrum hemp oil or CBD oil contains a wide array of beneficial phytocannabinoids (plant-based cannabis compounds), terpenes (aromatic oils in plants), and fatty acids.
  • The compounds and oils in full-spectrum CBD work together and enhance each others’ therapeutic benefits, creating the “entourage effect”(33).
  • However, pet owners should choose CBD oil without THC like broad-spectrum CBD products or CBD isolates. THC is toxic for cats.
  • Similar to full-spectrum CBD oil, a broad-spectrum CBD product also contains a wide range of cannabis compounds. Even without any THC, broad-spectrum still produces an entourage effect due to the mix of phytocannabinoids and terpenes(34)
  • Note that an individual can fail a drug test after taking CBD oil, though it rarely happens. Prolonged use of full-spectrum CBD products may cause the trace amounts of THC to accumulate and register in drug tests.
  • CBD Product Form

  • CBD for pets is also available as topicals, such as salves and balms, and as edibles like CBD cat treats.
  • Some CBD product forms may be more suited to address specific health concerns.
  • A CBD balm may help with dry paws or itchiness, while a CBD pet tincture may be better suited for offering pain and anxiety relief(35).
  • Brand’s Customer Service

  • Buy pet CBD oil from brands that have a money-back guarantee. Many high-quality brands that offer a money-back guarantee do so because they are confident in the quality of their products.
  • Look for CBD brands responsive to customer inquiries, particularly questions about their product formulations, item returns, and order shipments.
  • If possible, choose brands that give back to the community through charitable donations and support to non-profit organizations.

The Legality of CBD

CBD oil extracted from industrial hemp plants is federally legal in the USA(36).

The 2018 Farm Bill allows for the growth, cultivation, processing, manufacture, handling, and selling of industrial hemp and its derivatives(37).

Industrial hemp and hemp-derived CBD products are required to have THC concentrations of no more than 0.3% on a dry weight basis to remain legal on the federal level.

However, despite being federally legal, CBD is still not approved by the FDA(38). In particular, the FDA restricts the sale of any food products with added CBD, including animal feed(39).

Laws concerning CBD are quickly evolving, so pet owners are advised to check their state laws regularly to avoid legal problems.

The FDA has only approved one CBD-based medication, Epidiolex, for treating seizures linked to rare forms of epilepsy(40).

Additionally, states may still impose stricter rules and regulations for CBD products. 

For example, 36 states and the District of Columbia have passed laws legalizing medical cannabis and other cannabis-based products, including CBD(41)

Among the remaining states, 14 have passed laws permitting the use of high-CBD, low-THC products.

Some states, like Washington, do not allow the sale of food and beverage products with added CBD(42).

South Carolina also does not permit the sale of food and drinks infused with pure CBD isolates. However, the state allows the use of full-spectrum hemp extracts or oil additives(43).

Meanwhile, Idaho law requires CBD products to be completely THC-free, rather than containing less than 0.3%. The state also needs CBD to be sourced from one of five parts of cannabis or hemp plants to be considered legal(44).

Note that there are still states that restrict the sale and possession of industrial hemp and hemp-based CBD.

South Dakota, for instance, considers all forms of hemp and CBD oil illegal(45).

In contrast, Colorado allows the manufacture and sale of food and drinks that contain hemp-derived CBD and does not have any age restrictions on the purchase of CBD products unless CBD is infused into alcohol(46).

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD oil help cats?

    CBD oil may help improve a cat’s mood, appetite, sleep quality(47). It may also help promote healthier skin and fur and maintain healthy joints(48-49). CBD oil may also aid during cat behavior training

  • Will CBD oil make your cat high?

    CBD does not have any psychoactive effects and does not get your cat high. Hemp-derived CBD with only trace amounts of THC gives only a mild relaxing effect rather than induce a high(50).

  • How much CBD oil should you give to cats?

    CBD dosage for cats would depend on the cat’s size, body weight, and health condition. Start with a low dose and slowly increase if needed or consult your veterinarian for a more accurate CBD dosage recommendation.

  • What evidence exists to say that CBD helps cats?

    Studies conducted on humans and other animals, including dogs and rats, showed that CBD may help address anxiety-related problems, stress, and joint pain or inflammation(51-53).

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can worsen cat conditions?

    Research and clinical trials on CBD for cats are still lacking, although available data suggested little to no severe side effects from CBD intake in cats(54).

    However, researchers noted that CBD may interact with other cat medications(55). Pet owners should always exercise caution and consult a veterinarian before giving CBD to their feline friends.

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication the cat is taking?

    CBD can interact with other drugs, such as blood thinners and certain antibiotics(56). It is recommended to ask a veterinarian about possible contraindications or CBD oil interactions with other cat medications.

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD that may help cats?

    Nutraceuticals or nutritionally functional foods and dietary supplements may also help improve your furry friends’ overall health and well-being.

    Cats with chronic pain issues or arthritis may also benefit from regular massage therapy(57) Take note, though, that essential oils are not recommended for use when giving cats a massage(58).

  • Can I give my cat CBD oil that is meant for human consumption?

    CBD oil formulated for humans may not be safe for cats, as some products contain THC. THC may cause cannabis intoxication and side effects, like aggression and agitation(59).

    Additionally, check the ingredients list of CBD oil meant for humans to make sure the product does not contain grapes, xylitol (artificial sweetener), or caffeine, which may be toxic for cats(60).

  • Is it safe to give CBD treatment to cats with empty stomachs?

    Cats can safely ingest CBD on an empty stomach. Researchers did not observe any major side effects from unfed cats who took CBD-infused fish oil(61).

  • Who Should Buy CBD Oil for Cats?

    Older cats are likely to have health issues that CBD may help address. CBD may provide therapeutic relief for medical conditions such as anxiety, sleep problems, dwindling appetite, and skin inflammation(62-64).


  1. Congress.gov. H.R. 2 – Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018. Retrieved from https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/2/text
  2. ECHO. (2017, April 18). A Look at the Endocannabinoid System’s CB1 and CB2 Receptors. Retrieved from https://echoconnection.org/look-endocannabinoid-systems-cb1-cb2-receptors/ 
  3. Lu, H. C., & Mackie, K. (2016). An Introduction to the Endogenous Cannabinoid System. Biological psychiatry, 79(7), 516–525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.07.028
  4. ECHO. (2017, April 18). Op. cit.
  5. Racz, I., Nadal, X., Alferink, J., Baños, J. E., Rehnelt, J., Martín, M., Pintado, B., Gutierrez-Adan, A., Sanguino, E., Manzanares, J., Zimmer, A., & Maldonado, R. (2008). Crucial role of CB(2) cannabinoid receptor in the regulation of central immune responses during neuropathic pain. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 28(46), 12125–12135. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3400-08.2008
  6. Turcotte C, Blanchet MR, Laviolette M, Flamand N. The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016;73(23):4449–4470. DOI:10.1007/s00018-016-2300-4. 
  7. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. (2018, April). Inflammatory Bowel Disease. and Retrieved from https://www.vet.cornell.edu/departments-centers-and-institutes/cornell-feline-health-center/health-information/feline-health-topics/inflammatory-bowel-disease
  8. Carmela Stamper, DVM. (2018, Feb 2). Osteoarthritis in Cats: A More Common Disease Than You Might Expect. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/animal-veterinary/animal-health-literacy/osteoarthritis-cats-more-common-disease-you-might-expect#endnote2.
  9. Machado, D. d.S., Oliveira, P., Machado, J., Ceballos, M., & Sant’Anna, A. (2020, April 15). Identification of separation-related problems in domestic cats: A questionnaire survey. PLOS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0230999 
  10. Ibid.
  11. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. The Permanente journal, 23, 18–041. https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/18-041
  12. Blessing, E. M., Steenkamp, M. M., Manzanares, J., & Marmar, C. R. (2015). Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 12(4), 825–836. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1
  13. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Op. cit.
  14. Palmieri, B., Laurino, C., & Vadalà, M. (2019). A therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. La Clinica terapeutica, 170(2), e93–e99. https://doi.org/10.7417/CT.2019.2116 
  15. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2020, June 12). Atopic dermatitis (eczema). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/atopic-dermatitis-eczema/symptoms-causes/syc-20353273
  16. Bajwa J. (2018). Atopic dermatitis in cats. The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 59(3), 311–313. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5819051/
  17. ECHO. (2017, May 5). What is Full-Spectrum Hemp Oil and Why is it Important? Retrieved from https://echoconnection.org/full-spectrum-hemp-oil-important/
  18. Palmieri, B., Laurino, C., & Vadalà, M. (2019). Op. cit.
  19. Arthritis Foundation. CBD for arthritis pain: What you should know. Retrieved from https://www.arthritis.org/health-wellness/healthy-living/managing-pain/pain-relief-solutions/cbd-for-arthritis-pain
  20. Ibid.
  21. Łoś-Rycharska, E., Kieraszewicz, Z.,  & Czerwionka-Szaflarska, M. (2016). Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) formulas in paediatric and allergological practice. Gastroenterology Review/Przegląd Gastroenterologiczny, 11(4), 226-231. https://doi.org/10.5114/pg.2016.61374
  22. Deabold, K. A., Schwark, W. S., Wolf, L., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2019). Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(10), 832. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100832
  23. Ibid.
  24. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2018, Dec. 20). What are the benefits of CBD – and is it safe to use?. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  25. Kogan, L., Schoenfeld-Tacher, R., Hellyer, P., & Rishniw, M. (2019). US Veterinarians’ Knowledge, Experience, and Perception Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol for Canine Medical Conditions. Frontiers in veterinary science, 5, 338. doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00338. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338022/ 
  26. Ibid.
  27. Janeczek, A., Zawadzki, M., Szpot, P., & Niedzwiedz, A. (2018). Marijuana intoxication in a cat. Acta veterinaria Scandinavica, 60(1), 44. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-018-0398-0 
  28. Burke, A. (2018, Oct. 17). How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil. American Kennel Club. Retrieved from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/ 
  29. Deabold, K. A., Schwark, W. S., Wolf, L., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2019). Op. cit.
  30. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2020, Oct. 1). Op. cit.
  31. Lucas, C. J., Galettis, P., & Schneider, J. (2018). The pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 84(11), 2477–2482. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.13710 
  32. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2020, Oct. 1). FDA regulation of cannabis and cannabis-derived products, including cannabidiol (CBD). https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd 
  33. Russo E. B. (2019). The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain. Frontiers in plant science, 9, 1969. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01969
  34. Ferber, S. G., Namdar, D., Hen-Shoval, D., Eger, G., Koltai, H., Shoval, G., Shbiro, L., & Weller, A. (2020). The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders. Current neuropharmacology, 18(2), 87–96. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X17666190903103923 
  35. Tóth, K. F., Ádám, D., Bíró, T., & Oláh, A. (2019). Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin: Therapeutic Potential of the “C(ut)annabinoid” System. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(5), 918. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050918
  36. Congress.gov. H.R. 2 – Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018. Op. cit.
  37. Ibid.
  38. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2020, Oct. 1). Op. cit.
  39. Ibid.
  40. Ibid.
  41. ProCon.org. (2020, Dec. 3). States with Legal Cannabidiol (CBD). ProCon/Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. https://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/states-with-legal-cannabidiol-cbd/
  42. Washington State Department of Agriculture. Restrictions on the Use of Hemp CBD as a Food Ingredient. https://agr.wa.gov/departments/food-safety/food-safety/hemp-cbd-in-food
  43. South Carolina Department of Agriculture. (18 July 2019). Hemp products in human food quick guide. https://agriculture.sc.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/HempCBDFoodGuide2019_V2.pdf
  44. Idaho Office of Drug Policy. Cannabidiol (CBD). Idaho Official Government Website. https://odp.idaho.gov/cannibidiol/ 
  45. South Dakota Office of the Attorney General. (2019, March 25). Attorney General Ravnsborg Clarifies Questions Regarding Industrial Hemp and CBD (Cannabidiol) Oil. https://atg.sd.gov/OurOffice/Media/pressreleasesdetail.aspx?id=2167
  46. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. Hemp in food. Retrieved from https://cdphe.colorado.gov/hemp-food
  47. ECHO. (2017, April 18). Op. cit.
  48. Tóth, K. F., Ádám, D., Bíró, T., & Oláh, A. (2019). Op. cit.
  49. Gamble, L. J., Boesch, J. M., Frye, C. W., Schwark, W. S., Mann, S., Wolfe, L., Brown, H., Berthelsen, E. S., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2018). Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Frontiers in veterinary science, 5, 165. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00165 
  50. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Op. cit.
  51. Ibid.
  52. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., et. al. (2016). Op. cit.
  53. Gamble, L. J., Boesch, J. M., et. al. (2018). Op. cit.
  54. Deabold, K. A., Schwark, W. S., Wolf, L., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2019). Op. cit.
  55. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2018, Dec. 20). Op. cit.
  56. Ibid.
  57. Corti L. (2014). Massage therapy for dogs and cats. Topics in companion animal medicine, 29(2), 54–57. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.tcam.2014.02.001 
  58. Canadian Veterinary Medical Association. (2018, Aug. 2). Cats and Essential Oils. Retrieved from https://www.canadianveterinarians.net/documents/cats-and-essential-oils
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  60. Cortinovis, C., & Caloni, F. (2016). Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats. Frontiers in veterinary science, 3, 26. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2016.00026 
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  62. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Op. cit.
  63. Palmieri, B., Laurino, C., & Vadalà, M. (2019). Op. cit.
  64. Iffland, K., & Grotenhermen, F. (2017). An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 2(1), 139–154. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2016.0034 
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