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Best CBD Oil for Crohn’s Disease

Are you considering CBD for Crohn’s disease? CBD Clinicals has compiled a list of high-quality CBD products that may help with Crohn’s disease for an improved quality of life.

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


4.8 out of 5
  1. Peppermint flavor masks any unpleasant taste
  2. Contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full
  3. Bottle includes a graduated dropper for correct serving measurement

Best CBD Purity

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Natural remedy for various illnesses
  2. Product is full-spectrum whole-plant extract
  3. Contains naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes

Best High Potency

Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Maximum possible potency
  2. Each dropper full contains 80mg of CBD
  3. Conveniently fits in a 30mL bottle

Best Value

Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg


4.6 out of 5
  1. Proprietary full-spectrum
  2. Developed using advanced AVIDA CORE Spectrum Technology
  3. Highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3)

Best Value

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg


4.7 out of 5
  1. Made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp
  2. Available in many flavours
  3. Safe for daily use

Best THC Free

CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures


4.4 out of 5
  1. Do not contain THC
  2. Available in different potencies and sizes
  3. Brand has special deals and offers

Best Customer Rated

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg


4.4 out of 5
  1. THC-free
  2. Has plenty of flavours to choose from
  3. Totally vegan

Best For Beginners

NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


4.6 out of 5
  1. Lowest concentration for CBD beginners
  2. Fully organic and lab-tested
  3. Full-spectrum

Best Flavor Range

Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil


3.9 out of 5
  1. Has a wide range of flavours
  2. Safe to intake
  3. Get 20% off when you avail of their subscription

Best Allergy Friendly

Sunsoil CBD Oil Drops, Chocolate Mint Flavor


3.6 out of 5
  1. Tastes great
  2. Uses hemp grown organically
  3. Laboratory tests done by a third party

Compare the best CBD for Crohn's Disease in 2022

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
4.8 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
4.6 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

3.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
4.7 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
4.4 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
4.4 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
4.6 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
3.9 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
Sunsoil CBD Oil Drops, Chocolate Mint Flavor
3.6 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

Best CBD Oil for Crohn's Disease

1. Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.8
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Mid-strength  No other flavors
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Mid-strength
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

2. NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

3. Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Extra Strength  Tastes bitter
 No artificial flavoring or colors  No THC-free option
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Extra Strength
 No artificial flavoring or colors
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 Tastes bitter
 No THC-free option
Overview

The largest bottle of CBD oil that Spruce offers contains 2,400mg of CBD. This is full-spectrum CBD oil, which is the maximum possible potency. Each high potency dropper full contains 80mg of CBD. There are no flavorings in it, which allows for the most CBD to fit in the 30ml bottle.

4. Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Light Spearmint flavor  No other flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Pros
 Light Spearmint flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Cons
 No other flavor
Overview

Avida Extracts Full Spectrum CBD oil is the latest iteration of the brand’s advanced Avida CORE Spectrum technology. They use a proprietary full spectrum blend, resulting in the highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3) to support your health.

5. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
cbdc overall score
4.7
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Various delicious flavors to choose from  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Pros
 Various delicious flavors to choose from
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Cons
 cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
Overview

cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

6. CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee  Dropper is a bit shaky
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Pros
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Cons
 Dropper is a bit shaky
Overview

CBDistillery’s Isolate CBD Oil Tinctures harness the power of pure CBD. CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures include 0.0% THC. When you use CBDistillery CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures, you can be assured you’re using the highest quality CBD on the market.

7. NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural  A bit pricey compared to competitors
 Approximately 100 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 100 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
 A bit pricey compared to competitors
Overview

This is one of several concentrations from NuLeaf Naturals. As the lowest concentration, it is the company’s best option for those new to CBD oil. The product is lab-tested and fully organic. It is full-spectrum, so it contains THC in small quantities.

8. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Vegan and Gluten free  Does not ship internationally
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Pros
 Vegan and Gluten free
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Cons
 Does not ship internationally
Overview

A 750mg bottle of cbdMD’s Broad Spectrum Oil Tincture does not contain THC. It also has a fairly wide flavor range which is perfect for those who prefer other taste. Vegan consumers are considered since cbdMD offers Vegan products. Aside from all of that, another reason why people love cbdMD is because it’s free from harmful chemicals.

9. Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
3.9
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Wide variety of flavors  Incomplete information about the product
 Lab test results are complete  Does not ship to all international countries
 30-day money-back guarantee
Pros
 Wide variety of flavors
 Lab test results are complete
 30-day money-back guarantee
Cons
 Incomplete information about the product
 Does not ship to all international countries
Overview

Hemp Bombs offer CBD Oil Tinctures that come in a 30ml bottle containing 750mg of CBD. They provide a wide range of flavors perfect for those that have a knack for sweets. Consumers can safely intake this because it’s free of chemicals and pesticides. Hemp Bombs also offer a 20% off on products upon subscription.

10. Sunsoil CBD Oil Drops, Chocolate Mint Flavor
cbdc overall score
3.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Sunsoil CBD is committed to providing high-quality products at an affordable cost.  Product selection is limited.
 The company tests its products thrice before making them available to the public.  The company uses lipid extraction methods.
 From cultivation to packaging, everything is done in Sunsoil CBD grounds.
 Organic and sustainable farming is at the company’s core.
Pros
 Sunsoil CBD is committed to providing high-quality products at an affordable cost.
 The company tests its products thrice before making them available to the public.
 From cultivation to packaging, everything is done in Sunsoil CBD grounds.
 Organic and sustainable farming is at the company’s core.
Cons
 Product selection is limited.
 The company uses lipid extraction methods.
Overview

The flavor profile is refreshingly sweet, and it balances well with the higher CBD concentration. Promotes the absorption of CBD into your blood circulation.

How CBD May Help With Crohn’s Disease 

Clinical studies in humans and animals and anecdotal reports suggest that CBD (cannabidiol) may help with chronic pain(1)

According to studies, a range of 30% to 50% of patients with IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) experience chronic pain(2).  

Crohn’s disease is a type of IBD(3). It is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract(4)

Crohn’s disease may affect the small or large intestines. It is also confined to the colon in some people(5)

Crohn’s disease symptoms include abdominal pain, cramping, blood in the stool, mouth sores, weight loss, and diarrhea(6)

CBD has anti-inflammatory properties(7). It also has pain-relieving effects(8). Hence, CBD may help with Crohn’s disease.   

CBD is an active compound of cannabis (sometimes called marijuana). This non-psychoactive compound works with the human body’s ECS (endocannabinoid system) to maintain homeostasis(9)

Homeostasis is a process by which living things maintain stability while adjusting to environmental conditions(10)

The ECS is implicated in gut homeostasis, regulating gastrointestinal motility and inflammation(11)

Gastrointestinal motility is the movement of food from the mouth through the throat, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and out of the body(12).  

The endocannabinoid system is present in almost every part of the body. The ECS is composed of cannabinoid receptors, namely CB1 and CB2 receptors, found in cells throughout the body(13)

CB1 receptors play a significant role in pain sensation, while CB2 stimulates a response that fights inflammation(14)

CBD has a low binding affinity for these cannabinoid receptors. However, the compound may antagonize them in the presence of THC(15)

Like CBD, THC is also a cannabinoid found in cannabis plants. It is the compound responsible for the effects of marijuana on an individual’s mental health(16)

Researchers believe that cannabidiol may reduce the efficacy and potency of THC and regulate the perception of pain(17)

Benefits of Using CBD for Crohn’s Disease 

Crohn’s disease triggers inflammation in the digestive tract. The condition can be painful and sometimes may lead to life-threatening complications(18)

Studies showed that cannabidiol may inhibit intestinal inflammation and provide pain relief(19-20)

In an experimental study of cannabidiol in humans, researchers hypothesized that CBD pain relief is driven by pharmacological action and psychological placebo effects(21)

The placebo effect occurs when an individual’s physical and mental health seem to improve after taking a placebo or dummy medication(22)

A 2020 review from Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research hypothesized that cannabinoids, particularly CBD, may regulate intestinal bacteria and reduce intestinal permeability(23). These characteristics may play a significant role in symptomatic flare-ups in IBD patients. 

Ulcerative colitis is a condition that triggers inflammation and ulcers in the digestive tract. Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease(24)

A study on rats with colitis indicated that taking CBD and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) together may reduce inflammatory markers in the subjects(25).

The study suggested that CBD and THC may lower colitis symptoms. In addition, CBD may enhance THC’s effect in alleviating IBD in rats(26).

Still, the results of these studies are inconclusive. Therefore, further research is needed to illustrate CBD as a potential treatment of Crohn’s disease.   

How to Take CBD Oil for Crohn’s Disease

There are various ways to take CBD oil for Crohn’s disease, including:

  1. CBD tinctures, strips, tablets, and sprays may be taken using the sublingual (under the tongue) method.
  2. CBD topicals like creams, lotions, salves, and balms may be used for localized relief. 
  3. CBD patches and gels are usually administered through the transdermal method. Transdermal drug delivery is a systematic application of a drug formulation onto the skin. 
  4. CBD oils may also be ingested through edibles, such as gummies

CBD Dosage for Crohn’s Disease

The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has not recognized CBD as a treatment for Crohn’s disease. Hence, there is no standard CBD dosage for such a condition. 

The only FDA-approved cannabidiol product is Epidiolex. It is a CBD oral solution used to treat seizures related to rare and severe forms of epilepsy(27)

A study from the journal Current Drug Safety reported that chronic use and high doses of up to 1,500 mg of CBD per day are well tolerated in humans(28).  

However, the general rule is to start low and go slow. 

Microdoses in the range of 0.5mg to 20mg of CBD per day may help with metabolic disorders(29)

Meanwhile, standard doses between 10mg and 100mg of CBD per day may help with pain, inflammation, and IBD (inflammatory bowel disease)(30).

In a small study on CBD use for ulcerative colitis, the participants took 50mg of CBD oil twice daily, increasing the dose to 250mg if tolerated(31).  

Results showed that the participants had clinical remission and significant improvement in their quality of life. They also did not experience severe side effects after 10 weeks of treatment(32).  

Still, it is best to seek medical advice to help you determine the right amount of CBD to manage IBD symptoms. 

How Long Does CBD Take to Help With Crohn’s Disease

How long CBD takes effect depends on the type of CBD administration method used. 

Inhaling CBD using vape pens is the fastest way to benefit from the effects of cannabidiol(33). The vapors enter the bloodstream via the lungs without going through the digestive system

Although vapes have immediate effects, vaping may damage the lungs(34).   

How Long Will CBD Help With Crohn’s Disease

Bioavailability means the extent to which a substance becomes fully available to its intended biological destination(35).  

A study from Frontiers Pharmacology showed that CBD’s bioavailability after smoking is 31%(36)

How to Choose the Best CBD Oil for Crohn’s Disease

With so many CBD brands on the market giving claims about cannabidiol’s purported health benefits, it can be challenging to determine the best CBD oil product to manage symptoms of Crohn’s disease

Tips on Finding the Best CBD Oil for Crohn’s Disease 

1. Familiarize yourself with CBD extracts. You may choose full-spectrum CBD oil, broad-spectrum CBD oil, or CBD isolates.

A CBD product is considered full spectrum if all extracts of the cannabis plant, including CBD and other cannabinoids, terpenes, essential oils, and flavonoids, are used. The THC concentration should also be less than 0.3%(37)

Terpenes are volatile compounds found in the essential oils produced by many plants, fruits, and vegetables. Meanwhile, flavonoids are active compounds found in cannabis and many plants, flowers, fruits, and vegetables. 

Broad-spectrum CBD oil is similar to full-spectrum CBD. However, it is nearly THC-free. Lastly, CBD isolates are made of pure CBD(38)

2. Support CBD companies that are transparent with their farming practices. Ensure that a third-party lab tests all their products for potency and consistency.

A certificate of analysis (COA), which indicates whether a particular product contains contaminants, is also vital.

3. Do your research. Make sure to check a CBD brand’s website and read consumer reviews and comments on social media to verify whether a CBD company is reputable or not. It would be better if you also looked for any disclaimers regarding the product. 

Risks and Side Effects of Using CBD for Crohn’s Disease 

CBD is well tolerated in humans and animals. It has also been deemed by the WHO to have a good safety profile(39). However, this non-psychoactive compound may still carry some risks and minor side effects, including(40):

  • Reduced appetite
  • Dry mouth
  • Drowsiness
  • Fatigue 
  • Diarrhea 

Another cause for concern is how CBD interacts with other substances or medications. CBD may inhibit cytochrome P450 enzyme production at high doses(41)

 Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a family of liver enzymes that metabolize nearly 60% of the pharmaceutical drugs people consume(42)

Below are a few substances that utilize the cytochrome P450 enzyme system and may interact with CBD(43):  

  • Antiepileptics
  • Antidepressants
  • Antibiotics
  • Antihistamines
  • Steroids 

Hence, make sure to consult your healthcare provider if you are considering using CBD oil for Crohn’s disease. This way, they can advise you about the possible drug interactions and risks. 

Legality of CBD

The United States Congress ratified the 2018 Farm Bill, legalizing industrial hemp and products obtained from hemp plants(44)

The bill removed hemp from the definition of marijuana in the Controlled Substances Act. Now, hemp is defined as Cannabis sativa L. and cannabis derivatives with no more than 0.3% concentration of THC on a dry weight basis(45-46)

The Federal Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, commonly known as the Controlled Substances Act, created a drug schedule to classify substances into five categories based on the potential for drug abuse and medical use(47)

Some states have passed laws permitting recreational or medical marijuana(48)

Colorado is one of the states that legalized marijuana for adults over age 21 by passing Amendment 64 to the Colorado Constitution(49).  

However, these state laws do not alter the fact that, under federal law, marijuana is still listed as a Schedule I drug(50)

Substances included in the Schedule I drugs have a high abuse potential with no acceptable medical use(51). Hence, medications under this category may not be dispensed, prescribed, or administered under federal law. 

Rules and regulations regarding legal marijuana and medical cannabis may be confusing. Thus, it would be best to learn how marijuana laws differ in each state. 

It would also be best to consult a physician experienced in cannabis use if you are considering using cannabis products like cannabis oil in managing Crohn’s disease, symptoms of IBD, or gut inflammation.

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD help with Crohn’s disease?

    Crohn’s disease is known as a type of inflammatory bowel disease that causes inflammation of the digestive tract(52). CBD has anti-inflammatory effects(53)

    Therefore, CBD may help with Crohn’s disease.

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps with Crohn’s disease?

    There are preliminary human clinical trials on CBD for Crohn’s disease. However, most studies have been done on rodents. 

    An animal study using a rat model of Crohn’s disease hypothesized that THC, CBD, and sulfasalazine treatment may reduce signs of inflammation, damage, and functional disturbances(54).

    Sulfasalazine is used for bowel inflammation, stool frequency, rectal bleeding, and abdominal pain experienced by patients with ulcerative colitis(55)

    Ulcerative colitis is a condition that triggers inflammation and ulcers in the digestive tract.

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can make Crohn’s disease worse?

    No. There is no evidence suggesting that CBD can make Crohn’s disease worse. However, CBD may cause minor side effects such as fatigue and diarrhea(56).

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication I may be taking for Crohn’s disease?

    Yes. CBD may interact with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs like corticosteroids (steroids)(57)

    Anti-inflammatory drugs are often used as the first step in treating inflammatory bowel disease(58)

    Meanwhile, antibiotics may lessen the amount of drainage from fistulas (an abnormal connection between body parts) in people with Crohn’s disease.

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD to help with Crohn’s disease?

    Always speak to your healthcare provider if you are considering other treatment options or supplements alongside CBD to help with Crohn’s disease

    Your clinician can advise you regarding risks and possible drug interactions

    They may also suggest nutrition therapy consisting of a low-fiber diet and medications, such as immune system suppressors(59).

  • Can I fail a drug test if I use CBD for Crohn’s disease?

    CBD is non-psychoactive(60). Hence, it does not cause a euphoric high(61)

    However, some CBD products have small amounts of THC. This psychoactive compound may build up in the body when taken regularly over as little as four to six days(62)

    An increased THC level in your bloodstream may result in a positive drug test.

  • What is the dosage for Crohn’s disease?

    There is no standard CBD dosage for Crohn’s disease. However, CBD doses between 10mg and 100mg CBD per day may help with pain, inflammation, and inflammatory bowel syndrome(63)

    Crohn’s disease is a type of IBD. It triggers digestive tract inflammation, leading to abdominal pain and weight loss(64).

  • What strains are good for Crohn’s disease?

    It is not known what strains are good for Crohn’s disease. However, some popular CBD-rich strains of cannabis include Harlequin, Ringo’s gift, and Charlotte’s web(65).


  1. Cannabidiol (CBD)-What We Know and What We Don’t
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  2. Pain Management in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5824598/
  3. Crohn’s Disease
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/crohns-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20353304
  4. The Endocannabinoid System in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: From Pathophysiology to Therapeutic Opportunity
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22917662/
  5. Crohn’s Disease
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/crohns-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20353304
  6. Ibid.
  7. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/
  8. Research Shows Pain-Relieving Effects of CBD
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210423130221.htm
  9. The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator
    https://www.jyi.org/2018-june/2018/6/1/the-endocannabinoid-system-our-universal-regulator
  10. Homeostasis: The Underappreciated and Far Too Often Ignored Central Organizing Principle of Physiology
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2020.00200/full
  11. The Endocannabinoid System in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: From Pathophysiology to Therapeutic Opportunity
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22917662/
  12. Gastrointestinal Motility and Physiology
    https://health.ucsd.edu/specialties/gastro/areas-expertise/motility-physiology/pages/default.aspx
  13. The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator
    https://www.jyi.org/2018-june/2018/6/1/the-endocannabinoid-system-our-universal-regulator
  14. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01259/full
  15. Ibid.
  16. Cannabis (Marijuana) and Cannabinoids: What You Need To Know
    https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/cannabis-marijuana-and-cannabinoids-what-you-need-to-know
  17. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01259/full
  18. Crohn’s Disease
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/crohns-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20353304
  19. Cannabidiol Reduces Intestinal Inflammation Through the Control of the Neuroimmune Axis
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22163000/
  20. Research Shows Pain-Relieving Effects of CBD
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210423130221.htm
  21. Ibid.
  22. Placebo effect
    https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/placebo-effect
  23. Cannabinoids and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: Emerging Effects of Cannabidiol and Potential Applications to Alcohol Use Disorders
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31803950/
  24. Ulcerative Colitis
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ulcerative-colitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20353326#:~:text=Ulcerative%20colitis%20(UL%2Dsur%2D,over%20time%2C%20rather%20than%20suddenly.
  25. The Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Alone and in Combination on Damage, Inflammation and In Vitro Motility Disturbances in Rat Colitis
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2931570/
  26. Ibid.
  27. FDA Approves First Drug Comprised of an Active Ingredient Derived from Marijuana to Treat Rare, Severe Forms of Epilepsy
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-drug-comprised-active-ingredient-derived-marijuana-treat-rare-severe-forms
  28. Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22129319/
  29. CBD: A Patient’s Guide to Medicinal Cannabis, page 129.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1MILU_6ZjYkII-XMUPHLFPiPQbrz__5Sh/view
  30. Ibid.
  31. Cannabis for the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30406638/
  32. Ibid.
  33. How to Safely Use CBD: Should You Inhale, Spray, Apply, or Eat It?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/how-to-use-cbd-inhale-spray-apply-eat/
  34. Is It Safe to Vape CBD?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/is-it-safe-to-vape-cbd/
  35. Drug Bioavailability
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557852/
  36. A Systematic Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Humans
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6275223/
  37. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  38. Ibid.
  39. Cannabidiol (CBD), page 5.
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  40. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  41. Healing With CBD, page 114.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  42. Ibid.
  43. Healing With CBD, pages 115-116.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  44. H.R.2 – Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018
    https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/2/text
  45. Hemp Production and the 2018 Farm Bill
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/congressional-testimony/hemp-production-and-2018-farm-bill-07252019
  46. Hemp Extracts: The Dry Weight Problem
    https://www.lacba.org/docs/default-source/section-documents/cannabis-law/cannabis-newsletter-jan-2021/4_thorne.pdf
  47. The Federal Controlled Substances Act: Schedules and Pharmacy Registration
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3839489/#:~:text=The%20Federal%20Comprehensive%20Drug%20Abuse,effective%20on%20May%201%2C%201971.&text=The%20goal%20of%20the%20Controlled,and%20dispensing%20of%20controlled%20substances.
  48. Ibid.
  49. Legal Marijuana Use in Colorado
    https://cannabis.colorado.gov/legal-marijuana-use-in-colorado
  50. The Federal Controlled Substances Act: Schedules and Pharmacy Registration
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3839489/#:~:text=The%20Federal%20Comprehensive%20Drug%20Abuse,effective%20on%20May%201%2C%201971.&text=The%20goal%20of%20the%20Controlled,and%20dispensing%20of%20controlled%20substances.
  51. Ibid.
  52. Crohn’s Disease
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/crohns-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20353304
  53. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/
  54. The Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Alone and in Combination on Damage, Inflammation and In Vitro Motility Disturbances in Rat Colitis
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2931570/
  55. Sulfasalazine
    https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682204.html
  56. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  57. Healing With CBD, pages 115-116.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  58. Crohn’s Disease
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/crohns-disease/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353309
  59. Ibid.
  60. Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246936/
  61. Cannabidiol (CBD)-What We Know and What We Don’t
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  62. Can You Take CBD and Pass a Drug Test?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/can-you-take-cbd-and-pass-a-drug-test/
  63. CBD: A Patient’s Guide to Medicinal Cannabis, page. 129.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1MILU_6ZjYkII-XMUPHLFPiPQbrz__5Sh/view
  64. Crohn’s Disease
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/crohns-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20353304
  65. Healing With CBD, page 198.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
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