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Best CBD Oil for Schizophrenia

Are you considering trying cannabidiol (CBD) to manage symptoms of schizophrenia? CBD Clinicals has the pertinent information to help you choose the best CBD oil for schizophrenia.

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


4.8 out of 5
  1. Peppermint flavor masks any unpleasant taste
  2. Contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full
  3. Bottle includes a graduated dropper for correct serving measurement

Best CBD Purity

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Natural remedy for various illnesses
  2. Product is full-spectrum whole-plant extract
  3. Contains naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes

Best High Potency

Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Maximum possible potency
  2. Each dropper full contains 80mg of CBD
  3. Conveniently fits in a 30mL bottle

Best Value

Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg


4.6 out of 5
  1. Proprietary full-spectrum
  2. Developed using advanced AVIDA CORE Spectrum Technology
  3. Highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3)

Best Value

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg


4.7 out of 5
  1. Made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp
  2. Available in many flavours
  3. Safe for daily use

Best THC Free

CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures


4.4 out of 5
  1. Do not contain THC
  2. Available in different potencies and sizes
  3. Brand has special deals and offers

Best Customer Rated

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg


4.4 out of 5
  1. THC-free
  2. Has plenty of flavours to choose from
  3. Totally vegan

Best For Beginners

NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


4.6 out of 5
  1. Lowest concentration for CBD beginners
  2. Fully organic and lab-tested
  3. Full-spectrum

Best Flavor Range

Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil


3.9 out of 5
  1. Has a wide range of flavours
  2. Safe to intake
  3. Get 20% off when you avail of their subscription

Compare the Best CBD Oil for Schizophrenia in 2022

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
4.8 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
4.6 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

3.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
4.7 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
4.4 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
4.4 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
4.6 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
3.9 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

Best CBD Oil for Schizophrenia

1. Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.8
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Mid-strength  No other flavors
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Mid-strength
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

2. NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

3. Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Extra Strength  Tastes bitter
 No artificial flavoring or colors  No THC-free option
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Extra Strength
 No artificial flavoring or colors
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 Tastes bitter
 No THC-free option
Overview

The largest bottle of CBD oil that Spruce offers contains 2,400mg of CBD. This is full-spectrum CBD oil, which is the maximum possible potency. Each high potency dropper full contains 80mg of CBD. There are no flavorings in it, which allows for the most CBD to fit in the 30ml bottle.

4. Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Light Spearmint flavor  No other flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Pros
 Light Spearmint flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Cons
 No other flavor
Overview

Avida Extracts Full Spectrum CBD oil is the latest iteration of the brand’s advanced Avida CORE Spectrum technology. They use a proprietary full spectrum blend, resulting in the highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3) to support your health.

5. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
cbdc overall score
4.7
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Various delicious flavors to choose from  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Pros
 Various delicious flavors to choose from
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Cons
 cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
Overview

cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

6. CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee  Dropper is a bit shaky
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Pros
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Cons
 Dropper is a bit shaky
Overview

CBDistillery’s Isolate CBD Oil Tinctures harness the power of pure CBD. CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures include 0.0% THC. When you use CBDistillery CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures, you can be assured you’re using the highest quality CBD on the market.

7. NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural  A bit pricey compared to competitors
 Approximately 100 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 100 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
 A bit pricey compared to competitors
Overview

This is one of several concentrations from NuLeaf Naturals. As the lowest concentration, it is the company’s best option for those new to CBD oil. The product is lab-tested and fully organic. It is full-spectrum, so it contains THC in small quantities.

8. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Vegan and Gluten free  Does not ship internationally
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Pros
 Vegan and Gluten free
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Cons
 Does not ship internationally
Overview

A 750mg bottle of cbdMD’s Broad Spectrum Oil Tincture does not contain THC. It also has a fairly wide flavor range which is perfect for those who prefer other taste. Vegan consumers are considered since cbdMD offers Vegan products. Aside from all of that, another reason why people love cbdMD is because it’s free from harmful chemicals.

9. Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
3.9
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Wide variety of flavors  Incomplete information about the product
 Lab test results are complete  Does not ship to all international countries
 30-day money-back guarantee
Pros
 Wide variety of flavors
 Lab test results are complete
 30-day money-back guarantee
Cons
 Incomplete information about the product
 Does not ship to all international countries
Overview

Hemp Bombs offer CBD Oil Tinctures that come in a 30ml bottle containing 750mg of CBD. They provide a wide range of flavors perfect for those that have a knack for sweets. Consumers can safely intake this because it’s free of chemicals and pesticides. Hemp Bombs also offer a 20% off on products upon subscription.

How CBD May Help With Schizophrenia

CBD (cannabidiol) is an active compound of cannabis (sometimes called marijuana). This non-psychoactive compound works with the human body’s ECS (endocannabinoid system) to maintain homeostasis(1)

Homeostasis is a process by which living organisms maintain stability while adjusting to environmental conditions(2).

The ECS is disturbed in schizophrenia(3), characterized by a complex mental health disorder in which individuals interpret reality abnormally(4)

Individuals with schizophrenia appear to lose touch with reality. Cognitive impairments, including working memory and attention, are core characteristics of schizophrenia(5).  

The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) are lipids naturally derived from membrane precursors that bind cannabinoid receptors, namely CB1 and CB2(6)

CB1 receptors are found in higher density in schizophrenia patients(7)

Numerous studies have suggested that it may be possible to relate CB1 receptors abnormalities to the severity of clinical symptoms in schizophrenia(8).  

 Cannabidiol has a low binding affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Nevertheless, the compound may antagonize them in the presence of THC(9)

The researchers also believe that CBD may reduce the efficacy and potency of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)(10)

Like CBD, THC is also found in cannabis plants. THC is the compound responsible for the effects of marijuana on a person’s mental health(11)

Cannabis use has been shown to induce long-lasting psychotic disorders, and a dose-response relationship has also been observed(12)

Nevertheless, cannabis with high CBD content is associated with fewer psychotic symptoms(13)

In addition, CBD has purported antipsychotic effects that may help patients with schizophrenia(14)

Benefits of Using CBD for Schizophrenia

A systematic review from the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease indicated that antipsychotics may have adverse effects, such as weight gain, sedation, and sexual dysfunction(15).  

Meanwhile, compared with antipsychotic drugs, cannabidiol only carries minor side effects. Common side effects of CBD include dry mouth, reduced appetite, fatigue, diarrhea, and drowsiness(16)

In 2018, McGuire and colleagues conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 88 schizophrenic patients(17)

The researchers administered 1,000mg of CBD per day to 43 patients and gave a placebo to the rest. Following six weeks of treatment, the CBD group had lower levels of positive psychotic symptoms compared with the placebo group(18)

Positive symptoms of schizophrenia include distorted behaviors, beliefs, and perceptions, hallucinations, and delusions(19)

The prevalence of depressive disorder in people with schizophrenia has been around 40%(20). Low serotonin levels may be linked with depression(21). Serotonin is the hormone that stabilizes mood and feelings.

Although CBD does not boost serotonin levels, the compound may affect how the chemical receptors in the brain respond to the serotonin in one’s system(22).  

A review from CNS and Neurological DisordersDrug Targets suggest that CBD may exhibit anti-anxiety and antidepressant effects(23).  

Although the results are promising, further longitudinal research is warranted to determine the benefits of CBD for schizophrenia. 

How to Take CBD for Schizophrenia

There are a few methods to take CBD for schizophrenia, including:

  • Oral ingestion
  • Inhalation
  • Sublingual (under the tongue) administration
  • Topical administration 

The terms CBD tinctures and CBD oils are often used interchangeably. Tinctures are alcohol-based and are generally taken sublingually. Meanwhile, CBD oils can also be ingested like an edible(24)

You can mix CBD oil with your food or beverage, especially if you do not like CBD’s grassy taste. 

A 2019 research from the University of Minnesota suggested that high-fat foods may increase oral CBD absorption into the body(25).   

CBD Dosage for Schizophrenia

The Food and Drug Administration or FDA has not recognized CBD as a medical treatment for schizophrenia. Therefore, there is no standard CBD dosage for the condition. 

However, study authors Zuardi, Mechoulam, and Guimarães published a case report on the use of CBD as a possible antipsychotic medication. The study involved a 19-year old schizophrenic black woman administered with CBD up to 1,500mg daily for four weeks(26)

The results showed improvement of acute psychotic symptoms. CBD was also reported to be well tolerated during this study(27)

Although CBD may possess an atypical and antipsychotic profile, the results suggest the need for more clinical trials using a significant number of patients to test this possibility further(28).

Meanwhile, mid-range doses of CBD between 10mg and 100mg daily have been shown to possibly help with anxiety, depression, and some mental health disorders(29).  

Still, it is best to talk with your physician if you are considering using CBD products to help with schizophrenia. Doctors can recommend the right CBD dosage for you.   

How Long Does CBD Take to Help Schizophrenia?

  How long CBD takes effect to help with illnesses such as schizophrenia depends on the method of administration used, among other factors. 

Inhaling CBD using vape pens is the fastest way to experience the benefits of CBD(30). When smoking or vaping CBD, the compound typically takes effect within two to 15 minutes(31)

However, vaping may irritate and damage the lungs(32). In addition, it has been found that more than 80% of schizophrenic individuals are nicotine dependent(33)

Like tobacco products, vaping devices also contain nicotine, an ingredient that can lead to addiction(34)

Thus, schizophrenia patients must consult their healthcare provider if they are contemplating using this administration method in managing psychotic episodes

About 65% of schizophrenic patients may develop anxiety(35). Evidence indicates cannabidiol may help with anxiety disorders(36)

A 2019 study from the Permanente Journal used 25mg to 175mg of CBD per day in capsule forms to examine whether cannabidiol may help with anxiety and sleep(37)

The results showed that 79.2% of patients reported decreased anxiety scores within the first month, and their scores remained that way during the study duration. CBD was also well tolerated in nearly all participants, excluding three individuals(38).  

CBD in capsule form and other CBD edibles usually take effect within 30 to 90 minutes(39).   

How Long Will CBD Help With Schizophrenia? 

Different methods of administration have varying rates of bioavailability. 

Bioavailability is the extent to which a particular substance becomes fully available to its intended biological destination(40)

CBD edibles like capsules have a bioavailability of 6% to 15%(41)

Meanwhile, a 2018 systematic review from the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology indicated that the bioavailability following smoking is 31%(42).    

How to Choose the Right CBD for Schizophrenia

Many CBD brands advertise how beneficial their CBD products are to people with certain mental disorders like schizophrenia. 

Here are a few crucial factors to consider when choosing the best CBD oil for schizophrenia:

CBD Extracts 

CBD extracts can be categorized as full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and CBD isolates

A full-spectrum CBD product contains all extracts of the cannabis plant, including CBD and other cannabinoids, flavonoids, terpenes, and essential oils(43). A full-spectrum CBD product often has less than 0.3% THC(44)

Terpenes are the components of essential oils responsible for the aroma of cannabis(45)

Meanwhile, flavonoids are active compounds found in cannabis that contribute to the aroma, pigmentation, and flavor of cannabis through synergistic relationships with other active compounds like terpenes(46)

Broad-spectrum CBD oil is similar to full-spectrum CBD. However, it is nearly THC-free. On the other hand, CBD isolates are made of pure CBD(47)

CBD Extraction Methods

Extraction methods using hexane and butane may leave harmful residues(48).

One of the most frequently utilized CBD extraction techniques is the carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction method. In this process, compressed carbon dioxide is used as the extraction solvent, avoiding flammable and toxic chemical solvents(49).

Furthermore, it is imperative to know the source of hemp because some CBD products may have irritants, heavy metals, pesticides, and other contaminants. 

For this reason, ensure that the CBD brand you choose is transparent with its farming practices and provides sufficient and accurate information about the ingredients of its products. 

CBD and THC Content 

Before you buy CBD products to manage psychotic symptoms and improve your overall mental health, you must determine the amount of CBD and THC a particular product contains.

Look for the COA (certificate of analysis) to verify the declared CBD concentration and potency accuracy. 

In addition, ensure that the CBD brand you choose enlists the services of a third-party lab to test all its products. The lab reports and COAs must be readily accessible on the brand’s website. 

This way, you can compare the values indicated on the laboratory results with the company’s claims regarding the product.   

The Possible Side Effects and Risks of Using CBD for Schizophrenia

CBD is relatively safe and well tolerated in humans and animals(50). However, more research is warranted to explore the effects of CBD on symptoms of schizophrenia

Antipsychotics, also called neuroleptics, are used to manage psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia(51).

Antipsychotics are drugs that use the cytochrome P450 enzyme system(52). The cytochrome P450 group is a family of liver enzymes that metabolizes nearly 60% of the pharmaceutical drugs people consume(53).

The simultaneous use of CBD and antipsychotics may cause drug-to-drug interactions(54).

Aside from possible drug interaction, CBD may also cause minor side effects, such as(55):

  • Dry mouth
  • Diarrhea
  • Reduced appetite
  • Drowsiness
  • Fatigue 

Hence, make sure to talk with your healthcare provider if you are considering using CBD simultaneously with any antipsychotic medication prescribed to you.   

Legality of CBD

The United States Congress ratified the 2018 Farm Bill, legalizing the commercial use of industrial hemp and products obtained from hemp plants(56)

The 2018 Farm Bill indicates that Cannabis sativa L. and other derivatives of cannabis with less than 0.3% THC content on a dry weight basis are considered federally legal in the United States(57)

The Federal Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 created a drug schedule to classify substances into five categories based on the medical use and potential for drug abuse(58)

Some states have passed laws allowing recreational and medical marijuana. Still, these state laws do not alter the fact that, under federal law, marijuana is still listed as a Schedule I drug(59)

Substances included in the Schedule I drugs have a high abuse potential with no acceptable medical use(60). Therefore, medications under this category may not be prescribed, administered, or dispensed under federal law.

Rules and regulations regarding legal marijuana may be confusing. Hence, it would be better to learn how marijuana laws differ in every state.

In addition, it would be best to consult a clinician experienced in cannabis use if you are considering using products containing cannabis in managing symptoms of psychosis or chronic mental disorder like schizophrenia.

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD help with schizophrenia?

    CBD has antipsychotic effects that may help patients with schizophrenia(61)

    In addition, the effects of CBD do not seem to depend on dopamine receptor antagonism(62). Dopamine plays a crucial role in controlling emotion, movement, and cognition.

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps with schizophrenia?

    A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial led by Sagnik Bhattacharyya suggested that a single dose of CBD may partly normalize dysfunction in brain regions that are critically implicated in psychosis(63)

    Schizophrenia includes psychosis, a condition in which an individual cannot distinguish reality from imagination. 

    However, note that the views expressed in the study are those of the authors and not those individuals from the National Institute for Health Research, Department of Health, or National Health Services(64).

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can make schizophrenia worse?

    There is no evidence suggesting that CBD can make schizophrenia worse. 

    However, a study from the Journal of Psychopharmacology used CBD as monotherapy in three patients with TRS (treatment-resistant schizophrenia)(65)

    Monotherapy is the use of a single substance to treat a particular condition.

    Although all three patients with TRS tolerated CBD very well and reported no side effects, the preliminary data suggested that CBD may not be effective monotherapy for TRS(66).

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication I may be taking for schizophrenia?

    CBD may interact with antidepressants and antipsychotics because these drugs use the cytochrome P450 enzyme system(67). The cytochrome P450 group is a family of liver enzymes

    At high doses, CBD may inhibit the activities of these enzymes, increasing the effect and duration of action of the prescription drugs metabolized by the P450 group(68).

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD to help with schizophrenia?

    Typical antipsychotic drugs like haloperidol may be problematic due to several cases in which people treated with these drugs suffer from movement disorders(69)

    Randomized controlled trials suggested that amisulpride, an atypical antipsychotic drug that induces less movement disorder, may be effective for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia(70)

    Still, you must first seek medical advice before using CBD alongside other medications or supplements for schizophrenia to avoid harmful drug-to-drug interactions.

  • Can I fail a drug test if I use CBD for schizophrenia?

    CBD is non-psychoactive(71). Thus, it does not cause a euphoric high(72)

    However, most CBD products have small amounts of THC. This psychoactive compound may build up in the body when taken regularly over as little as four to six days(73)

    An increased THC level in your bloodstream may lead to a positive drug test. 

  • What is the dosage for schizophrenia?

    There is no standard CBD dosage for schizophrenia. 

    However, a research article from the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry examined a 19-year-old female with schizophrenia. She was administered with CBD up to 1,500mg daily for four weeks(74)

    The results showed that CBD may be well tolerated and have an atypical and antipsychotic profile(75).


  1. The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator
    https://www.jyi.org/2018-june/2018/6/1/the-endocannabinoid-system-our-universal-regulator
  2. Homeostasis: The Underappreciated and Far Too Often Ignored Central Organizing Principle of Physiology
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2020.00200/full
  3. Endocannabinoids and Schizophrenia
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034083/
  4. Schizophrenia
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/schizophrenia/symptoms-causes/syc-20354443
  5. The Impact of THC and CBD in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.694394/full
  6. Endocannabinoids and Schizophrenia
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034083/
  7. Ibid.
  8. Paranoid Schizophrenia is Characterized by Increased CB1 Receptor Binding in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3138655/
  9. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01259/full
  10. Ibid.
  11. Cannabis (Marijuana) and Cannabinoids: What You Need To Know
    https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/cannabis-marijuana-and-cannabinoids-what-you-need-to-know
  12. Meta-Analysis of the Association Between the Level of Cannabis Use and Risk of Psychosis
    https://academic.oup.com/schizophreniabulletin/article/42/5/1262/2413827
  13. Cannabis With High Cannabidiol Content Is Associated With Fewer Psychotic Experiences
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21592732/
  14. Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
    https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17030325
  15. Natural Medicines for Psychotic Disorders
    https://journals.lww.com/jonmd/Fulltext/2018/02000/Natural_Medicines_for_Psychotic_Disorders__A.1.aspx
  16. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  17. Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
    https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17030325
  18. Ibid.
  19. What Is Schizophrenia?
    https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/schizophrenia/what-is-schizophrenia
  20. Depression and Schizophrenia: Cause, Consequence, or Trans-diagnostic Issue?
    https://academic.oup.com/schizophreniabulletin/article/43/2/240/2503507
  21. What Has Serotonin to Do With Depression?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4471964/
  22. Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis sativa
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24923339/
  23. Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis sativa
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24923339/
  24. Healing With CBD, page 205.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  25. High-Fat Foods Can Increase Oral Cannabidiol Absorption Into the Body
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190813130426.htm
  26. Antipsychotic Effect of Cannabidiol
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7559378/
  27. Ibid.
  28. Ibid.
  29. CBD: A Patient’s Guide to Medicinal Cannabis, page 129.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1MILU_6ZjYkII-XMUPHLFPiPQbrz__5Sh/view
  30. How to Safely Use CBD: Should You Inhale, Spray, Apply, or Eat It?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/how-to-use-cbd-inhale-spray-apply-eat/
  31. Healing With CBD, page 190.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  32. Is It Safe to Vape CBD?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/is-it-safe-to-vape-cbd/
  33. Analyzing the Genes Related to Nicotine Addiction or Schizophrenia via a Pathway and Network-Based Approach
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5811491/
  34. Tobacco/Nicotine and Vaping
    https://www.drugabuse.gov/drug-topics/tobacconicotine-vaping
  35. Anxiety in Patients with Schizophrenia: Epidemiology and Management
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26482261/
  36. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604171/
  37. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326553/
  38. Ibid.
  39. Healing With CBD, page 191.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  40. Drug Bioavailability
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557852/
  41. Healing With CBD, page 191.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  42. A Systematic Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Humans
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6275223/
  43. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  44. Ibid.
  45. The Cannabis Terpenes
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763918/
  46. Healing With CBD, page. 282.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  47. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  48. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  49. Understanding Dabs: Contamination Concerns of Cannabis Concentrates and Cannabinoid Transfer During the Act of Dabbing
    https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jts/40/6/40_797/_pdf/-char/en
  50. Cannabidiol (CBD), page 5.
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  51. Neuroleptic Medications
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459150/
  52. Healing With CBD, page 115.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  53. Healing With CBD, page 114.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  54. Healing With CBD, page 115.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  55. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  56. H.R.2 – Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018
    https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/2/text
  57. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD)
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  58. The Federal Controlled Substances Act: Schedules and Pharmacy Registration
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3839489/
  59. Ibid.
  60. Ibid.
  61. Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
    https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17030325
  62. Ibid.
  63. Effect of Cannabidiol on Medial Temporal, Midbrain, and Striatal Dysfunction in People at Clinical High Risk of Psychosis
    https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/2697762
  64. Ibid.
  65. Cannabidiol Monotherapy for Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia
    https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881106060967
  66. Ibid.
  67. Healing With CBD, pages 114-116.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  68. Ibid.
  69. Amisulpride for Schizophrenia
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12076408/
  70. Ibid.
  71. Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246936/
  72. Cannabidiol (CBD)-What We Know and What We Don’t
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  73. Can You Take CBD and Pass a Drug Test? https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/can-you-take-cbd-and-pass-a-drug-test/
  74. Antipsychotic Effect of Cannabidiol
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7559378/
  75. Ibid.
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