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Best CBD Oil for Gout

Are you interested in trying alternative treatments to help manage gout pain? CBD Clinicals has listed the best CBD oil products for gout. 

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


4.8 out of 5
  1. Peppermint flavor masks any unpleasant taste
  2. Contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full
  3. Bottle includes a graduated dropper for correct serving measurement

Best CBD Purity

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Natural remedy for various illnesses
  2. Product is full-spectrum whole-plant extract
  3. Contains naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes

Best High Potency

Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Maximum possible potency
  2. Each dropper full contains 80mg of CBD
  3. Conveniently fits in a 30mL bottle

Best Value

Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg


4.6 out of 5
  1. Proprietary full-spectrum
  2. Developed using advanced AVIDA CORE Spectrum Technology
  3. Highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3)

Best Value

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg


4.7 out of 5
  1. Made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp
  2. Available in many flavours
  3. Safe for daily use

Best THC Free

CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures


4.4 out of 5
  1. Do not contain THC
  2. Available in different potencies and sizes
  3. Brand has special deals and offers

Best Customer Rated

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg


4.4 out of 5
  1. THC-free
  2. Has plenty of flavours to choose from
  3. Totally vegan

Best For Beginners

NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


4.6 out of 5
  1. Lowest concentration for CBD beginners
  2. Fully organic and lab-tested
  3. Full-spectrum

Best Flavor Range

Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil


3.9 out of 5
  1. Has a wide range of flavours
  2. Safe to intake
  3. Get 20% off when you avail of their subscription

Compare the Best CBD Oil for Gout in 2022

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
4.8 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
4.6 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

3.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
4.7 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
4.4 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
4.4 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
4.6 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
3.9 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

Best CBD Oil for Gout

1. Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.8
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Mid-strength  No other flavors
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Mid-strength
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

2. NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

3. Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Extra Strength  Tastes bitter
 No artificial flavoring or colors  No THC-free option
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Extra Strength
 No artificial flavoring or colors
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 Tastes bitter
 No THC-free option
Overview

The largest bottle of CBD oil that Spruce offers contains 2,400mg of CBD. This is full-spectrum CBD oil, which is the maximum possible potency. Each high potency dropper full contains 80mg of CBD. There are no flavorings in it, which allows for the most CBD to fit in the 30ml bottle.

4. Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Light Spearmint flavor  No other flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Pros
 Light Spearmint flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Cons
 No other flavor
Overview

Avida Extracts Full Spectrum CBD oil is the latest iteration of the brand’s advanced Avida CORE Spectrum technology. They use a proprietary full spectrum blend, resulting in the highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3) to support your health.

5. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
cbdc overall score
4.7
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Various delicious flavors to choose from  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Pros
 Various delicious flavors to choose from
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Cons
 cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
Overview

cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

6. CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee  Dropper is a bit shaky
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Pros
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Cons
 Dropper is a bit shaky
Overview

CBDistillery’s Isolate CBD Oil Tinctures harness the power of pure CBD. CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures include 0.0% THC. When you use CBDistillery CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures, you can be assured you’re using the highest quality CBD on the market.

7. NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural  A bit pricey compared to competitors
 Approximately 100 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 100 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
 A bit pricey compared to competitors
Overview

This is one of several concentrations from NuLeaf Naturals. As the lowest concentration, it is the company’s best option for those new to CBD oil. The product is lab-tested and fully organic. It is full-spectrum, so it contains THC in small quantities.

8. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Vegan and Gluten free  Does not ship internationally
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Pros
 Vegan and Gluten free
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Cons
 Does not ship internationally
Overview

A 750mg bottle of cbdMD’s Broad Spectrum Oil Tincture does not contain THC. It also has a fairly wide flavor range which is perfect for those who prefer other taste. Vegan consumers are considered since cbdMD offers Vegan products. Aside from all of that, another reason why people love cbdMD is because it’s free from harmful chemicals.

9. Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
3.9
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Wide variety of flavors  Incomplete information about the product
 Lab test results are complete  Does not ship to all international countries
 30-day money-back guarantee
Pros
 Wide variety of flavors
 Lab test results are complete
 30-day money-back guarantee
Cons
 Incomplete information about the product
 Does not ship to all international countries
Overview

Hemp Bombs offer CBD Oil Tinctures that come in a 30ml bottle containing 750mg of CBD. They provide a wide range of flavors perfect for those that have a knack for sweets. Consumers can safely intake this because it’s free of chemicals and pesticides. Hemp Bombs also offer a 20% off on products upon subscription.

How CBD May Help With Gout

Gout is a painful type of arthritis(1). The condition occurs when urate crystals accumulate in the joints, causing inflammation and pain that may lead to a gout attack(2). Urate crystals can form when individuals have high uric acid levels in their blood.  

Uric acid, found in blood, is created when the body breaks down purines(3)

Purines are substances found in the body’s cells and some foods, including organ meats, like liver and red meat(4)

Cannabidiol, commonly known as CBD, is a cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant(5). CBD has anti-inflammatory properties(6). The non-psychoactive compound also has pain-relieving effects(7)

Since gout is associated with pain and inflammation, CBD’s purported health benefits may help with such a condition. 

A study mentioned that the body’s endocannabinoid system or ECS plays a crucial role in regulating tissue inflammation and pain(8)

The ECS comprises cannabinoid receptors, namely CB1 and CB2 receptors, endocannabinoids, and enzymes(9)

Plant-based cannabinoids, such as CBD and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), may mimic the actions of the body’s endocannabinoids, allowing them to interact with both CB1 and CB2 receptors(10)

CB1 receptors play a significant role in pain sensation. Meanwhile, CB2 receptors stimulate a response that fights inflammation(11)

THC, the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis (sometimes called marijuana), may act as a partial agonist at CB1 and CB2 receptors(12-13)

It is believed that THC’s high affinity with the CB1 receptors may mediate its psychoactive properties(14). Unlike THC, CBD has little binding affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors

Despite CBD’s negligible affinity to CB1 and CB2 receptors, recent research suggested that CBD may be an allosteric modulator and an indirect antagonist of cannabinoid receptors(15)

Allosteric modulators refer to a group of substances that bind a receptor to alter that receptor’s response to a stimulus. 

CBD may also potentiate the effect of THC(16). In addition, cannabidiol may regulate pain perception by affecting the activity of numerous targets, including G protein-coupled receptors or GPCRs(17).

GPCRs are the largest membrane receptors in eukaryotes. Meanwhile,  eukaryotes refer to any cell that has a clearly defined nucleus. 

CBD may be a relatively non-toxic option for managing chronic pain(18)

Still, research on CBD as a potential treatment for gout and other medical conditions is in its infancy, and thus, inconclusive. 

Benefits of Using CBD for Gout

Physicians place gout under the umbrella term “arthritis,” a wide range of joint pain and joint diseases(19).

A research article published in the European Journal of Pain suggested that topical CBD application may have therapeutic potential to relieve arthritis pain-related inflammation and behaviors without harmful side effects(20)

High blood pressure or HBP is a risk factor for developing gout(21)

A randomized crossover study from the JCI Insight journal hypothesized that a single dose of CBD may reduce blood pressure in healthy volunteers(22).  

CBD has also shown promise in murine model studies by attenuating pro-inflammatory immune responses(23)

In addition, recent research has demonstrated CBD’s efficacy in decreasing pain response in mice subjected to acute arthritic conditions(24)

Still, there is a lack of high-quality research examining the use of CBD in human musculoskeletal diseases apart from anecdotal accounts.

According to an article from the Arthritis Foundation website, some individuals with arthritis who have tried CBD reported noticeable pain relief, anxiety reduction, and sleep improvement(25)

There has been a high prevalence of CBD use among elite rugby players. According to the players who use CBD, the compound helps enhance their recovery, alleviate pain, and promote sleep(26).

An article from Cleveland Clinic states that people with arthritis may experience mental distress leading to anxiety(27)

A 2019 study from the Permanente Journal indicated that CBD may have benefits for anxiety-related disorders(28)

The potential therapeutic benefits of CBD may be promising. However, more longitudinal research is warranted to determine whether CBD is an effective treatment for severe pain and certain medical conditions like gout. 

How to Take CBD for Gout

There is no universally accepted method of taking CBD for gout and other forms of arthritis since CBD products are still unregulated. 

CBD products are available in vapes, tinctures, edibles like gummies and capsules, and topicals like lotions and creams. 

CBD topicals are applied to the skin for localized relief. In addition, it has been shown that CBD may decrease muscle tightness and inflammation when applied topically(29)

Gout is associated with pain and inflammation(30). Hence, using CBD topically may help with gout. 

CBD Oil Dosage for Gout

A study using a rat model of arthritis showed that the topical application of CBD may have potential therapeutic relief of arthritis pain-related behaviors and inflammation without detrimental side effects(31).

The study specifically examined the efficacy of transdermal CBD for inflammation and pain reduction. The rats received CBD gels (0.6, 3.1, 6.2. Or 62.3mg per day) for four consecutive days following arthritis induction.  

The transdermal method is a route of administration in which active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systematic distribution. 

The results showed that 6.2 and 62mg of CBD per day may be effective doses to relieve arthritis pain-related behaviors and inflammation(32)

However, a human study is warranted to determine CBD’s efficacy on human subjects.  

How Long Does CBD Take to Help With Gout?

How long CBD takes effect to help with gout depends on the method of administration used and several other factors, like the potency of the CBD product chosen.

You may feel CBD’s effect within 15 to 30 minutes when you apply CBD topically(33)

Some topical CBD products contain THC, which may be effective for pain relief(34). Still, cannabinoids like THC and CBD, when applied to the skin, do not enter the bloodstream. Thus, they should not cause impairment(35)

How Long Will CBD Help With Gout?

Bioavailability is the extent to which a particular substance becomes entirely available to its intended biological destinations(36)

CBD, when applied topically, does not become available to the body as a whole, so its bioavailability is zero(37)

Instead, CBD and other cannabinoids like THC are picked up by numerous CB2 receptors in the skin. They are absorbed locally to provide pain relief and reduce inflammation in specific body areas(38)

How to Choose the Right CBD for Gout

Selecting the best CBD oil for gout from various CBD products in the market can be challenging. Here are some essential factors to consider to help you choose the right one:

1. Ensure that the CBD dispensaries or online stores you choose are authorized to manufacture, distribute, and sell CBD products

2. Choose a CBD brand that enlists the services of a third-party laboratory to test all its products.

Check the certificates of analysis (COAs) and lab reports to ensure that no heavy metals, pesticides, or harmful substances are present

3. Find a CBD company that uses all-natural, non-GMO hemp. Trusted CBD brands produce hemp plants or buy from companies that practice sustainable farming. 

4. Learn more about the different CBD extracts and extraction methods used.

Full-spectrum CBD oil product contains all compounds of the cannabis plant, including cannabidiol and other cannabinoids, essential oils, terpenes, and flavonoids(39)

Full-spectrum CBD products have less than 0.3% THC concentration(40)

Terpenes are natural oils that give cannabis and various other herbs, fruits, and plants color, flavor, and aroma(41)

Terpenes or terpenoids have many pharmacological and biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties(42).

Meanwhile, flavonoids are active compounds found in cannabis that contribute to the plant’s pigmentation, aroma, and flavor(43). Flavonoids have synergistic relationships with other active compounds like terpenes

Broad-spectrum CBD is similar to the full-spectrum variant. The sole difference is that broad-spectrum CBD is nearly THC-free(44). On the other hand, CBD isolates are made of pure CBD. 

As for cannabis plant extraction, some common methods include solvent, ethanol, and carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction techniques(45).  

In carbon dioxide extraction, compressed CO2 is utilized as the extraction solvent instead of flammable and toxic chemical solvents(46).  

Is CBD Safe for Gout?

More scientific data is warranted to understand better the use and safety profile of CBD products for gout. 

However, the WHO (World Health Organization) states that CBD is relatively safe for use and well tolerated in humans and animals(47)

Additionally, a review from the Current Drug Safety journal indicated that chronic use and high doses of CBD up to 1,500mg each day are well tolerated in humans(48)

However, more human and animal studies are recommended to support these reports further.  

The Possible Side Effects and Risks of Using CBD for Gout

CBD use may carry some risks and side effects. Generally, CBD may cause dry mouth, drowsiness, fatigue, diarrhea, and reduced appetite(49)

Another cause for concern is CBD’s possible interaction with other prescription medications(50)

Cytochrome P450 is a family of liver enzymes that metabolize approximately 60% of the pharmaceutical drugs people consume(51)

At high doses, CBD may inhibit the activity of these enzymes, increasing the duration of action and effect of prescription drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450(52).  

Common medications to treat gout attacks include over-the-counter NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), such as ibuprofen and naproxen sodium(53).  

NSAIDs use the cytochrome P450 enzyme system(54). Hence, CBD may interact with NSAIDs

Legality of CBD

The 2018 Farm Bill states that Cannabis sativa L. and other derivatives of cannabis with no more than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis are considered legal under federal law(55)

However, it would be better to familiarize yourself with various state laws regarding legal marijuana or medical cannabis.

Before, hemp and CBD oil were illegal in South Dakota(56). However, on October 25, 2021, the South Dakota Department of Health launched medical cannabis establishments(57)

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD help with gout?

    Gout is an excessively painful form of arthritis that causes discomfort(58). CBD is believed to have pain-relieving effects(59). Hence, using CBD oil and other CBD products may help with gout.

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps with gout?

    No research directly suggests that CBD helps with gout. However, preclinical and clinical studies hypothesized a potential anti-nociceptive effect of CBD and CBD combined with other compounds in various pain-related diseases(60).

    Anti-nociceptive relates to any factor that increases tolerance or reduces sensitivity to harmful stimuli that may cause pain. 

    Still, the analgesic effects of CBD may vary depending on the route of drug administration and the dose(61)

    For instance, one study examining the efficacy of transdermal CBD in a rat model of arthritis showed that 6.2 and 62 mg of CBD per day may be effective doses for relief of arthritis pain-related behaviors and inflammation(62)

    Transdermal systems involve a non-invasive drug administration where substances are delivered across the skin for systematic distribution.

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can make gout worse?

    There is no evidence suggesting that CBD can worsen gout. However, a few patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis reported no significant perceived benefit after using CBD(63).

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication I may be taking for gout?

    Yes. CBD may interact with NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) like ibuprofen(64).

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD to help with gout?

    Aside from NSAIDs, corticosteroids (steroids) may help with pain management and control inflammation caused by gout(65). However, CBD may interact with steroids(66)

    Therefore, ensure to talk with your healthcare provider if you consider using other treatments or supplements alongside CBD to help with gout attacks and gout flare-ups.

  • Can I fail a drug test if I use CBD for gout?

    CBD is non-psychoactive. Thus, it will not cause a euphoric high(67-68). Still, using full-spectrum CBD Oil frequently may cause THC build-up in the body(69).  

    An increased level of THC in the bloodstream may lead to a positive drug test. 

  • What is the dosage for gout?

    The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has not recognized CBD as a medical treatment for gout. 

    However, you may start with low doses. Doses between 10mg and 100mg of CBD per day may be effective for pain and inflammation(70)

    Inflammation and intense joint pain, usually felt on the big toe, are common symptoms of gout(71).  

  • Does using CBD for gout have any side effects?

    CBD is relatively safe for use(72). However, CBD may still carry minor side effects, like drowsiness(73).

  • How do I use CBD for gout?

    There are different ways to use CBD for gout. However, it has been observed that CBD may help with muscle tightness and inflammation when applied topically(74).

     Inflammation is a common gout symptom(75).


  1. Gout
    https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/4755-gout
  2. Gout
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/symptoms-causes/syc-20372897
  3. High Uric Acid Level
    https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/symptoms/17808-high-uric-acid-level
  4. Gout
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/symptoms-causes/syc-20372897
  5. Cannabis (Marijuana) and Cannabinoids: What You Need To Know
    https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/cannabis-marijuana-and-cannabinoids-what-you-need-to-know
  6. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/
  7. Research Shows Pain-Relieving Effects of CBD
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210423130221.htm
  8. Attenuation of Early Phase Inflammation by Cannabidiol Prevents Pain and Nerve Damage in Rat Osteoarthritis
    https://journals.lww.com/pain/Fulltext/2017/12000/Attenuation_of_early_phase_inflammation_by.18.aspx
  9. An Introduction to the Endogenous Cannabinoid System
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4789136/
  10. The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator
    https://www.jyi.org/2018-june/2018/6/1/the-endocannabinoid-system-our-universal-regulator
  11. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01259/full
  12. Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3570572/
  13. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01259/full
  14. Ibid.
  15. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877694/
  16. Ibid.
  17. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01259/full
  18. Cannabidiol (CBD)-What We Know and What We Don’t
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  19. Gout
    https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/4755-gout
  20. Transdermal Cannabidiol Reduces Inflammation and Pain-Related Behaviours in a Rat Model of Arthritis
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejp.818
  21. All About Gout
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/all-about-gout
  22. A Single Dose of Cannabidiol Reduces Blood Pressure in Healthy Volunteers in a Randomized Crossover Study
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5470879/
  23. Cannabidiol: A Brief Review of Its Therapeutic and Pharmacologic Efficacy in the Management of Joint Disease
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176325/
  24. Ibid.
  25. CBD for Arthritis Pain: What You Should Know
    https://www.arthritis.org/health-wellness/healthy-living/managing-pain/pain-relief-solutions/cbd-for-arthritis-pain
  26. High Prevalence of Cannabidiol Use Within Male Professional Rugby Union and League Players: A Quest for Pain Relief and Enhanced Recovery
    https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/ijsnem/30/5/article-p315.xml
  27. Why Arthritis Can Stress You Out — and Cause Anxiety
    https://health.clevelandclinic.org/arthritis-can-stress-cause-anxiety/
  28. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326553/
  29. Healing With CBD, page. 210.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  30. Gout
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/symptoms-causes/syc-20372897
  31. Transdermal Cannabidiol Reduces Inflammation and Pain-Related Behaviours in a Rat Model of Arthritis
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejp.818
  32. Ibid.
  33. Healing With CBD, page 193.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  34. Healing With CBD, page 210.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  35. Ibid.
  36. Drug Bioavailability
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557852/
  37. Healing With CBD, page 210.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  38. Ibid.
  39. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  40. Ibid.
  41. Healing With CBD, page 94.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  42. Terpenes/Terpenoids in Cannabis: Are They Important?
    https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/509733
  43. Healing With CBD, page 282.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  44. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  45. Ibid.
  46. Understanding Dabs: Contamination Concerns of Cannabis Concentrates and Cannabinoid Transfer During the Act of Dabbing
    https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jts/40/6/40_797/_pdf/-char/en
  47. Cannabidiol (CBD)
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  48. Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22129319/
  49. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  50. Healing With CBD, page 114.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  51. Ibid.
  52. Healing With CBD, page 115.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  53. Gout
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20372903
  54. Healing With CBD, pages 115-116.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  55. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD)
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  56. Attorney General Ravnsborg Clarifies Questions Regarding Industrial Hemp And Cbd (Cannabidiol) Oil
    https://atg.sd.gov/OurOffice/Media/pressreleasesdetail.aspx?id=2167
  57. Medical Cannabis in South Dakota
    https://medcannabis.sd.gov/events-all.aspx
  58. Gout
    https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/4755-gout
  59. Research Shows Pain-Relieving Effects of CBD
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210423130221.htm
  60. Cannabidiol for Pain Treatment: Focus on Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700528/
  61. Ibid.
  62. Transdermal Cannabidiol Reduces Inflammation and Pain-Related Behaviours in a Rat Model of Arthritis
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejp.818
  63. Prevalence of Cannabinoid Use in Patients With Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861619/
  64. Healing With CBD, pages 115-116.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  65. Gout
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20372903
  66. Healing With CBD, page 115.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  67. Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246936/
  68. Cannabidiol (CBD)-What We Know and What We Don’t
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  69. Can You Take CBD and Pass a Drug Test?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/can-you-take-cbd-and-pass-a-drug-test
  70. CBD: A Patient’s Guide to Medicinal Cannabis, page 129.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1MILU_6ZjYkII-XMUPHLFPiPQbrz__5Sh/view
  71. Gout
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/symptoms-causes/syc-20372897
  72. Cannabidiol (CBD)
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  73. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700#:~:text=Though%20it’s%20often%20well%2Dtolerated,dosage%20of%20CBD%20in%20products.
  74. Healing With CBD, page. 210.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9
  75. Gout
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/symptoms-causes/syc-20372897
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