Best CBD for Dog Anxiety

Are you looking for alternatives that may help you manage canine anxiety? Read this article to know more about CBD oil and how this product may help relieve your furry friend’s anxiety.

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg

4.8 out of 5
  1. Has coconut oil as carrier which is generally easier on dogs
  2. Has milder taste and no flavorings
  3. Easy to use just sprinkle on dog’s food twice daily

Best CBD OIl For Dogs

Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs

4.1 out of 5
  1. Calming,
  2. Full Spectrum
  3. Contains other natural ingredients to boost immunity

Best High Potency

Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil

5 out of 5
  1. Concentrated to approximately 50mg CBD per ml of oil
  2. Great for cats, dogs and other four-legged friends
  3. Can also be used by humans

Best High Potency

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture

5 out of 5
  1. Generous on their options
  2. Different sizes and strengths available for your needs
  3. The flavor peanut butter is available perfect for pets who are picky when it comes to eating

Best Transparency

cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs

3.6 out of 5
  1. Uses hemp grown through organic farming methods.
  2. Contains CBD Oil and MCT Oil only
  3. With two yummy flavors

Best CBD for Dog Anxiety 2022

  1. Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg Best Overall
  2. Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs Best Immunity Support for Dogs
  3. Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil Best Organic
  4. 4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture Best High Potency
  5. cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs Best Range


Compare the Best CBD for Dog Anxiety 2022

ProductPotencyPurityCustomer ServiceTypeExtractionTransparencyAbsorption
Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg
4.8 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs
4.1 out of 5
1.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
3.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs
3.6 out of 5
1.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5

Best CBD for Dog Anxiety

1. Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg
cbdc overall score

4.8

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

ProsCons

Same as human lab grade, full spectrum CBD oil

No other flavors

Easier on Dog's digestion

Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients

Overview

Spruce’s dog-friendly CBD has been specially formulated for dogs. Instead of hemp seed oil for the carrier oil, the product contains coconut oil, which is generally easier on the digestion for dogs. The taste is also milder with no flavorings, making it more likely that dogs will eat it with their food.

Using Spruce CBD for dogs is simple. All owners have to do is sprinkle the desired dose on the dog’s food at mealtime once or twice a day. Each dose should consist of about two to three drops per 20 pounds of dog weight.

2. Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs
cbdc overall score

4.1

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

ProsCons

Product offering is extensive

Most products were not tested for solvents or mycotoxins

Products are made from 100% organic, non-GMO, and locally grown hemp

Limited information on the company

30-day money-back guarantee

Available in the US only

Free shipping for orders over $49.95

Expedited delivery option is available

Overview

A calming full-spectrum hemp oil that combines naturally occurring CBD with other ingredients for healthy immunity, calm moods, and a healthy brain.

3. Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

5.0

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

ProsCons

Pure CBD hemp

No other flavors

All natural

Overview

CBD for dogs, cats and other four-legged friends! Our product is concentrated to approximately 50mg cannabinoids per milliliter of oil. While this product is designed for pets, it’s great for humans, too.

4. 4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture
cbdc overall score

5.0

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

ProsCons

Has a wide variety of CBD strengths

A bit expensive

Free shipping on $100 and up

Incomplete lab test results

Overview

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tinctures are generous on their options since there are different sizes and strengths available for you exact needs. The flavor peanut butter is available perfect for pets who are picky when it comes to eating.

5. cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs
cbdc overall score

3.6

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

ProsCons

Same CBD Oil benefits as for humans

Low terpene and cannabinoid profile

No THC Animal-specific products (dogs, cats, horses)

Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp

Overview

With nothing but MCT oil combined with CBD oil sourced from U.S. hemp that is grown using organic farming methods, these CBD Oil Tinctures for Dogs can be added to their favorite foods while still providing the same effects that you enjoy. We have two flavors to choose from: Natural and Peanut Butter.

CBD Benefits and Uses: How CBD Helps With Dog Anxiety

Cannabidiol or CBD, a compound purported to have several health benefits, comes from the hemp plant, a derivative of the Cannabis sativa plant.

When extracted from hemp, CBD oil usually has little or no tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a compound known to have psychoactive effects(1).

Dogs may have a more severe reaction to THC than humans do. In some dogs, common signs of intoxication include stumbling or crossing over their feet, dull and sluggish appearance, urinary incontinence, vomiting, and shaking(2).

CBD and other phytocannabinoids may help alleviate anxiety in dogs by interacting with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS)(3).

The ECS is located in the dog’s peripheral and central nervous systems and helps maintain the dog’s health by regulating the body’s homeostasis or balance.

An article in the Canadian Veterinary Journal published in 2016 mentioned that dogs may have more cannabinoid receptors in their brains than humans(4).

This report suggested that compared to humans, dogs may have a worse reaction to the toxic effects of the cannabis plant, particularly marijuana.

Some dog owners consider using CBD for their pets due to its antianxiety effects(5).

Other purported benefits include anti-inflammatory properties, anti-nausea effects, cardiac benefits, appetite stimulation, and potential anti-cancer benefits(6).

However, there are currently no formal scientific studies focusing on CBD’s effectiveness in managing dog anxiety.

Additional research is required to determine precisely how the use of CBD provides anxiety relief in dogs.

Anxious dogs may show symptoms like excessive barking, drooling, aggression, destructive behavior, urinating, or defecating(7).

Several causes of anxiety among dogs are enumerated in the Merck Veterinary Manual(8). Some of these causes are separation, aging, and fear(9).

Fear anxiety may be caused by loud noises like thunderstorms, the presence of strangers or unfamiliar animals, visual stimuli like umbrellas, new environments like ballparks, or specific situations like visiting the vet(10).

Separation anxiety happens when dogs are separated from their owners or family members.

Dogs with separation anxiety may be unable to comfort themselves when left alone, leading to undesirable behaviors like barking, damaging property, or defecating(11). About 14% of dogs experience separation anxiety(12).

Older dogs may also experience age-related anxiety. This anxiety may occur among pets with cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).

CDS is a disorder that affects a dog’s memory, perception, awareness, and learning. Dogs suffering from CDS may experience confusion and anxiety(13).

A visit to the veterinarian is still considered the best way to treat dog anxiety. The vet can analyze your dog’s symptoms or underlying medical conditions, like chronic pain, and help identify what type of anxiety your dog has.

Other treatment methods are counterconditioning and desensitization. Counterconditioning involves addressing the dog’s anxious or aggressive response to anxiety stimuli and changing it into more desirable behavior.

Desensitization is a method where the owner introduces anxiety stimuli to the dog in small and less intense increments. The idea is to repeat the exposure and reward desirable responses.

Initiate a conversation with your veterinarian before using CBD to help manage your dogs’ anxiety. If you are considering counterconditioning or desensitization, consult a professional dog trainer to determine the best approach for your pet.

Benefits and Uses of CBD for Dog Anxiety

A study was conducted in 2021 on how CBD affects shelter dogs with aggressive behavior(14).

Results of the study showed that CBD may help reduce the dogs’ aggressive behavior toward humans. Aggression among dogs is one of the symptoms associated with anxiety(15).

CBD Dosage for Dog Anxiety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration or FDA has not formally provided a standard dosage guide for anxiety in dogs.

A 2020 study in Frontiers in Veterinary Science stated that dogs may tolerate escalating doses(16).

The researchers stated that CBD may have a safety profile of up to 10 escalating doses of 18.3 milligrams (mg) to 640.5 mg of CBD per dose.

The researchers also mentioned that CBD products with higher CBD content are safer and well tolerated in dogs than formulations with higher THC content.

Ask your veterinarian about your dog’s condition and the possible treatment options before considering giving CBD to your pet. To minimize the risks of side effects, start with lower doses first and observe the results.

How Long Does CBD Take to Help With Dog Anxiety?

CBD oil may have varying onset times on dogs depending on factors such as dosage, administration method, and the dog’s size and weight. For example, CBD administered to large dogs may have a different onset time than when given to small dogs.

Sublingual administration (application under the dog’s tongue) using CBD oil tinctures allows CBD to directly enter the dog’s bloodstream. This method bypasses the digestive tract and may lead to faster onset times than other methods.

Oral administration using capsules or edibles allows CBD to pass through the digestive tract and be broken down in the liver. This administration method may take a longer time to take effect.

Topical application of CBD using creams or lotions may start taking effect depending on the thickness of the dog’s skin. Topicals usually work for skin problems or joint pains and are not absorbed into the bloodstream.

In a 2018 animal study, researchers stated that skin thickness or absorptivity of CBD-infused topicals may limit transdermal absorption(17).

Transdermal absorption is a method to administer a drug using a patch or topical to the skin and deliver that drug into the bloodstream.

How Long Will CBD Help With Dog Anxiety?

One research on the pharmacokinetics of CBD in healthy dogs showed that a 75mg dose of CBD-infused oil has a half-life of 199.7 ± 55.9 minutes(18).

Half-life is the duration for the drug’s quantity to be decreased to 50%.

In the same study, a micro-encapsulated capsule with a 75mg dose of CBD has a half-life of 95.4 ± 29.2 minutes.

However, the researchers could not determine the half-life of 75mg of CBD transdermal creams due to a lack of an elimination phase in concentration-time profiles.

The researchers suggested that further trials with an extended CBD administration period be conducted for at least several months.

An extended trial duration may improve the assessment of CBD concentrations and times of effectiveness.

Risks and Side Effects of Using CBD for Dog Anxiety

CBD appears to have no significant adverse effects on animals unless high doses of CBD are administered(19).

Although CBD has some known side effects on humans, there is not enough research data to date regarding its side effects on pets. However, some dogs have been observed to exhibit the following side effects after taking CBD oil(20):

  • Dry mouth – CBD may lower saliva production, causing dogs’ mouths to dry or make them more thirsty.
  • Drowsiness – CBD’s purported antianxiety properties may create a calming effect in dogs. However, higher doses of CBD may also cause them to feel drowsy.
  • Decrease in blood pressure – Ingesting a high amount of CBD may cause a temporary drop in the dog’s blood pressure, making them feel lightheaded for a brief moment.

A Guide in Choosing the Best CBD Oil for Dog Anxiety

There are several factors you should consider when looking for the highest-quality CBD oil that may work best for your pet:

  • Extraction method – CBD is extracted from the cannabis plant using carbon dioxide (CO2), ethanol, or hydrocarbon extraction.

CO2 extraction uses carbon dioxide liquified under high pressure and fluctuating temperatures. Liquified CO2 acts like a solvent that extracts hemp CBD and other compounds from the hemp plant(21).

Ethanol extraction uses ethanol in extracting CBD oil from the cannabis plant.

In hydrocarbon extraction, solvents like propane or butane are used to extract CBD. Hydrocarbons must be adequately removed from the hemp extract so that the product will not cause harm to the dog’s health.

  • Cannabinoid content – Some CBD products are marketed as isolates, broad-spectrum, or full-spectrum.

CBD isolates are made of pure CBD only, and none of the other cannabinoids and compounds present.

Broad-spectrum CBD oil contains most of the compounds in the cannabis plant except for THC.

Full-spectrum CBD oil (sometimes called full-spectrum hemp oil or full-spectrum hemp extract) has all the naturally occurring compounds and cannabinoids in cannabis.

The compounds found in a full-spectrum product include terpenes, flavonoids, and traces of THC. Terpenes produce an aromatic effect, while flavonoids are plant chemicals with antioxidant properties.

These compounds when combined create an “entourage effect” that enhances the benefits of CBD oil(22).

However, THC may cause canine intoxication, resulting in vomiting, stumbling, agitation, lethargy, or shaking(23). Consider THC-free alternatives like isolates or broad-spectrum CBD products for your pet.

  • Certificate of analysis (COA) – Reputable CBD brands selling pet CBD oil products usually have updated COAs available on their websites.

COAs are third-party lab test results that contain the CBD product’s actual cannabinoid content.

The COA may also reveal whether the product contains pesticides, heavy metals, and other contaminants through third-party testing.

Credible CBD products usually have COA results matching closely with the details on the product’s label.

  • CBD product type – Some dog owners may choose a high-quality CBD product based on their preferred administration method or product type.

CBD tinctures are taken sublingually or under the tongue. These tinctures usually come with a dropper for convenient CBD dosage control and administration to dogs.

CBD tinctures are often mixed with a carrier oil such as medium-chain triglycerides or MCT oil, hemp seed oil (which may contain fatty acids), or coconut oil to dilute the CBD concentrate.

CBD capsules are administered orally, allowing CBD to pass through the digestive tract before being absorbed by the body.

Another alternative to administer CBD capsules to your dog is to sprinkle the capsule’s contents onto the dog food.

Edibles such as CBD dog treats, soft chews, and biscuits are also orally administered. These products come in different servings, flavors, and doses.

CBD topicals are applied to the dog’s skin. Some topicals for dogs include creams, massage oils, and balms.

  • Organic CBD productsOrganic hemp extract is produced without chemical fertilizers, pesticides, or preservatives.

Some states in the USA authorized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture or USDA to supply organic hemp include farms in Colorado, Kentucky, and California.

If the dog CBD oil is not produced from organically grown hemp, consider purchasing one that does not contain pesticides, solvents, or fungicides.

Some pet owners may also consider purchasing non-GMO and gluten-free CBD pet products. Others may also prefer CBD dog treats containing natural ingredients and no chemical additives.

Some CBD companies offer shipping discounts upon subscription or a 30-day money-back guarantee if you are not satisfied with their product.

Safety of CBD Oil Use in Dogs

To date, there is insufficient scientific data on the safety of using CBD oil for dog needs.

However, caution is advised when giving high doses of CBD to pets. There is a possibility that cannabis intoxication may occur, especially with CBD products containing high concentrations of THC(24).

Cannabis intoxication may also cause other side effects like hyperactivity, pupil dilation, excessive drooling or vomiting, disorientation, urinary incontinence, and seizures(25).

Additionally, human-grade CBD products may have a different formulation than pet CBD products and thus, may not be suitable for dogs.

Any medication or supplement has some level of risk or side effects. Pet owners are recommended to initiate a conversation with a veterinarian before considering CBD products for their dogs.

Should Pet Owners Talk With Their Veterinarian Before Giving Their Dog CBD?

Before purchasing CBD products for your furry friend, consult a veterinarian regarding your dog’s health issues. The vet can perform a diagnosis and determine the best treatment option for your pet.

Most states consider it illegal for veterinarians to recommend, prescribe, or administer cannabis-based products to dogs(26). However, you may initiate a conversation with your vet if you wish to get their opinion on using CBD for your pet.

In 2021, a law was enacted in Nevada that allows veterinarians to recommend and administer CBD products containing less than 0.3% THC(27).

Will CBD Oil Make the Dog High?

CBD is an essential compound from the cannabis plant that does not produce the psychoactive effects associated with THC(28). As long as the product has zero or less than 0.3% THC, CBD is unlikely to produce the feeling of a high in dogs.

Legality of CBD

To date, the FDA has not endorsed the use of cannabis in dogs. Without enough scientific data, the agency cannot guarantee the efficacy and safety of cannabis products on animals(29).

While CBD is legal for human consumption on the federal level, there may be varying restrictions per state when CBD is used in dogs.

Before purchasing pet CBD products, review your state laws to determine if using CBD for your dog is legally permitted.

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD help with dog anxiety?

    CBD may help alleviate anxiety in dogs by interacting with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS), responsible for maintaining the dog’s health by regulating the body’s homeostasis or balance.

    Some dog owners consider using CBD for their pets due to its antianxiety effects(30). However, there are no formal studies to date that center on CBD’s effectiveness in managing dog anxiety.

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps with dog anxiety?

    To date, there are no formal scientific studies that focus on how CBD helps with dog anxiety. However, a 2021 study was conducted on the effects of CBD on shelter dogs with aggressive behavior(31).

    The researchers stated that CBD may help reduce the dogs’ aggressive behavior toward humans. Dog aggression is one of the symptoms associated with anxiety(32).

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can make dog anxiety worse?

    There are currently no formal studies specific to how CBD can worsen dog anxiety.

    However, some dogs may exhibit dry mouth, drowsiness, or decreased blood pressure after taking CBD oil(33).

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication taken for dog anxiety?

    CBD may inhibit the cytochrome P450 enzyme found within the dog’s body. This effect may reduce or interfere with the effectiveness of CBD if taken with other dog medications(34).

  • Are there other treatments to consider alongside CBD to help with dog anxiety?

    To determine what treatments may be taken together with CBD, initiate a conversation with your veterinarian or professional dog trainer about considering CBD for your dog’s condition.

    A trainer may recommend counterconditioning or desensitization training.

    Counterconditioning is changing the dog’s anxious or aggressive responses to anxiety stimuli into more desirable behavior. Desensitization is incrementally introducing anxiety stimuli to the dog to encourage desirable responses.

    Your vet can perform a diagnosis and give you the treatment options so that you can decide if buying CBD products for your pet is a good idea.

  • What is the dosage for dog anxiety?

    The FDA has not formally approved a standard dosage guide for anxiety in dogs.

    Researchers of a 2020 study mentioned that dogs may tolerate up to 10 escalating doses of 18.3mg to 640.5mg of CBD per dose(35).

  • What happens if I give my dog too much CBD?

    There is a possibility that high doses of CBD may cause cannabis intoxication, especially with products containing high THC concentrations(36).

    Cannabis intoxication may cause hyperactivity, pupil dilation, vomiting, excessive drooling, disorientation, urinary incontinence, and seizures in dogs(37).

  • Can dogs take CBD more than once a day?

    To date, there is insufficient scientific data on how many times dogs can take CBD per day and at what doses. If you consider giving your dog CBD more than once a day, initiate a talk with your veterinarian.

  • What are some benefits associated with CBD for dog anxiety?

    A 2021 study stated that CBD may help reduce dog aggression toward humans(38). Aggressive behavior among dogs is considered a symptom associated with anxiety(39).

  • Will CBD mentally affect dogs? Is CBD safe for dogs?

    There are currently no studies that focus directly on CBD’s effects on a dog’s mental state. Additionally, there is insufficient scientific data on the safety of CBD for dogs.

    Researchers in one study mentioned that CBD may help reduce aggressive behavior in shelter dogs(40). Aggression may be associated with stress among dogs that affects their mental, physiological, or emotional state.

  • How to give CBD oil to dogs?

    A standard method to give CBD oil to dogs is by using a dropper. This method allows you to administer CBD oil under the tongue or mix it with dog food.

    One advantage of this method is that you can adjust the dosage using a dropper.

    You may also apply topical CBD products to dogs, especially when they have certain skin conditions.

  • How long does CBD take effect on dog anxiety?

    Onset times for CBD oil use in dogs may vary depending on the dosage, administration method, and the dog’s size and body weight.

    For example, sublingual administration may work faster than oral ingestion because CBD taken sublingually gets absorbed directly into the bloodstream.

  • Do dogs in particular experience any side effects upon CBD administration?

    CBD does not seem to have significant adverse effects on animals unless given at high doses(41).

    Additionally, there is insufficient research data to date about the side effects of CBD on dogs.

    However, some dogs that took CBD oil were observed to manifest dry mouth, drowsiness, and lower blood pressure(42).


  1. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  2. Marijuana Poisoning in Dogs
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/marijuana-poisoning-in-dogs/
  3. The Endocannabinoid System of Animals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770351/
  4. Marijuana for pets?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5109620/
  5. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/
  6. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  7. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/
  8. Behavioral Problems of Dogs
    https://www.merckvetmanual.com/behavior/normal-social-behavior-and-behavioral-problems-of-domestic-animals/behavioral-problems-of-dogs
  9. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/
  10. Behavioral Problems of Dogs
    https://www.merckvetmanual.com/behavior/normal-social-behavior-and-behavioral-problems-of-domestic-animals/behavioral-problems-of-dogs
  11. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/
  12. Behavioral Problems of Dogs
    https://www.merckvetmanual.com/behavior/normal-social-behavior-and-behavioral-problems-of-domestic-animals/behavioral-problems-of-dogs
  13. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/
  14. Cannabis sativa L. may reduce aggressive behaviour towards humans in shelter dogs
    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82439-2
  15. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/
  16. Preliminary Investigation of the Safety of Escalating Cannabinoid Doses in Healthy Dogs
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00051
  17. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038832/
  18. Ibid.
  19. CANNABIDIOL (CBD)Pre-Review ReportAgenda Item 5.2
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.2_CBD.pdf
  20. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  21. CBD oil: An introduction
    https://www.projectcbd.org/wellness/cbd-oil-introduction
  22. The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01969
  23. Marijuana Poisoning in Dogs
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/marijuana-poisoning-in-dogs/
  24. Cannabis (Marijuana) Intoxication in Cats and Dogs
    https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/marijuana-intoxication-in-dogs-and-cats
  25. Ibid.
  26. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/
  27. Nevada veterinarians can treat patients with certain cannabis products
    https://www.avma.org/javma-news/2021-10-01/nevada-veterinarians-can-treat-patients-certain-cannabis-products
  28. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  29. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD)
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  30. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/
  31. Cannabis sativa L. may reduce aggressive behaviour towards humans in shelter dogs
    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82439-2
  32. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/
  33. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  34. FAQs about CBD Use in Pets
    https://www.aspcapro.org/resource/faqs-about-cbd-use-pets
  35. Preliminary Investigation of the Safety of Escalating Cannabinoid Doses in Healthy Dogs
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00051
  36. Cannabis (Marijuana) Intoxication in Cats and Dogs
    https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/marijuana-intoxication-in-dogs-and-cats
  37. Cannabis (Marijuana) Intoxication in Cats and Dogs
    https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/marijuana-intoxication-in-dogs-and-cats
  38. Cannabis sativa L. may reduce aggressive behaviour towards humans in shelter dogs
    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82439-2
  39. Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Dog Anxiety
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/
  40. Cannabis sativa L. may reduce aggressive behaviour towards humans in shelter dogs
    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82439-2
  41. CANNABIDIOL (CBD)Pre-Review ReportAgenda Item 5.2
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.2_CBD.pdf
  42. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/

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