Best CBD Oil for COPD

Do you want to manage your COPD symptoms? Here is a list of the best CBD products for COPD for an improved quality of life.

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

4.8 out of 5
  1. Peppermint flavor masks any unpleasant taste
  2. Contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full
  3. Bottle includes a graduated dropper for correct serving measurement

Best CBD Purity

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

5.0 out of 5
  1. Natural remedy for various illnesses
  2. Product is full-spectrum whole-plant extract
  3. Contains naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes

Best High Potency

Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

5.0 out of 5
  1. Maximum possible potency
  2. Each dropper full contains 80mg of CBD
  3. Conveniently fits in a 30mL bottle

Best Value

Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg

4.6 out of 5
  1. Proprietary full-spectrum
  2. Developed using advanced AVIDA CORE Spectrum Technology
  3. Highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3)

Best Value

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

4.7 out of 5
  1. Made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp
  2. Available in many flavours
  3. Safe for daily use

Best THC Free

CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures

4.4 out of 5
  1. Do not contain THC
  2. Available in different potencies and sizes
  3. Brand has special deals and offers

Best Customer Rated

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg

4.4 out of 5
  1. THC-free
  2. Has plenty of flavours to choose from
  3. Totally vegan

Best For Beginners

NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

4.6 out of 5
  1. Lowest concentration for CBD beginners
  2. Fully organic and lab-tested
  3. Full-spectrum

Best Flavor Range

Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil

3.9 out of 5
  1. Has a wide range of flavours
  2. Safe to intake
  3. Get 20% off when you avail of their subscription

Compare the best CBD Oil for COPD in 2022

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
4.8 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
4.6 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
3.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
4.7 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
4.4 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
4.4 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
4.6 out of 5
2.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
3.9 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
2.5 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5

Best CBD Oil for COPD

1. Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

4.8

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Mid-strength

No other flavors

Natural peppermint flavor

Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients

Overview

Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

2. NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

5.0

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Pure CBD hemp

No other flavors

All natural

Approximately 300 drops total

Overview

Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

3. Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

5.0

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Extra Strength

Tastes bitter

No artificial flavoring or colors

No THC-free option

Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients

Overview

The largest bottle of CBD oil that Spruce offers contains 2,400mg of CBD. This is full-spectrum CBD oil, which is the maximum possible potency. Each high potency dropper full contains 80mg of CBD. There are no flavorings in it, which allows for the most CBD to fit in the 30ml bottle.

4. Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
cbdc overall score

4.6

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Light Spearmint flavor

No other flavor

Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test

Overview

Avida Extracts Full Spectrum CBD oil is the latest iteration of the brand’s advanced Avida CORE Spectrum technology. They use a proprietary full spectrum blend, resulting in the highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3) to support your health.

5. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
cbdc overall score

4.7

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Various delicious flavors to choose from

cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options

Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients

Free shipping for this particular product within USA

World-class customer service team

Overview

cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

6. CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
cbdc overall score

4.4

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee

Dropper is a bit shaky

Various strengths

Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp

Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices

Overview

CBDistillery’s Isolate CBD Oil Tinctures harness the power of pure CBD. CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures include 0.0% THC. When you use CBDistillery CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures, you can be assured you’re using the highest quality CBD on the market.

7. NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

4.6

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Pure CBD hemp

No other flavors

All natural

A bit pricey compared to competitors

Approximately 100 drops total

Overview

This is one of several concentrations from NuLeaf Naturals. As the lowest concentration, it is the company’s best option for those new to CBD oil. The product is lab-tested and fully organic. It is full-spectrum, so it contains THC in small quantities.

8. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
cbdc overall score

4.4

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Vegan and Gluten free

Does not ship internationally

Has a third-party lab test

Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes

Overview

A 750mg bottle of cbdMD’s Broad Spectrum Oil Tincture does not contain THC. It also has a fairly wide flavor range which is perfect for those who prefer other taste. Vegan consumers are considered since cbdMD offers Vegan products. Aside from all of that, another reason why people love cbdMD is because it’s free from harmful chemicals.

9. Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

3.9

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Wide variety of flavors

Incomplete information about the product

Lab test results are complete

Does not ship to all international countries

30-day money-back guarantee

Overview

Hemp Bombs offer CBD Oil Tinctures that come in a 30ml bottle containing 750mg of CBD. They provide a wide range of flavors perfect for those that have a knack for sweets. Consumers can safely intake this because it’s free of chemicals and pesticides. Hemp Bombs also offer a 20% off on products upon subscription.

How CBD Helps With COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease that triggers breathing-related problems and airflow blockage. The condition includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema(1)

Chronic bronchitis is long-term inflammation of the breathing tubes. This condition is common among smokers(2). Meanwhile, emphysema is a condition wherein the alveoli or walls of the air sacs are damaged(3).    

Studies showed that cannabidiol (CBD) may help enhance lung function, decrease inflammation, and prevent airway obstruction(4-6). Therefore, CBD may help with symptoms of COPD, like shortness of breath

CBD, an active compound of cannabis and other cannabinoids, works with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) to maintain homeostasis(7)

Homeostasis is the process of living organisms maintaining stability(8)

The ECS regulates different bodily functions, including appetite, sleep, memory, and pain. The system comprises cannabinoid receptors, namely, CB1 and CB2. These receptors are found on cells all over the body(9).  

CB1 receptors play a crucial role in pain sensation. The stimulation and binding of these receptors may alleviate pain signals throughout the brain. 

Meanwhile, CB2 receptors can regulate inflammation(10)

COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease. Dust, vapors, and chemical fumes can irritate and inflame the lungs of people exposed to these substances long-term(11)

Since airway inflammation is common in respiratory illnesses like COPD, CBD may provide health benefits for such a condition by interacting with the cannabinoid receptors

The human body naturally produces an endocannabinoid called anandamide that interacts with cannabinoid receptors(12)

If there is a deficiency of endocannabinoids in the body, phytocannabinoids such as CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) mimic endocannabinoids’ action. The effect of phytocannabinoids varies. 

THC is the primary psychotropic congener in the cannabis plant. Unlike CBD, THC is psychoactive and thus produces a euphoric high(13)

An animal study published in Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology hypothesized that cannabidiol may become a valuable therapeutic tool for the possible treatment and attenuation of inflammatory lung diseases(14).  

Still, significant research on humans is necessary to determine the therapeutic effects of cannabidiol and its ability to help with respiratory diseases like COPD

Benefits of Using CBD Oil for COPD

There is no research regarding the effect of CBD on COPD. However, there are a few studies about cannabidiol’s purported therapeutic effects on other respiratory diseases like asthma.

Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation in which a person’s airway narrows. The swelling may also produce more mucus(15)

A 2019 study posted in the European Journal of Pain examined CBD’s purported anti-inflammatory effect on a model of allergic asthma(16).

The researchers induced allergic asthma in a murine model. Their experiment showed that cannabidiol treatment, regardless of dosage, may decrease airway hyperresponsiveness. 

However, only high doses of CBD may alleviate static lung elastance (the pressure required to inflate one’s lungs). 

Another animal study from Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology hypothesized that CBD may improve airways in murine models with acute lung injury(17)

The researchers analyzed the purported therapeutic effects of CBD on mice. They administered 20 and 80mg of CBD per kilogram of body weight to the murine model 6 hours after lipopolysaccharide or LPS-induced lung inflammation.

The researchers hypothesized that CBD when administered therapeutically may have potent anti-inflammatory properties. It may also improve lung function(18).   

A study from Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics suggested that CBD may have beneficial effects in treating obstructive airway disorders(19).  

Although most findings come from animal studies, the results suggest that cannabidiol may help with lung diseases like COPD and other chronic inflammatory illnesses. 

Still, more longitudinal studies are required to determine CBD’s therapeutic effects on COPD and other respiratory diseases.  

How to Take CBD Oil for COPD

There are various methods to take CBD oil for COPD. You can opt for tinctures, edibles like gummies and capsules, and vape oils. 

CBD Oil for COPD Dosage

A study from Current Drug Safety showed that doses ranging from 1mg to as high as 1,500 mg of CBD each day are well tolerated by humans(20)

As a general rule, you should begin with low amounts of cannabidiol and then gradually adjust the dose as your system becomes used to it. 

You can also consult a medical professional with expertise in cannabis use for more accurate dosing. 

How Long Does CBD Take to Help With COPD?

You may take CBD tinctures sublingually (under the tongue). Most CBD oil products include a calibrated dropper that you can use to dispense the content.

The onset of CBD tinctures taken through the sublingual route is 15 to 30 minutes, lasting 2 to 4 hours(21)

You may also try edibles, such as gummies and capsules. Generally, these CBD edibles have an onset of 30 to 90 minutes, lasting from 6 to 8 hours(22)

Another method to use is vaping. Inhaling CBD using vape pens is the quickest way to benefit from the effects of CBD(23)

The onset of vaping CBD is usually 2 to 15 minutes, and the duration lasts for 2 to 4 hours(24). However, vaping may be detrimental to the lungs(25)

You may also go for CBD-infused lotions or salves. These CBD topicals usually take effect within 15 to 30 minutes, lasting 2 to 4 hours(26)

A study from Molecules indicated that topical and transdermal delivery methods of cannabinoids have various advantages for localized symptoms, including pain and inflammation(27)

Transdermal is a drug administration method wherein active ingredients are delivered into the skin. This route can be an alternative to the oral delivery of drugs(28)

Generally, the onset of CBD gels and patches via a transdermal route is 15 to 20 minutes, with 4 hours for gels and 8 hours or more for patches(29)

How Long Will CBD Help With COPD?

COPD patients must consider a product’s bioavailability if they want to use CBD to help with their condition. 

Bioavailability is a measure of the drug’s absorption rate. This bioavailability gauges the amount of CBD you have taken as it ends up available for use in your body(30).  

The delivery method plays an essential role in the bioavailability of CBD. For instance, inhalation boasts of a fast onset of mere minutes and a peak effect in about 30 minutes(31).

When you inhale CBD, it goes directly from the permeable lungs and into your bloodstream. Thus, inhalation is one of the best delivery methods in terms of bioavailability, clocking in at upwards of 35%(32)

However, the downside to inhalation comes from the carcinogenic substances in the smoke that may cause lung irritation(33)

Another factor to consider is CBD’s half-life. 

A systematic review from the Frontiers in Pharmacology stated that CBD’s half-life is between 1.4 and 10.9 hours after an oromucosal spray, two to five days after chronic oral administration, and 24 hours after intravenous medications (administered through the veins)(34)

A half-life refers to the estimated time it takes for a substance in your body to be reduced by 50%(35).  

Choosing the Best CBD Oil for COPD

Choosing a high-quality CBD product depends on various factors, such as your personal preference, the form of cannabidiol, and the severity of your condition.

Here are the factors to consider when choosing the best CBD oil for COPD:

CBD Oil Extracts

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all extracts of the cannabis plant, including flavonoids, terpenes, essential oils, and other cannabinoids. Moreover, the THC concentration is not more than 0.3%(36)

Meanwhile, broad-spectrum CBD oil is almost the same as the full-spectrum variant. However, it is nearly THC-free. CBD isolates, on the other hand, are typically harvested from Cannabis sativa. They are a pure form of cannabidiol(37)

Research from Frontiers in Plant Science suggested that the entourage effect in full-spectrum hemp extracts may produce better health benefits than pure CBD(38)

The entourage effect occurs when there is an integration of all the cannabis compounds, their medical effects may be enhanced. 

Source of Hemp 

For hemp-derived CBD products, it is necessary to determine the source of hemp. 

Some CBD products may have pesticides, heavy metals, fertilizers, irritants, and other contaminants that may put your health at risk.

Therefore, make sure to choose a CBD brand that is transparent with its farming practices. The company must provide sufficient information about its hemp products.

If possible, you should look for organic hemp or non-GMO CBD products

Extraction Methods

There are various extraction processes used to obtain cannabis oil and hemp extract. These methods include natural solvent, ethanol, steam distillation, and carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction. 

One of the most frequently used CBD extraction methods is the CO2 extraction technique. In this process, compressed CO2 is utilized as the extraction solvent(39)

On the other hand, extraction methods using hexane or butane may leave harmful residues(40).  

CBD and THC Content 

Before buying any CBD product, you must first know the amount of CBD and THC it contains. The dose of most CBD products is expressed in milligrams (mg). 

Make sure to look for the certificate of analysis (CoA) to check the accuracy of CBD potency and concentration. 

Carrier Oils  

After extracting cannabidiol from the hemp plant, the non-psychoactive compound is infused into a carrier oil to enhance a product’s bioavailability.

The most frequently used carrier oils are hempseed and coconut oil. Although most people use hemp oil and hempseed oil interchangeably, they have significant variations. 

Hempseed oil does not contain cannabinoids. Still, it is rich in fatty acids and nutrients(41).

Third-Party Lab Testing 

Another essential factor to consider when choosing the best CBD product is whether a company enlists the services of a third-party lab

The CBD brand you choose must provide lab reports or CoAs of their products on their official website. You can compare the values indicated on the lab results with the company’s claims about their products and the benefits of CBD

The CBD Brand’s Reputation

  There is an extensive range of CBD products available on the market, especially online. Thus, verifying whether a particular CBD brand is authorized to manufacture and sell CBD items is crucial.

Research the CBD company to know if it is a reputable brand. Visit its official website, social media platforms, and read customer reviews to get more insights into the brand and its products

Risks and Side Effects of Using CBD for COPD

The World Health Organization (WHO) stated that CBD is relatively safe. The compound is also well tolerated by humans(42)

Still, there are minor side effects associated with CBD, such as(43)

  • Diarrhea
  • Dry mouth
  • Reduced appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Drowsiness 

If you consider using CBD oil for COPD, remember that CBD may also interact with other medicines you are taking, such as blood thinners (drugs used to prevent blood clots)(44)

Check if your physician prescribed blood thinners for your condition. 

Remember that COPD may cause high blood pressure, known as pulmonary hypertension, and increase your risk of heart failure and blood clots(45)

If you are a smoker diagnosed with COPD, you are also at risk of developing lung cancer(46)

Thus, you must consult your medical provider first before using CBD products for COPD

Speaking with your physician is necessary, especially if you want to benefit from CBD by smoking it. Note that vaping may irritate your lungs(47).      

Legality of CBD

The 2018 Farm Bill permitted the commercial use of industrial hemp products on a federal level(48).

The bill indicated that Cannabis sativa L. and other derivatives of cannabis with less than 0.3% THC are considered federally legal in the United States. 

Despite these developments, you must still familiarize yourself with various state laws regarding the use of CBD, especially when traveling.

In Colorado, the local government legalized the adult use of marijuana in November 2012(49)

Still, even if you use medical marijuana, Coloradan officers can arrest you for impaired driving. By law, if you drive with five nanograms of THC per milliliter of whole blood, you can face legal charges for driving under the influence (DUI)(50).  

You must keep your cannabis products like CBD oil within Colorado. In addition, you cannot bring them to areas such as the Denver International Airport. 

Symptoms of COPD and Other Treatment Options 

About 16 million Americans have been affected by COPD(51). Symptoms include(52)

  • Shortness of breath
  • Trouble taking a deep breath
  • Excess phlegm 
  • Frequent coughing or wheezing 

If you are diagnosed with such an illness, you may want to take a few COPD treatment options aside from CBD to improve your quality of life

Your medical provider may consider the following treatment options(53)

  • Medicine for cough  
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation to improve pulmonary function 
  • Supplemental oxygen
  • Prevention and treatment of lung infections 

A 2018 study from the Journal of Thoracic Disease stated that chronic tobacco smoke exposure victimized the respiratory and immune system functions(54).  

Hence if you are a smoker, you must quit smoking, especially if you are diagnosed with COPD(55). This step is probably the fastest and most important to take if you want to get rid of the illness. 

 In addition, if you are considering CBD to help with your symptoms, you may want to avoid vaping and choose other administration methods instead. Vaping may damage your lungs(56).

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How Can CBD Help With COPD?

    Studies showed that chronic inflammatory and immune responses play a significant role in COPD progression(57)

    CBD has anti-inflammatory properties(58).The substance may also be used for pain relief(59)

    Therefore, CBD’s purported health benefits may help with COPD.

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps with COPD?

    Although there is no direct evidence linking CBD’s therapeutic benefits with COPD, increasing evidence has shown that CBD may help enhance lung function, decrease inflammation, and prevent airway obstruction(60-62).

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can make COPD worse?

    No studies have shown that cannabidiol may worsen COPD. However, you may want to avoid vaping CBD and choose another method of administration instead. Remember, vaping may irritate your lungs(63).

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication I may be taking for COPD?

    Although CBD is well tolerated, the compound may still interact with other medications you are taking, such as blood thinners(64).

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD to help with COPD?

    Medicines for coughs and supplemental oxygen are other treatment options you can try(65). However, if you consider using these treatments alongside CBD, make sure to talk with your physician first.

    A study indicated that nutritional supplementation in patients with COPD should aim to lower respiratory quotients, reduce CO2 production, and improve lung function. Evidence suggested taking high-fat supplements(66).

  • Can I fail a drug test if I use CBD for COPD?

    No. CBD is a non-psychoactive compound(67). Therefore, it does not create a euphoric high(68).

  • What is the dosage for COPD?

    The Food and Drug Administration or FDA has not recognized CBD as a medical treatment(69). Therefore, there is no standard dosage for cannabidiol.

    The only CBD product that the FDA approved is Epidiolex, an oral solution for the seizures associated with epilepsy(70).

    The rule of thumb is to try a low dosage then gradually increase the amount as your body becomes accustomed to CBD.

  • How do I use CBD oil for COPD?

    There are different ways to use CBD oil for COPD. You can opt for tinctures, edibles like gummies and capsules, and vape oils. 

    However, make sure to speak with a physician experienced in cannabis use before trying any of the CBD forms mentioned for COPD.

 


  1. COPD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
    https://www.cdc.gov/copd/features/copd-symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.html
  2. Chronic Bronchitis
    https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/chronic-bronchitis
  3. What Is Emphysema?
    https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9370-emphysema
  4. Cannabidiol Reduces Airway Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Allergic Asthma
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30481497/
  5. Cannabidiol Improves Lung Function and Inflammation in Mice Submitted to LPS-induced Acute Lung Injury
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25356537/
  6. The Effects of Cannabidiol on the Antigen-induced Contraction of Airways Smooth Muscle in the Guinea-Pig
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23428645/
  7. The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator
    https://www.jyi.org/2018-june/2018/6/1/the-endocannabinoid-system-our-universal-regulator
  8. Homeostasis: The Underappreciated and Far Too Often Ignored Central Organizing Principle of Physiology
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2020.00200/full
  9. The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator
    https://www.jyi.org/2018-june/2018/6/1/the-endocannabinoid-system-our-universal-regulator
  10. The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5075023/
  11. COPD
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/copd/symptoms-causes/syc-20353679
  12. The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator
    https://www.jyi.org/2018-june/2018/6/1/the-endocannabinoid-system-our-universal-regulator
  13. Immune Responses Regulated by Cannabidiol
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7173676/
  14. Cannabidiol Improves Lung Function and Inflammation in Mice Submitted to LPS-induced Acute Lung Injury
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25356537/
  15. Asthma
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/asthma/symptoms-causes/syc-20369653
  16. Cannabidiol Improves Lung Function and Inflammation in Mice Submitted to LPS-induced Acute Lung Injury
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25356537/
  17. Cannabidiol Improves Lung Function and Inflammation in Mice Submitted to LPS-induced Acute Lung Injury
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25356537/
  18. Ibid.
  19. The Effects of Cannabidiol on the Antigen-induced Contraction of Airways Smooth Muscle in the Guinea-pig
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23428645/
  20. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22129319/
  21. Healing With CBD, page. 192.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  22. Ibid, page 191.
  23. How to Safely Use CBD: Should You Inhale, Spray, Apply, or Eat It?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/how-to-use-cbd-inhale-spray-apply-eat/
  24. Healing With CBD, page. 190.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  25. Is It Safe to Vape CBD?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/is-it-safe-to-vape-cbd/
  26. Healing With CBD, page. 193.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  27. Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222489/
  28. Transdermal drug delivery
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2700785/
  29. Healing With CBD, page. 194.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  30. Healing With CBD, page 195.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  31. Ibid, page 197.
  32. Ibid, page 197.
  33. Ibid, page 197.
  34. A Systematic Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Humans
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6275223/
  35. Half-Life
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554498/
  36. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  37. Ibid.
  38. The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334252/
  39. Understanding Dabs: Contamination Concerns of Cannabis Concentrates and Cannabinoid Transfer During the Act of Dabbing
    https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jts/40/6/40_797/_pdf/-char/en
  40. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  41. Hemp Seed Oil Properties
    https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/hemp-seed-oil-properties.html
  42. Cannabidiol (CBD)
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.2_CBD.pdf
  43. What Are the Benefits of CBD – And Is It Safe to Use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700#:~:text=Though%20it’s%20often%20well%2Dtolerated,taking%2C%20such%20as%20blood%20thinners.
  44. Ibid.
  45. COPD and other health problems
    https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000701.htm
  46. Ibid.
  47. Is It Safe to Vape CBD?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/is-it-safe-to-vape-cbd/
  48. Hemp Production and the 2018 Farm Bill
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/congressional-testimony/hemp-production-and-2018-farm-bill-07252019
  49. Legal Marijuana Use in Colorado
    https://cannabis.colorado.gov/legal-marijuana-use-in-colorado
  50. Driving and Traveling
    https://cannabis.colorado.gov/legal-marijuana-use/driving-and-traveling
  51. COPD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
    https://www.cdc.gov/copd/features/copd-symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.html
  52. Ibid.
  53. Ibid.
  54. The immune system as a victim and aggressor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6036030/
  55. COPD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
    https://www.cdc.gov/copd/features/copd-symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.html
  56. What Does Vaping Do to Your Lungs?
    https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/what-does-vaping-do-to-your-lungs
  57. Inflammation and immune response in COPD: where do we stand?
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23956502/
  58. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/
  59. Research Shows Pain-relieving Effects of CBD
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210423130221.htm
  60. Cannabidiol Reduces Airway Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Allergic Asthma
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30481497/
  61. Cannabidiol Improves Lung Function and Inflammation in Mice Submitted to LPS-induced Acute Lung Injury
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25356537/
  62. The Effects of Cannabidiol on the Antigen-induced Contraction of Airways Smooth Muscle in the Guinea-pig
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23428645/
  63. Is It Safe to Vape CBD?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/is-it-safe-to-vape-cbd/
  64. What are the Benefits of CBD — and Is It Safe to Use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  65. COPD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
    https://www.cdc.gov/copd/features/copd-symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.html
  66. Nutritional Supplementation in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26822811/
  67. Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246936/
  68. Cannabidiol (CBD)-what we know and what we don’t
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  69. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD)
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  70. FDA Approves First Drug Comprised of an Active Ingredient Derived from Marijuana to Treat Rare, Severe Forms of Epilepsy
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-drug-comprised-active-ingredient-derived-marijuana-treat-rare-severe-forms

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