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Best CBD for Surgery

Are you curious about the potential health benefits of CBD for surgery? Read on to know more vital information that may help you decide on the best CBD oil for you.

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


4.8 out of 5
  1. Peppermint flavor masks any unpleasant taste
  2. Contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full
  3. Bottle includes a graduated dropper for correct serving measurement

Best CBD Purity

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Natural remedy for various illnesses
  2. Product is full-spectrum whole-plant extract
  3. Contains naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes

Best High Potency

Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Maximum possible potency
  2. Each dropper full contains 80mg of CBD
  3. Conveniently fits in a 30mL bottle

Best Value

Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg


4.6 out of 5
  1. Proprietary full-spectrum
  2. Developed using advanced AVIDA CORE Spectrum Technology
  3. Highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3)

Best Value

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg


4.7 out of 5
  1. Made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp
  2. Available in many flavours
  3. Safe for daily use

Best THC Free

CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures


4.4 out of 5
  1. Do not contain THC
  2. Available in different potencies and sizes
  3. Brand has special deals and offers

Best Customer Rated

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg


4.4 out of 5
  1. THC-free
  2. Has plenty of flavours to choose from
  3. Totally vegan

Best For Beginners

NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


4.6 out of 5
  1. Lowest concentration for CBD beginners
  2. Fully organic and lab-tested
  3. Full-spectrum

Best Flavor Range

Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil


3.9 out of 5
  1. Has a wide range of flavours
  2. Safe to intake
  3. Get 20% off when you avail of their subscription

Compare the Best CBD for Surgery in 2022

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
4.8 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
4.6 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

3.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
4.7 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
4.4 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
4.4 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
4.6 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
3.9 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

Best CBD for Surgery

1. Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.8
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Mid-strength  No other flavors
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Mid-strength
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

2. NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

3. Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Extra Strength  Tastes bitter
 No artificial flavoring or colors  No THC-free option
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Extra Strength
 No artificial flavoring or colors
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 Tastes bitter
 No THC-free option
Overview

The largest bottle of CBD oil that Spruce offers contains 2,400mg of CBD. This is full-spectrum CBD oil, which is the maximum possible potency. Each high potency dropper full contains 80mg of CBD. There are no flavorings in it, which allows for the most CBD to fit in the 30ml bottle.

4. Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Light Spearmint flavor  No other flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Pros
 Light Spearmint flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Cons
 No other flavor
Overview

Avida Extracts Full Spectrum CBD oil is the latest iteration of the brand’s advanced Avida CORE Spectrum technology. They use a proprietary full spectrum blend, resulting in the highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3) to support your health.

5. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
cbdc overall score
4.7
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Various delicious flavors to choose from  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Pros
 Various delicious flavors to choose from
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Cons
 cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
Overview

cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

6. CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee  Dropper is a bit shaky
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Pros
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Cons
 Dropper is a bit shaky
Overview

CBDistillery’s Isolate CBD Oil Tinctures harness the power of pure CBD. CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures include 0.0% THC. When you use CBDistillery CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures, you can be assured you’re using the highest quality CBD on the market.

7. NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural  A bit pricey compared to competitors
 Approximately 100 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 100 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
 A bit pricey compared to competitors
Overview

This is one of several concentrations from NuLeaf Naturals. As the lowest concentration, it is the company’s best option for those new to CBD oil. The product is lab-tested and fully organic. It is full-spectrum, so it contains THC in small quantities.

8. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Vegan and Gluten free  Does not ship internationally
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Pros
 Vegan and Gluten free
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Cons
 Does not ship internationally
Overview

A 750mg bottle of cbdMD’s Broad Spectrum Oil Tincture does not contain THC. It also has a fairly wide flavor range which is perfect for those who prefer other taste. Vegan consumers are considered since cbdMD offers Vegan products. Aside from all of that, another reason why people love cbdMD is because it’s free from harmful chemicals.

9. Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
3.9
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Wide variety of flavors  Incomplete information about the product
 Lab test results are complete  Does not ship to all international countries
 30-day money-back guarantee
Pros
 Wide variety of flavors
 Lab test results are complete
 30-day money-back guarantee
Cons
 Incomplete information about the product
 Does not ship to all international countries
Overview

Hemp Bombs offer CBD Oil Tinctures that come in a 30ml bottle containing 750mg of CBD. They provide a wide range of flavors perfect for those that have a knack for sweets. Consumers can safely intake this because it’s free of chemicals and pesticides. Hemp Bombs also offer a 20% off on products upon subscription.

How CBD May Help With Surgery 

According to a study, patients who had surgical procedures reported persistent pain and inflammation one year after, also known as chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP)(1).

Prescription medication such as opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and other painkillers(2) is prescribed to offer pain relief

Research has indicated that CBD may also have pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties to reduce post-surgery chronic pain(3).

CBD is one of the main extracts of the marijuana plant that interacts with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) of the body(4).

The ECS consists of various cannabinoid receptors, such as CB1 and CB2 receptors located in the immune system and nervous system

CB1 receptors regulate pain response, whereas CB2 influences the body’s anti-inflammatory response(5).

When CBD interacts with these receptors, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects are produced(6).

Individuals may also consider taking CBD to manage pre-surgical anxiety due to cannabidiol possessing anti-anxiety properties(7)

However, research indicated that CBD may increase the anesthesia needed to administer the surgical procedure(8).

Thus, avoiding CBD before any major surgical operation is advised.

Benefits of Using CBD for Surgery 

A 2018 study showed that kidney transplant patients took 50 to 150 milligrams (mg) of CBD twice a day for pain management(9)

The results indicated that CBD may reduce pain from a kidney transplant. 

A recent study suggested CBD as a potential analgesic for orthopedic surgery. The compound caused minor side effects and was tolerated well by the body(10).

Despite CBD’s purported therapeutic benefits, further research is necessary to determine the efficacy and long-term safety of CBD. 

Inform your physician and seek medical advice before using CBD oil pre-surgery. 

How Long Does CBD Take to Help Surgery? 

 The CBD dosage, form, and administration method may determine how long it takes for CBD products to affect the body. 

CBD tinctures may take effect within 15 to 30 minutes(11). Meanwhile, CBD edibles, gummies, and pills may take effect within 30 to 90 minutes(12).

CBD inhalation using vape pens is the fastest way to feel CBD’s effects. This method may take 2 to 15 minutes before the compound takes effect(13).

However, vaping is linked to severe lung disease(14), so caution is advised. 

CBD topicals such as creams and balms may also be taken post-surgery. They may take effect within 10 to 15 minutes(15).

How Long Will CBD Help With Surgery?

No recent studies have determined how long the effects of CBD in the system can last to help with surgical procedures. The duration usually depends on how often and how long you use CBD.  

CBD may remain in the system depending on the administration method, dosage, and frequency of use(16).

How to Take CBD for Surgery Recovery

You may take CBD in various forms for surgery. No specific evidence has indicated each form’s efficacy. 

CBD’s effectiveness may vary based on an individual’s weight, metabolism, and diet. 

What Kinds of CBD Products May Help With Surgery Recovery?

CBD oil tinctures may be applied under the tongue using a dropper. Wait for one to two minutes before swallowing(17)

Edibles like CBD gummies and supplements pass through the gastrointestinal tract before the compound enters the bloodstream.

Inhaling cannabidiol with vape pens is the quickest CBD enters the bloodstream(18). 

However, vaping may cause lung damage, so caution is recommended(19).

CBD topicals, like lotions and CBD creams, may be used for localized pain relief(20)

How to Choose the Right CBD for Surgery Recovery

You may choose high-quality CBD for surgery recovery based on these factors:

CBD Extracts 

Full-spectrum CBD oil has all extracts of the cannabis plant, such as cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes(21).

Flavonoids provide antioxidative properties to plant compounds, while terpenes provide a characteristic fragrance to plants. 

Full-spectrum also contains 0.3% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration, which causes psychoactive effects

Broad-spectrum CBD oil is similar to full-spectrum products. However, broad-spectrum is THC-free. 

Meanwhile, CBD isolates are a pure form of CBD(22).

Hemp Source

CBD brands that produce potent CBD and cannabis products may get hemp extracts from organic, non-GMO hemp plants.

Most brands outsource their hemp plants from states with leading CBD industries, like Colorado and California. 

 Located in Colorado, CBDistillery is one such brand. 

Third-Party Lab Testing  

CBD products should undergo a thorough evaluation through third-party lab testing. 

Companies should show matching certificates of analysis (COA) and third-party test results to verify if the product is made from safe and high-quality products

CBD Dosage for Surgery Recovery

According to a review on the safety and side effects of CBD, a dose of up to 1,500mg cannabidiol per day is well tolerated in humans(23).

However, it is still best to speak to your doctor for an appropriate CBD dosage. 

Risks and Side Effects of Using CBD for Surgery 

Even though CBD is safe and well tolerated by the body(24), it may still pose some minor side effects such as(25):

  • Dry mouth
  • Diarrhea
  • Drowsiness
  • Fatigue 

CBD may also alter the effects of medication taken post-surgery, like blood thinners(26), which prevent blood clots from forming after an operation(27)

Before undergoing any medical procedure, talk to your healthcare provider regarding the use of CBD

Legality of CBD

Epidolex is the only verified CBD product by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This drug treats tubular sclerosis and seizures caused by two rare forms of childhood epilepsy(28).

The use of medical marijuana is federally legal in the United States(29), as long as the CBD product contains less than 0.3% THC.

Verify state laws and check product labels when traveling and before purchasing CBD products

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD help with surgery?

    Individuals who underwent surgical procedures may experience chronic pain from the operation(30)

    Research suggested that CBD may have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties to reduce surgical pain(31)

    However, using CBD to reduce pre-surgical anxiety(32) may increase the needed dose for anesthesia for surgical procedures(33)

    It is best to inform your anesthesiologist and doctor before using CBD for surgery.

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps with surgery?

    Recent studies have discussed that CBD and CBD oil may be a possible analgesic for pain from kidney transplants and orthopedic surgeries(3435).

    The compound was well tolerated by the body and induced minor side effects.

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can make surgery worse?

    There is no current research that suggests CBD’s potential role in making surgical procedures worse. 

    However, a study indicated that CBD reduced the effectiveness of isoflurane anesthesia(36).

    Isoflurane anesthesia is utilized for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia(37).

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication I may be taking for surgery?

    CBD may interact with opioids or over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications like ibuprofen prescribed post-surgery(38). 

    This interaction may cause increased sleepiness, fatigue, and accidental falls(39).

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD to help with surgery?

    Individuals may take acetaminophen-containing pain and blood pressure medication preoperatively(40).

    Post-surgical pain is usually treated with pain-relief medications like opioids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)(41).

  • Can I fail a drug test if I use CBD for surgery?

    CBD is a non-psychoactive compound that does not cause a euphoric high(4243)

    However, CBD products may contain trace amounts of THC, which, over time, may build up in the system and produce a positive drug test.

  • What is the CBD dosage for surgery recovery?

    The appropriate CBD dosage may depend on factors such as stress levels, diet, exercise, health conditions, and genetics(44).

    However, it is suggested that taking lower dosages of CBD at first is best, especially for individuals taking CBD for the first time(45).

  • What are the potential side effects of CBD for surgery?

    No current evidence suggests any potential side effects of CBD for surgery. 

    CBD, in general, is safe, well-tolerated by the body(46), and does not cause addiction(47).

    However, CBD may produce side effects like drowsiness, lightheadedness, nausea, dry mouth, and diarrhea(48).

    CBD products should be taken after the advice of a doctor.

  • Is CBD safe for surgery?

    Generally, CBD is safe and well tolerated by the body(49)

    However, it may reduce anesthesia’s efficacy(50). Hence, advice from a medical professional is recommended before taking CBD for surgery.


  1. Chronic Post Surgical Pain
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590073/
  2. Pain Control After Surgery
    https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/11307-pain-control-after-surgery
  3. A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204604/
  4. The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator
    https://www.jyi.org/2018-june/2018/6/1/the-endocannabinoid-system-our-universal-regulator
  5. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01259/full
  6. CBD oil: What is it and how does it work?
    https://www.eehealth.org/blog/2019/09/cbd-oil/
  7. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604171/
  8. Anesthetic Considerations for Patients Under the influence of Marijuana and/or Cannabidiol: Anesthesia Interactions and Implications
    https://dune.une.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=na_capstones
  9. Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29579828/
  10. Cannabinoids and orthopedic surgery: a systematic review of therapeutic studies
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809869/
  11. Healing with CBD. page. 192.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  12. ibid. page. 191
  13. ibid. Page. 193
  14. Can vaping damage your lungs? What we do (and don’t) know
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/can-vaping-damage-your-lungs-what-we-do-and-dont-know-2019090417734
  15. Healing with CBD. page. 210
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  16. Healing with CBD. page. 195.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  17. Healing with CBD. page. 205
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  18. How to Safely Use CBD: Should You Inhale, Spray, Apply, or Eat It?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/how-to-use-cbd-inhale-spray-apply-eat/
  19. Outbreak of Lung Injury Associated with the Use of E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Products
    https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease.html
  20. Healing with CBD. page. 210.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  21. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  22. ibid.
  23. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22129319/
  24. Cannabidiol (CBD), page 5.
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  25. What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  26. CBD and other medications: Proceed with caution
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cbd-and-other-medications-proceed-with-caution-2021011121743
  27. BLOOD THINNERS AFTER SURGERY
    https://www.gphealth.org/services/orthopaedics/recovering-from-orthopaedic-surgery/blood-thinners-after-surgery/
  28. FDA Approves New Indication for Drug Containing an Active Ingredient Derived from Cannabis to Treat Seizures in Rare Genetic Disease
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-new-indication-drug-containing-active-ingredient-derived-cannabis-treat-seizures-rare
  29. Hemp Production and the 2018 Farm Bill
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/congressional-testimony/hemp-production-and-2018-farm-bill-07252019
  30. Chronic Post Surgical Pain
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590073/
  31. A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204604/
  32. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604171/
  33. Anesthetic Considerations for Patients Under the influence of Marijuana and/or Cannabidiol: Anesthesia Interactions and Implications
    https://dune.une.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=na_capstones
  34. Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29579828/
  35. Cannabinoids and orthopedic surgery: a systematic review of therapeutic studies
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809869/
  36. The Impact of Cannabidiol on the Induction of Isoflurane Anesthesia and Recovery in Wistar Rats
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33998903/
  37. Isoflurane
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532957/
  38. Pain medications after surgery
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/pain-medications/art-20046452
  39. CBD and other medications: Proceed with caution
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cbd-and-other-medications-proceed-with-caution
  40. Preparing for Surgery
    https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/howard_county_general_hospital/services/orthopedics/spine_surgery/preparing_for_surgery.html
  41. Pain medications after surgery
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/pain-medications/art-20046452
  42. Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246936/
  43. Cannabidiol (CBD)-what we know and what we don’t
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  44. CBD dosing
    https://www.projectcbd.org/guidance/cbd-dosing
  45. ibid.
  46. Cannabidiol (CBD), page 5.
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  47. Cannabinoid (CBD) Pre-Review Report, page 14.
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.2_CBD.pdf
  48. What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  49. Cannabidiol (CBD), page 5.
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  50. The Impact of Cannabidiol on the Induction of Isoflurane Anesthesia and Recovery in Wistar Rats
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33998903/
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