In summary

What Are the Benefits of CBD on Dogs With Allergies?

  • Dog owners and veterinarians are using CBD as an alternative treatment for dog allergies due to its special relationship with the endocannabinoid system, which all mammals have(1).
  • CBD is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties that may help alleviate the swelling, pain, and discomfort that comes with dermatitis or skin allergies(2).
  • Research on various animals from mice and rats to dogs has shown promising results in CBD’s anti-inflammatory effects(3).
  • One significant study administered CBD on dogs with atopic dermatitis and yielded positive results(4).
  • Still, CBD is by no means a cure for dog allergies. Pet owners should seek the advice of veterinarians before administering CBD oil to their dogs.
The full article

Best CBD Oils for Dogs

Fur favorite

Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg

Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg Bottle

Spruce’s dog-friendly CBD has been specially formulated for dogs. Instead of hemp seed oil for the carrier oil, the product contains coconut oil, which is generally easier on the digestion for dogs. The taste is also milder with no flavorings, making it more likely that dogs will eat it with their food.

Using Spruce CBD for dogs is simple. All owners have to do is sprinkle the desired dose on the dog’s food at mealtime once or twice a day. Each dose should consist of about two to three drops per 20 pounds of dog weight.

Check Latest Price
Read our review
Best Organic

Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil

Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil Bottle

CBD for dogs, cats and other four-legged friends! Our product is concentrated to approximately 50mg cannabinoids per milliliter of oil. While this product is designed for pets, it’s great for humans, too.

Check Latest Price
Read our review
Dog Owners' Choice

cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs

Powerful CBD oil for your canine friends
cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Dog Owners' Choice
  • Clinical Scores
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
    Perfect for...All dog breeds and sizes
  • Summary

    With nothing but MCT oil combined with CBD oil sourced from U.S. hemp that is grown using organic farming methods, these CBD Oil Tinctures for Dogs can be added to their favorite foods while still providing the same effects that you enjoy. We have two flavors to choose from: Natural and Peanut Butter.

    Pro's
    Cons's
     Same CBD Oil benefits as for humans  Low terpene and cannabinoid profile
     No THC Animal-specific products (dogs, cats, horses)
     Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD) and MCT Oil (from palm kernel oil)
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Every dog is unique, so you need to experiment a bit to work out the optimum measurement. Start by giving your pet a small amount every day and watch for improvement. If need be, gradually increase.
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    150 mg - 3000 mg
    Carrier Oil MCT Oil (from palm kernel oil)
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    150 mg - 5 mg per dropper (1ml), 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml), 750 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 50 mg per dropper (1ml), 3000 mg - 100 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Not applicable
    Flavours Natural and Peanut Butter
    Price Range $19.99 - $149.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.05 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for All dog breeds and sizes
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why Dog Owners Are Turning to CBD Oil for Dogs

Various studies have shown that cannabinoids like CBD possess anti-inflammatory properties that can help alleviate allergic reactions in both animals and humans(5).

Because of this, dog owners are turning to CBD oil as an alternative treatment for their pet dogs’ allergies.

Like humans, animals like dogs experience allergies throughout their lives(6).

Others even claim that certain dog breeds, like golden retrievers and German shepherds, are more susceptible to developing skin allergies.

If not treated early or diagnosed at a later time, these allergies can give rise to severe health ailments(7).

Dog allergies can manifest in several ways, from hives and rashes to many kinds of dermatitis.

The most common types of dog allergies are atopy (early allergic reaction), flea allergy dermatitis, food allergy, and drug intolerance(8).

Various external factors can cause allergic reactions in dogs. These allergens can originate from either the environment or from animals like insects themselves. 

However, chemical compounds and particular food can also contribute to the development of skin problems in furry animals.

Common environmental allergens include dust and pollen, which are most present during springtime and may trigger seasonal allergies in dogs.

Environmental allergens can also cause skin conditions like allergic dermatitis, one of the most common types of dog allergies affecting even cats(9).

Allergic dermatitis or atopic dermatitis occurs when a pooch is exposed to environmental allergens, causing the dog’s immune system to release an inflammatory response.

On the other hand, pests, like dust mites and fleas, also frequently plague dogs. Their bites can cause acute moist dermatitis or hot spots in dogs’ skin.

These hot spots are characterized by patches of red, infected, and inflamed itchy skin. 

Hot spots are usually self-inflicted by the furry animals themselves as a response to the itchiness and irritation caused by dust mite bites and flea bites(10).

Yet another kind of common dog allergy is contact dermatitis. Contact dermatitis occurs when a dog interacts with irritating substances like chemicals, resulting in inflammatory responses that affect the dog’s skin(11).

The dog’s immune system is responsible for these inflammatory actions, as it produces a surplus of antibodies as a natural reaction to injuries and infections.

When the dogs are exposed to allergens, this very action is triggered, and chronic allergic inflammation develops(12).

Various studies found cannabidiol, or CBD, to possess anti-inflammatory effects due to its relationship with the endocannabinoid system (ECS)(13).

In particular, CBD can help inhibit the effects of allergies by reducing the antibodies that trigger the immune system’s inflammatory responses(14).

Research uncovered that the ECS is present in all mammalian life, from humans to mice and even dogs(15).

The ECS is responsible for regulating various bodily processes like sleep, memory, mood, pain, and, most importantly, immune function(16).

Researchers from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem suggest that cannabinoids (chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant) may help inhibit allergic skin diseases in humans(17).

In fact, one significant study examined the effects of cannabinoids on dogs with atopic dermatitis(18).

Initially, the researchers were investigating the distribution of CB1 and CB2 receptors in dogs’ skin.

CB1 and CB2 are cannabinoid receptors comprising the ECS. When these receptors bind with cannabinoids like CBD, therapeutic effects like anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving actions are activated.

The research subjects were five dogs with healthy skin and five dogs afflicted with atopic dermatitis.

The researchers found that cannabinoid compounds were able to protect the dogs against allergic inflammatory skin conditions.

They concluded that there was potential in targeting the ECS when treating inflammatory disorders like dog allergies.

Another study investigated the potential pain-relieving effects of CBD on dogs suffering from osteoarthritis(19).

Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage deteriorates, leading to joint inflammation. 

Like allergies, the immune system attacks the tissues around the joints, mistaking it as a harmful entity. This response results in inflammation, causing joint pain in dogs.

The study found that CBD was an effective pain reliever for dogs as the subjects became more comfortable and active.

However, there was no evidence to suggest that CBD was able to reduce joint inflammation.

Nevertheless, evidence supports CBD as an effective pain reliever for dogs. It thus has the potential to ease the pain and discomfort that usually accompany inflammatory allergies.

Another research discovered that CBD treatment reduced airway inflammation and scar tissue formation in mice with allergic asthma(20).

One major characteristic of asthma is chronic lung inflammation.

Still, research examining the effects of CBD on dogs’ allergies are limited in scope and number.

The Chief Veterinary Officer of American Kennel Club (AKC), Dr. Jerry Klein, also states that there is still a lack of scientific evidence to support CBD as a treatment for dogs(21).

Nevertheless, a growing number of pet owners and veterinarians are advocating for the use of CBD and other cannabinoid products as a treatment for animals(22).

However, multiple studies identify CBD’s inflammatory effects on both human and animal subjects like mice and rats.

Keep in mind that CBD is not a miracle cure for any skin conditions a pooch may have. Yet, administering CBD to dogs may help reduce allergy symptoms like sneezing, itchiness, hair loss, and discomfort.

How CBD Oil Works to Help Dogs

The anti-inflammatory effects of CBD can be attributed to its relationship with the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is also present in dogs.

The ECS is a signaling system that plays a vital role in the regulation of bodily processes like sleep, mood, memory, pain, and immune function(23).

The ECS is composed of cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids, and enzymes responsible for its synthesis and breakdown.

There are two primary cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2. While CB1 receptors are found most commonly in the brain and nervous system, CB2 receptors are located in the immune system.

Endocannabinoids are neurotransmitters. They function as signals, and when they bind to cannabinoid receptors like CB1 and CB2, they activate specific actions.

A study cites the relevance of CB2 in inhibiting inflammation within the body by limiting the signals that trigger an immune response(24).

Endocannabinoids are also called endogenous cannabinoids because they are found within the body.

Cannabinoids also exist in plants, the most popular examples of which include cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Both CBD and THC are phytocannabinoids (phyto, meaning from a plant) found within the Cannabis sativa plant.

Unlike THC, CBD does not have psychoactive properties that induce a euphoric “high” in a user.

CBD comes from the hemp plant, one of the varieties of the Cannabis plant. Hemp plants or Industrial hemp contain less than 0.3% of THC.

CBD works in the same manner as endocannabinoids in the body do. 

When CBD binds with cannabinoid receptors, its therapeutic effects are activated, allowing for its anti-inflammatory properties(25).

The Pros and Cons of CBD oil for Dogs

Pros

  • CBD use on both animals and humans has a good safety record with no notable adverse side effects(26).
  • Dogs are known to share similar conditions with humans as well as rats. They are often utilized as models for studying diseases afflicting the species, as mentioned earlier(27).
  • Researchers administered CBD to dog subjects orally for over 12 weeks and found CBD to be safe for healthy adult dogs(28).
  • Another study administered a month-long treatment involving high concentrations of CBD on dogs yielded no notable adverse effects(29).
  • A 2018 research examining the effects of CBD administration to 30 healthy dogs also reported a lack of adverse side effects. The researchers concluded that the dogs tolerated CBD well(30).
  • Dogs cannot naturally produce essential fatty acids like omega-6 and omega-3, which is why it is beneficial for them to consume these fatty acids(31).

Omega-6 and omega-3 are known to regulate blood pressure and inflammatory responses(32). Full-spectrum CBD products contain fatty acids like omega-6 and omega-3.

  • Terpenes, another active ingredient found in Full-spectrum CBD, was shown to decrease allergy symptoms in rat subjects(33).
  • CBD products. like tinctures, sprays, and topical balms, creams, and salves, are easy to use in dogs with allergies. These allow for targeted application on the desired area of the skin.
  • CBD products for dogs are also plentiful, with various CBD brands offering all kinds of products with distinct application methods.

Cons

  • CBD interacts negatively with other drugs taken alongside it. The same reaction may happen CBD is administered to dogs(34).
  • Dogs, humans, rats, mice, and chimpanzees only share around 76% to 82% similarity in CB2 receptors, which are crucial to CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies identified dogs as ideal models in studying medical conditions similar to humans. However, individuals must remain cautious as CBD may yield differing pharmacological results due to differences in species(35).
  • THC is considered toxic to dogs(36), although the lethal oral dose for dogs is more than 3 grams per kilogram(37). Pet owners should check if the CBD product they plan to or are using on pooches contains THC. THC, like CBD, is another cannabinoid derived from the cannabis plant.
  • The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has yet to approve CBD use on animals(38). Pet owners must first consult with a veterinarian before administering CBD to pet dogs.
  • Although studies administering CBD on dogs have shown a lack of adverse reactions, some side effects may include diarrhea(39), dry mouth, low blood pressure, and drowsiness(40).

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Dogs with Allergies

At present, no studies back CBD as an antihistamine (drugs used for allergies).

Common over the counter antihistamines for dogs include Benadryl and Claritin. In contrast, other dog owners opt for natural remedies, like coconut oil.

To add, CBD is by no means a cure for dog allergies.

However, cannabinoids like CBD and their relationship with the ECS have great potential as alternative allergy treatment strategies for both dogs and humans.

Researchers studied an endocannabinoid-like compound called Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and used dog cells for testing(41).

PEA has shown potential in inhibiting symptoms of inflammatory skin diseases in both humans and animals.

Specifically, the study used canine mast cells (cells rich in histamine and part of the immune system).

Results revealed that PEA was able to tone down skin mast cells’ activation, exhibiting potential as an alternative strategy for treating allergic inflammatory skin conditions in pet animals like dogs.

How to Choose the Best CBD Oil for Dogs

Dog owners must choose only high-quality CBD products for their pets suffering from allergies.

Consider the following when choosing the best CBD oil for the furry animals:

  • CBD products are labeled as either full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum, or CBD isolate. Full-spectrum CBD is recommended for dogs with allergies since it contains the majority of active cannabinoids and natural ingredients found in the hemp plant. As mentioned earlier, full-spectrum CBD includes terpenes, which has shown to inhibit allergic reactions in rat subjects. It also has flavonoids and hemp oil, which houses fatty acids like Omega-3 and Omega-6. All these ingredients combine to give the user its famous “entourage effect”.
  • Check the legal provisions on the use of CBD products in the state that it will be purchased from and used. Note that the 2018 Farm Bill has made industrial hemp legal, meaning that all products derived from it, from hemp seed oil to hemp CBD, should contain less than 0.3% THC. Still, the FDA strictly regulates cannabis-based products and compounds.
  • Buy CBD products from reputable brands only. Legitimate brands selling CBD oil for dogs and other pets must have exemplary ethical standards, validated manufacturing processes (cGMP), and a COA (certificate of analysis). They must also have third-party lab certificates of analysis for all batches of CBD oil they produce.
  • For maximum effectiveness and the safety of dogs’ skin health, buy organic and non-GMO CBD products.
  • Pet owners should also research if the product’s manufacturer extracted the CBD oil using CO2 technology. This method is currently the safest and cleanest way to extract all the natural ingredients from the hemp plant, so it indicates high quality.
  • Do not forget to check product reviews and customer feedback, as this should serve as the basis for both the product and the brand’s quality.
  • CBD pet brands like Honest Paws have certified and sufficient animal expertise. So, it is best to procure CBD products for dogs from authentic sellers like them.

Best CBD Oils for Dogs

Fur favorite

Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg

Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg Bottle

Spruce’s dog-friendly CBD has been specially formulated for dogs. Instead of hemp seed oil for the carrier oil, the product contains coconut oil, which is generally easier on the digestion for dogs. The taste is also milder with no flavorings, making it more likely that dogs will eat it with their food.

Using Spruce CBD for dogs is simple. All owners have to do is sprinkle the desired dose on the dog’s food at mealtime once or twice a day. Each dose should consist of about two to three drops per 20 pounds of dog weight.

Check Latest Price
Read our review
Best Organic

Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil

Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil Bottle

CBD for dogs, cats and other four-legged friends! Our product is concentrated to approximately 50mg cannabinoids per milliliter of oil. While this product is designed for pets, it’s great for humans, too.

Check Latest Price
Read our review
Dog Owners' Choice

cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs

Powerful CBD oil for your canine friends
cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Dog Owners' Choice
  • Clinical Scores
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
    Perfect for...All dog breeds and sizes
  • Summary

    With nothing but MCT oil combined with CBD oil sourced from U.S. hemp that is grown using organic farming methods, these CBD Oil Tinctures for Dogs can be added to their favorite foods while still providing the same effects that you enjoy. We have two flavors to choose from: Natural and Peanut Butter.

    Pro's
    Cons's
     Same CBD Oil benefits as for humans  Low terpene and cannabinoid profile
     No THC Animal-specific products (dogs, cats, horses)
     Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD) and MCT Oil (from palm kernel oil)
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Every dog is unique, so you need to experiment a bit to work out the optimum measurement. Start by giving your pet a small amount every day and watch for improvement. If need be, gradually increase.
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    150 mg - 3000 mg
    Carrier Oil MCT Oil (from palm kernel oil)
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    150 mg - 5 mg per dropper (1ml), 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml), 750 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 50 mg per dropper (1ml), 3000 mg - 100 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Not applicable
    Flavours Natural and Peanut Butter
    Price Range $19.99 - $149.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.05 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for All dog breeds and sizes
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

CBD Dosage for Dogs

There is yet to be a standardized CBD dosage guide or chart for dogs.

Keep in mind that the FDA has not yet approved CBD for animals, meaning that most of the available CBD dosage information is anecdotal.

However, there is a common consensus that dosage should depend on the dogs’ weight and how severe its skin problems are.

When administering CBD to dogs, the general rule is to start with a safe, initial dose, and to gradually increase when the desired effect is not yet met after a certain period.

Pet owners should always follow the manufacturer’s instructions regarding CBD dosage for pooches.

Dogs are smaller than humans and require a different dose than their owners.

It is still highly recommended to consult with a veterinarian before administering CBD as a treatment to dogs’ allergies.

How Dogs with Allergies Can Take CBD Oil

Due to CBD’s popularity in the United States, various CBD products for dogs with allergies now exist.

The most popular CBD dog products are tinctures, which may come in syringes, spray, or marked droppers.

These products are easy to administer as dog owners may apply it sublingually (under the tongue), or spray onto the hot spots or desired area of the skin.

Pet owners may mix CBD oil with the pooch’s food and water, as several flavored CBD products exist on the market.

Topical CBD products are also convenient for use on dogs with skin problems. These include hemp oil, CBD creams, balms, and salves.

Dog owners may simply administer these on the affected areas of the skin.

Most CBD brands recommend the administration of twice a day for maximum effectiveness. 

Conclusion

Cannabinoids like CBD possess anti-inflammatory properties that may help alleviate the swelling, pain, discomfort, and itchiness experienced by dogs with allergies.

As such, various pet owners and veterinarians are turning to CBD as a potential alternative treatment for dog allergies.

Although research on CBD use and its effectiveness in treating dogs’ allergies are limited, various anecdotal reports and existing studies on other animal subjects like rats and mice have given positive feedback.

Still, dog owners must first consult with a veterinarian before administering CBD to their pet animals.

CBD is not a cure for dog allergies. However, it has shown promise in alleviating the unwanted symptoms that accompany these medical conditions. It thus may give pet dogs comfort and general well-being.


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  2. Nagarkatti P, Pandey R, Rieder SA, Hegde VL, Nagarkatti M. Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Future Med Chem. 2009;1(7):1333‐1349. doi:10.4155/fmc.09.93
  3. Vuolo F, Abreu SC, Michels M, et al. Cannabidiol reduces airway inflammation and fibrosis in experimental allergic asthma. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019;843:251‐259. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.11.029
  4. Campora L, Miragliotta V, Ricci E, et al. Cannabinoid receptor type 1 and 2 expression in the skin of healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis. Am J Vet Res. 2012;73(7):988‐995. doi:10.2460/ajvr.73.7.988
  5. Nagarkatti P, Pandey R, Rieder SA, Hegde VL, Nagarkatti M. Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Future Med Chem. 2009;1(7):1333‐1349. doi:10.4155/fmc.09.93
  6. Dopierała, Marta & Andraszek, Katarzyna. (2019). THE MOST COMMON ALLERGIC DISEASES IN DOGS. Folia Pomeranae Universitatis Technologiae Stetinensis Agricultura, Alimentaria, Piscaria et Zootechnica. 348(49)1. 47-56. 10.21005/AAPZ2019.49.1.05. 
  7. Dopierała, Marta & Andraszek, Katarzyna. (2019). THE MOST COMMON ALLERGIC DISEASES IN DOGS. Folia Pomeranae Universitatis Technologiae Stetinensis Agricultura, Alimentaria, Piscaria et Zootechnica. 348(49)1. 47-56. 10.21005/AAPZ2019.49.1.05.
  8. Dopierała, Marta & Andraszek, Katarzyna. (2019). THE MOST COMMON ALLERGIC DISEASES IN DOGS. Folia Pomeranae Universitatis Technologiae Stetinensis Agricultura, Alimentaria, Piscaria et Zootechnica. 348(49)1. 47-56. 10.21005/AAPZ2019.49.1.05.
  9. Gedon, N., & Mueller, R. S. (2018). Atopic dermatitis in cats and dogs: a difficult disease for animals and owners. Clinical and translational allergy, 8, 41. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13601-018-0228-5
  10. The People’s Dispensary for Sick Animals. (2018, October). Hot spots (acute moist dermatitis) in dogs. Retrieved from: https://www.pdsa.org.uk/taking-care-of-your-pet/pet-health-hub/conditions/hot-spots-acute-moist-dermatitis-in-dogs 
  11. Olivry, Thierry & Prélaud, P. & Héripret, Dominique & Atlee, Barbara. (1990). Allergic Contact Dermatitis in the Dog: Principles and Diagnosis. The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice. 20. 1443-56. 10.1016/S0195-5616(90)50154-0. https://bowwowinsurance.com.au/pet-care/diseases-conditions/dermatitis-in-dogs-and-cats/
  12. Galli, S. J., Tsai, M., & Piliponsky, A. M. (2008). The development of allergic inflammation. Nature, 454(7203), 445–454. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07204
  13. Bruni, N., Della Pepa, C., Oliaro-Bosso, S., Pessione, E., Gastaldi, D., & Dosio, F. (2018). Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(10), 2478. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102478
  14. Nagarkatti P, Pandey R, Rieder SA, Hegde VL, Nagarkatti M. Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Future Med Chem. 2009;1(7):1333‐1349. doi:10.4155/fmc.09.93
  15. UCLA Health. Human Endocannabinoid System. Retrieved from https://www.uclahealth.org/cannabis/human-endocannabinoid-system; McPartland JM, Matias I, Di Marzo V, Glass M. Evolutionary origins of the endocannabinoid system. Gene. 2006;370:64-74.doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2005.11.004
  16. Lu, H. C., & Mackie, K. (2016). An Introduction to the Endogenous Cannabinoid System. Biological psychiatry, 79(7), 516–525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.07.028
  17. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. (2007, August 17). Cannabis May Help Alleviate Allergic Skin Disease. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 26, 2020 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070816094649.htm
  18. Campora, L., Miragliotta, V., Ricci, E., Cristino, L., Di Marzo, V., Albanese, F., Federica Della Valle, M., & Abramo, F. (2012). Cannabinoid receptor type 1 and 2 expression in the skin of healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis. American journal of veterinary research, 73(7), 988–995. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.73.7.988
  19. Gamble, L. J., Boesch, J. M., Frye, C. W., Schwark, W. S., Mann, S., Wolfe, L., Brown, H., Berthelsen, E. S., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2018). Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Frontiers in veterinary science, 5, 165. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00165
  20. Vuolo F, Abreu SC, Michels M, et al. Cannabidiol reduces airway inflammation and fibrosis in experimental allergic asthma. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019;843:251‐259. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.11.029
  21. Kriss R. (2019, Oct 27). The American Kennel Club. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/.
  22. Kogan, L. R., Hellyer, P. W., & Robinson, N. G. (2016). Consumers’ perceptions of hemp products for animals. J Am Holist Vet Med Assoc, 42, 40-8.
  23. Di Marzo V, Bifulco M, De Petrocellis L. The endocannabinoid system and its therapeutic exploitation. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004;3(9):771‐784. doi:10.1038/nrd1495
  24. Cabral, G. A., & Griffin-Thomas, L. (2009). Emerging role of the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in immune regulation: therapeutic prospects for neuroinflammation. Expert reviews in molecular medicine, 11, e3. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1462399409000957
  25. Thomas, A & Baillie, Gemma & Phillips, A.M. & Razdan, R.K. & Ross, R.A. & Pertwee, Roger. (2007). Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist. British journal of pharmacology. 150. 613-23. 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707133.
  26. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. 2011;6(4):237‐249. doi:10.2174/157488611798280924
  27. Potschka H. Animal models of drug-resistant epilepsy. Epileptic disorders: international epilepsy journal with videotape. 2012;14(3):226–34. Epub 2012/09/06. Pmid:22947487
  28. Deabold, K. A., Schwark, W. S., Wolf, L., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2019). Single-dose pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety assessment with use of CBD-rich hemp nutraceutical in healthy dogs and cats. Animals, 9(10), 832.
  29. Gamble, L. J., Boesch, J. M., Frye, C. W., Schwark, W. S., Mann, S., Wolfe, L., Brown, H., Berthelsen, E. S., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2018). Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Frontiers in veterinary science, 5, 165. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00165
  30. McGrath S, Bartner L, Rao S, et al (2018) A report of adverse effects associated with the administration of cannabidiol in healthy dogs. J Am Holistic Vet Med Assoc. Fall 2018
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