Best CBD Oil for Constipation

Are you searching for an alternative remedy to help with constipation? Learn more about cannabidiol or CBD and how it may help manage the symptoms and other issues of the digestive tract associated with constipation.

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

4.8 out of 5
  1. Peppermint flavor masks any unpleasant taste
  2. Contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full
  3. Bottle includes a graduated dropper for correct serving measurement

Best CBD Purity

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

5.0 out of 5
  1. Natural remedy for various illnesses
  2. Product is full-spectrum whole-plant extract
  3. Contains naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes

Best High Potency

Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

5.0 out of 5
  1. Maximum possible potency
  2. Each dropper full contains 80mg of CBD
  3. Conveniently fits in a 30mL bottle

Best Value

Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg

4.6 out of 5
  1. Proprietary full-spectrum
  2. Developed using advanced AVIDA CORE Spectrum Technology
  3. Highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3)

Best Value

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

4.7 out of 5
  1. Made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp
  2. Available in many flavours
  3. Safe for daily use

Best THC Free

CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures

4.4 out of 5
  1. Do not contain THC
  2. Available in different potencies and sizes
  3. Brand has special deals and offers

Best Customer Rated

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg

4.4 out of 5
  1. THC-free
  2. Has plenty of flavours to choose from
  3. Totally vegan

Best For Beginners

NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

4.6 out of 5
  1. Lowest concentration for CBD beginners
  2. Fully organic and lab-tested
  3. Full-spectrum

Best Flavor Range

Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil

3.9 out of 5
  1. Has a wide range of flavours
  2. Safe to intake
  3. Get 20% off when you avail of their subscription

Best Allergy Friendly

Sunsoil CBD Oil Drops, Chocolate Mint Flavor

3.6 out of 5
  1. Tastes great
  2. Uses hemp grown organically
  3. Laboratory tests done by a third party

Compare the Best CBD Oil for Constipation in 2022

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
4.8 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
4.6 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
3.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
4.7 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
4.4 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
4.4 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
4.6 out of 5
2.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
3.9 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
2.5 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
Sunsoil CBD Oil Drops, Chocolate Mint Flavor
3.6 out of 5
2.5 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5

Best CBD Oil for Constipation

1. Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

4.8

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
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Purity

Customer Service

Type

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Pros Cons

Mid-strength

No other flavors

Natural peppermint flavor

Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients

Overview

Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

2. NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

5.0

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

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Pros Cons

Pure CBD hemp

No other flavors

All natural

Approximately 300 drops total

Overview

Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

3. Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

5.0

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

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Pros Cons

Extra Strength

Tastes bitter

No artificial flavoring or colors

No THC-free option

Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients

Overview

The largest bottle of CBD oil that Spruce offers contains 2,400mg of CBD. This is full-spectrum CBD oil, which is the maximum possible potency. Each high potency dropper full contains 80mg of CBD. There are no flavorings in it, which allows for the most CBD to fit in the 30ml bottle.

4. Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
cbdc overall score

4.6

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

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Transparency

Pros Cons

Light Spearmint flavor

No other flavor

Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test

Overview

Avida Extracts Full Spectrum CBD oil is the latest iteration of the brand’s advanced Avida CORE Spectrum technology. They use a proprietary full spectrum blend, resulting in the highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3) to support your health.

5. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
cbdc overall score

4.7

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

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Transparency

Pros Cons

Various delicious flavors to choose from

cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options

Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients

Free shipping for this particular product within USA

World-class customer service team

Overview

cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

6. CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
cbdc overall score

4.4

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee

Dropper is a bit shaky

Various strengths

Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp

Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices

Overview

CBDistillery’s Isolate CBD Oil Tinctures harness the power of pure CBD. CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures include 0.0% THC. When you use CBDistillery CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures, you can be assured you’re using the highest quality CBD on the market.

7. NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

4.6

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Pure CBD hemp

No other flavors

All natural

A bit pricey compared to competitors

Approximately 100 drops total

Overview

This is one of several concentrations from NuLeaf Naturals. As the lowest concentration, it is the company’s best option for those new to CBD oil. The product is lab-tested and fully organic. It is full-spectrum, so it contains THC in small quantities.

8. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
cbdc overall score

4.4

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

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Transparency

Pros Cons

Vegan and Gluten free

Does not ship internationally

Has a third-party lab test

Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes

Overview

A 750mg bottle of cbdMD’s Broad Spectrum Oil Tincture does not contain THC. It also has a fairly wide flavor range which is perfect for those who prefer other taste. Vegan consumers are considered since cbdMD offers Vegan products. Aside from all of that, another reason why people love cbdMD is because it’s free from harmful chemicals.

9. Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

3.9

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Wide variety of flavors

Incomplete information about the product

Lab test results are complete

Does not ship to all international countries

30-day money-back guarantee

Overview

Hemp Bombs offer CBD Oil Tinctures that come in a 30ml bottle containing 750mg of CBD. They provide a wide range of flavors perfect for those that have a knack for sweets. Consumers can safely intake this because it’s free of chemicals and pesticides. Hemp Bombs also offer a 20% off on products upon subscription.

10. Sunsoil CBD Oil Drops, Chocolate Mint Flavor
cbdc overall score

3.6

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Sunsoil CBD is committed to providing high-quality products at an affordable cost.

Product selection is limited.

The company tests its products thrice before making them available to the public.

The company uses lipid extraction methods.

From cultivation to packaging, everything is done in Sunsoil CBD grounds.

Organic and sustainable farming is at the company’s core.

Overview

The flavor profile is refreshingly sweet, and it balances well with the higher CBD concentration. Promotes the absorption of CBD into your blood circulation.

How CBD May Help With Constipation

Cannabidiol or CBD may help address constipation by interacting with the cannabinoid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract (GI)(1).

Cannabinoid receptors form a part of the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS), which helps maintain homeostasis or balance within the gut. Some of the predominant cannabinoid receptors are the CB1 and CB2 receptors.

The CB1 receptors are primarily present throughout the GI, particularly in the enteric nervous system (ENS), epithelial lining, and muscle cells within the colon wall(2).

The CB2 receptors are found mainly in immune cells, epithelial cells (cells lining the surface of the body or organs), and myenteric plexus neurons(3). The myenteric plexus is the GI’s primary nerve supply.

Some inflammatory bowel conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can cause inflammation in the inner lining of your colon. IBS symptoms caused by digestive system inflammation include diarrhea, cramping, bloating, and constipation(4).

CBD has purported anti-inflammatory and anti-pain benefits(5). These effects may be a subject of interest among researchers and gastroenterologists to help manage constipation and other digestive tract issues.

Uses and Benefits of CBD for Constipation

A 2016 study suggested that CBD may help suppress colitis by reducing the inflammatory response in the colon(6).

Colitis is an inflammatory condition of the colon’s inner lining. Some forms of ulcerative colitis may involve constipation(7).

In an animal study using mice, CBD was shown to selectively help reduce hypermotility, or excessive activity, in the gastrointestinal tract(8). Abnormal GI motility can lead to constipation.

Although the study was conducted on mice, the results may serve as a reference for further studies on CBD’s potential to help with constipation in humans.

Another study showed that CBD may interact with receptors outside the ECS, such as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma)(9).

Gastroenterologists and pharmacologists see this interaction as CBD’s potential for developing medication against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

The PPAR-gamma receptor helps regulate glucose metabolism and fatty acid storage.

CBD Dosage for Constipation

The CBD dosage appropriate to an individual may be determined by various factors such as exercise, diet, genetics, health conditions, and stress levels(10).

However, there are currently no standard CBD dosage guides endorsed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for constipation. One recommendation is to consider taking CBD starting at lower doses(11).

You may consider starting at 10 milligrams (mg) per day for products with high CBD content. If the CBD product has THC content, you may begin with a low THC dose of 1 to 2.5mg(12).

In another study, researchers stated that humans may tolerate doses of up to 1,500mg of CBD per day(13).

How to Take CBD Oil for Constipation

Several delivery methods to take CBD oil to help manage constipation and improve GI wellness include:

  • Oral administration: CBD administered orally passes through the digestive tract before being carried into the bloodstream.

Some products taken orally include CBD capsules and edibles. Examples of edibles are gummies and candies.

  • Sublingual administration: This method delivers CBD oil directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive tract.

CBD oil tinctures delivered using droppers or oromucosal sprays are standard methods to administer CBD sublingually or under the tongue.

CBD tinctures are typically mixed with a carrier oil like hempseed oil or medium-chain triglycerides or MCT oil to help dilute the CBD concentrate.

  • Topical application: CBD topical products such as creams, balms, or ointments are applied to the skin for local pain relief. CBD oil administered through this route is not absorbed into the bloodstream(14).
  • Rectal suppositories: CBD oil may be administered using suppositories through the rectal route.

Suppositories may provide relief to some individuals. One study mentioned that cannabinoids may help alleviate colitis or inflammation of the lining in the inner colon(15).

  • Inhalation route: CBD may be administered by inhalation through vapes. Among the other administration methods, inhalation may be considered the quickest way to deliver CBD into the body(16).

However, you are recommended to take caution when considering vaping as a delivery method to administer CBD. Vaping has potential health risks associated with lung disease(17).

Individuals with health issues must consult their doctor before trying CBD through vaping.

The FDA has not currently approved CBD as a treatment for constipation. If you are experiencing chronic constipation or have an illness causing your digestive issues, schedule an appointment with your doctor first.

How Long Does CBD Take to Help With Constipation?

There are no extensive studies or clinical trials to date focused on determining the onset times of CBD when used for constipation.

According to one study, onset times for a CBD oral ingestion route may take around 30 to 90 minutes(18).

CBD administered through transdermal, topical, or sublingual routes may require about 15 to 30 minutes to take effect. Meanwhile, the onset time of CBD through inhalation is 2 to 15 minutes(19).

How Long Will CBD Help With Constipation?

To date, there is insufficient scientific data on the duration of CBD’s effects on constipation.

In one review published in 2018, the researchers mentioned that CBD oromucosal sprays applied at doses of 5mg to 20mg may have a half-life between 1.4 and 10.9 hours(20).

A drug’s half-life is the period it takes for the medication to reduce its concentration or quantity in the body by 50%.

Side Effects and Risks of Using CBD for Constipation

Some known side effects of CBD include diarrhea, dry mouth, appetite loss, drowsiness, and fatigue. These side effects are typically well tolerated among humans(21).

In a 2020 study on the effects of CBD on patients prescribed with CBD oil, the researchers noted that some of the patients experienced adverse effects such as vivid dreams and sedation(22).

Another study showed that the side effects of CBD most commonly reported include changes to appetite or body weight, tiredness, and diarrhea(23).

Precautions When Taking CBD for Constipation

CBD products should not be used as medication or treatment for any illness or disease.

Epidiolex is currently the only FDA-approved CBD product used as a prescription medication for treating epilepsy(24).

Another essential piece of advice is to review the CBD product’s label for a grapefruit warning. A grapefruit warning means CBD may interact with other drugs, preventing them from metabolizing and getting absorbed by the human body.

The grapefruit warning is so-named due to the effects of grapefruit juice on select medications. Grapefruit juice interferes with the CYP3A4 enzymes needed to metabolize drugs(25).

When drugs remain unmetabolized, they stay longer in the body, possibly causing adverse side effects.

Before purchasing CBD products for anti-inflammatory or pain-relieving purposes, consult your physician about your current medical condition, such as Crohn’s disease or other digestive tract concerns associated with constipation.

Choosing the Right CBD Oil for Constipation

To determine the best CBD oil to help with constipation, you need to consider several factors like extraction methods, the types of CBD products, and other personal preferences.

Cannabis oil is typically extracted from the cannabis plant using ethanol, carbon dioxide (CO2), or hydrocarbon extraction methods.

Ethanol extraction utilizes ethanol as a solvent to help extract CBD from the hemp plant. This method has been a common practice for extracting medical compounds for centuries(26).

CO2 extraction uses highly-pressurized and liquefied carbon dioxide to extract CBD. This method is considered the safest way to extract CBD and other compounds from the cannabis plant(27).

Hydrocarbon extraction utilizes hydrocarbon solvents like butane or propane in extracting CBD. This method is still considered safe as long as proper safety procedures are followed.

However, hydrocarbons are flammable and neurotoxic. If not wholly removed from the CBD oil extract, they may cause harmful effects to your health.

Once the hemp extract containing CBD oil is brought out from the cannabis biomass, it may then be classified as broad-spectrum, full-spectrum, or isolate.

Broad-spectrum CBD oil contains most of the compounds and cannabinoids from the cannabis plant except for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Full-spectrum CBD oil has similar content as broad-spectrum CBD products. However, it also contains THC and other compounds like terpenes and flavonoids.

Flavonoids are plant compounds with antioxidant properties, while terpenes give plants an aromatic effect.

Combining these compounds gives full-spectrum CBD oil an “entourage effect.” This characteristic enhances the effects of cannabinoids and other compounds to become more significant than the sum of the benefits of the individual parts(28).

Meanwhile, CBD isolates contain pure CBD only. It does not include other compounds or cannabinoids.

Consider CBD isolates or broad-spectrum CBD oil if you prefer to use CBD products without the risk of experiencing THC’s psychoactive effects.

When choosing a high-quality CBD product, most consumers prefer those that are non-GMO, gluten-free, or made from organic hemp plants.

Reputable CBD companies and manufacturers usually provide a certificate of analysis (COA) along with their CBD products. COAs, which show the product’s actual CBD content, are supplied by third-party labs.

Third-party lab tests also determine if the product contains harmful contaminants, like heavy metals, pesticides, or solvents, that may pose a health risk to consumers.

If you are looking for quality CBD products, consider CBD brands that provide transparency by posting their products’ COAs on their website. You may view and access the COA to ensure that the lab results match the product label’s information.

Additionally, you should check your state’s laws regarding the legality of CBD or medical cannabis in your area before purchasing CBD products. Some states, such as California, Colorado, New York, and Washington, have medical cannabis programs(29).

Legality of CBD

The Farm Bill enacted in 2018 removed hemp-based CBD products containing less than 0.3% THC from the Drug Enforcement Administration’s controlled substances list. The law also legalized industrial hemp cultivation.

CBD products containing more than 0.3% THC are still prohibited under federal law(30).

The FDA warns consumers that CBD products marketed as food additives or dietary supplements are also illegal.

Using CBD oil and medical marijuana legally may vary among states. Review your state’s laws and compare your CBD product’s THC content to know if CBD usage is legal in your area.

What Is Constipation?

Constipation is characterized by less frequent bowel movements and difficulty in passing stool. Other symptoms of constipation include cramps or stomach pain, nausea or bloating, and dry, lumpy stools.

Some self-care remedies to help with constipation include(31):

  • Drinking two to four glasses of water a day
  • Adding whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and high-fiber foods to your diet
  • Getting exercise
  • Squatting, raising your feet, or leaning back to make bowel movements easier

Your doctor may also prescribe taking laxatives or over-the-counter stool softeners to help relieve constipation.

Caution is advised when using laxatives as its overuse may worsen the symptoms of constipation. If you require using laxatives for more than two weeks, seek advice from your doctor.

Other treatments for constipation include prescription medication such as lubiprostone (Amitiza), lactulose (Cephulac, Kristalose), and linaclotide (Linzess)(32).

For constipation caused by structural colon problems, such as colon blockage, intestinal structure (narrowing), or anal fissures, your doctor may recommend surgery.

The doctor may also recommend surgical treatment for cancer in the anus, rectum, or colon if these diseases cause constipation or other complications.

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD help with constipation?

    CBD works with the cannabinoid receptors found in the gastrointestinal tract. This interaction may help manage constipation(33).

    Cannabinoid receptors are part of your body’s ECS, which helps maintain homeostasis or balance within the gut.

    CBD has purported anti-inflammatory and anti-pain benefits(34). Such properties may be a subject of interest in the scientific community and hold the potential to help manage constipation and other digestive tract issues.

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps with constipation?

    One animal study showed that CBD may selectively help reduce hypermotility, or excessive activity, in the gastrointestinal tract(35). Abnormal GI motility can lead to constipation.

    Another study suggests that CBD may reduce the colon’s inflammatory response and help manage colitis(36).

    Colitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the inner lining of your colon. Constipation may be associated with some forms of ulcerative colitis(37).

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can make constipation worse?

    To date, no extensive studies have been conducted that suggest how CBD may worsen constipation.

    One study showed that some patients prescribed with CBD oil may experience adverse effects like sedation and vivid dreams(38).

    Other known side effects of CBD include diarrhea, dry mouth, appetite loss, drowsiness, and fatigue(39).

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication I may be taking for constipation?

    CBD may interfere with medications for ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease (a type of inflammatory bowel disease) such as budesonide (Uceris tablet and Entocort EC)(40).

    Check the CBD product’s label for a grapefruit warning. This warning means CBD may prevent other drugs from being metabolized and absorbed by the human body.

    CBD has similar effects as grapefruit juice. Thus, the grapefruit warning is usually displayed on its product label. Grapefruit is known to interfere with the CYP3A4 enzymes required for drug metabolization(41).

    Drugs that remain unmetabolized stay longer in the body, possibly causing negative side effects.

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD to help with constipation?

    Some self-care remedies, such as exercising, drinking water, and eating fruits and vegetables, may be practiced alongside taking CBD.

    However, CBD has the potential to interact with other medications. Thus, you are advised to consult a health care professional before taking any remedies or prescription medication together with CBD.

  • Can I fail a drug test if I use CBD for constipation?

    CBD oil products containing no more than 0.3% THC typically do not cause a drug test failure. However, prolonged and frequent CBD oil use may cause your THC levels to rise(42).

  • What is the dosage for constipation?

    Your CBD dosage may be influenced by different factors like diet, exercise, genetics, stress levels, and health conditions(43).

    However, there are no standard CBD dosage guides endorsed by the FDA for constipation. One recommendation is to take CBD starting at lower doses(44).

    For products with high CBD content, consider starting at 10mg of CBD per day. If the CBD product contains THC, you may begin by taking a low THC dose of 1 to 2.5mg(45).


  1. page 156 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  2. The gastrointestinal tract – a central organ of cannabinoid signaling in health and disease
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5130148/
  3. Ibid.
  4. page 156 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  5. CBD oil: What is it and how does it work?
    https://www.eehealth.org/blog/2019/09/cbd-oil/
  6. page 156 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  7. Characterization of ulcerative colitis‐associated constipation syndrome (proximal constipation)
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207018/
  8. Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice
    https://doi.org/10.1038/bjp.2008.177
  9. Cannabidiol in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Brief Overview
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.4781
  10. CBD dosing
    https://www.projectcbd.org/guidance/cbd-dosing
  11. Ibid.
  12. page 218 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  13. Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent
    https://doi.org/10.2174/157488611798280924
  14. page 210 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  15. page 211 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  16. Best way to take CBD
    https://www.projectcbd.org/guidance/best-way-take-cbd
  17. Can vaping damage your lungs? What we do (and don’t) know
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/can-vaping-damage-your-lungs-what-we-do-and-dont-know-2019090417734
  18. page 191 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  19. page 190-195 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  20. A Systematic Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Humans
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.01365
  21. What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  22. Cannabidiol prescription in clinical practice: an audit on the first 400 patients in New Zealand
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330185/
  23. Dosage, Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Administration in Adults: A Systematic Review of Human Trials
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7092763/
  24. What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  25. Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don’t Mix
    https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/grapefruit-juice-and-some-drugs-dont-mix
  26. CBD oil: An introduction
    https://www.projectcbd.org/wellness/cbd-oil-introduction
  27. Ibid.
  28. The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324885/
  29. page 24-25 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  30. CBD & THC: Myths and misconceptions
    https://www.projectcbd.org/cbd-101/cbd-misconceptions
  31. Constipation
    https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/4059-constipation
  32. Ibid.
  33. page 156 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  34. CBD oil: What is it and how does it work?
    https://www.eehealth.org/blog/2019/09/cbd-oil/
  35. Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice
    https://doi.org/10.1038/bjp.2008.177
  36. page 156 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  37. Characterization of ulcerative colitis‐associated constipation syndrome (proximal constipation)
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207018/
  38. Cannabidiol prescription in clinical practice: an audit on the first 400 patients in New Zealand
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330185/
  39. What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  40. Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don’t Mix
    https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/grapefruit-juice-and-some-drugs-dont-mix
  41. Ibid.
  42. Can You Take CBD and Pass a Drug Test?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/can-you-take-cbd-and-pass-a-drug-test/
  43. CBD dosing
    https://www.projectcbd.org/guidance/cbd-dosing
  44. Ibid.
  45. page 218 of Healing With CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view

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