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Best CBD Oil for IBS

Are you considering CBD to help manage your IBS symptoms? CBD Clinicals is dedicated to answering all your questions regarding CBD oil for IBS for an improved quality of life.

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


4.8 out of 5
  1. Peppermint flavor masks any unpleasant taste
  2. Contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full
  3. Bottle includes a graduated dropper for correct serving measurement

Best CBD Purity

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Natural remedy for various illnesses
  2. Product is full-spectrum whole-plant extract
  3. Contains naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes

Best High Potency

Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil


5.0 out of 5
  1. Maximum possible potency
  2. Each dropper full contains 80mg of CBD
  3. Conveniently fits in a 30mL bottle

Best Value

Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg


4.6 out of 5
  1. Proprietary full-spectrum
  2. Developed using advanced AVIDA CORE Spectrum Technology
  3. Highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3)

Best Value

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg


4.7 out of 5
  1. Made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp
  2. Available in many flavours
  3. Safe for daily use

Best THC Free

CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures


4.4 out of 5
  1. Do not contain THC
  2. Available in different potencies and sizes
  3. Brand has special deals and offers

Best Customer Rated

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg


4.4 out of 5
  1. THC-free
  2. Has plenty of flavours to choose from
  3. Totally vegan

Best For Beginners

NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil


4.6 out of 5
  1. Lowest concentration for CBD beginners
  2. Fully organic and lab-tested
  3. Full-spectrum

Best Flavor Range

Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil


3.9 out of 5
  1. Has a wide range of flavours
  2. Safe to intake
  3. Get 20% off when you avail of their subscription

Compare the Best CBD Oil for IBS in 2022

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
4.8 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
4.6 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

3.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
4.7 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
4.4 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
4.4 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5
NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
4.6 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
3.9 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

Best CBD Oil for IBS

1. Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.8
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Mid-strength  No other flavors
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Mid-strength
 Natural peppermint flavor
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

2. NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 300 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

3. Spruce 2400mg Lab Grade CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Extra Strength  Tastes bitter
 No artificial flavoring or colors  No THC-free option
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Extra Strength
 No artificial flavoring or colors
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 Tastes bitter
 No THC-free option
Overview

The largest bottle of CBD oil that Spruce offers contains 2,400mg of CBD. This is full-spectrum CBD oil, which is the maximum possible potency. Each high potency dropper full contains 80mg of CBD. There are no flavorings in it, which allows for the most CBD to fit in the 30ml bottle.

4. Avida Full Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture 500mg
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Light Spearmint flavor  No other flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Pros
 Light Spearmint flavor
 Non-THC, Non-detected in drug test
Cons
 No other flavor
Overview

Avida Extracts Full Spectrum CBD oil is the latest iteration of the brand’s advanced Avida CORE Spectrum technology. They use a proprietary full spectrum blend, resulting in the highest naturally occurring Phyto-cannabinoids and Terpenes with THC (<0.3) to support your health.

5. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
cbdc overall score
4.7
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Various delicious flavors to choose from  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Pros
 Various delicious flavors to choose from
 Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
 Free shipping for this particular product within USA
 World-class customer service team
Cons
 cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
Overview

cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

6. CBDistillery THC Free CBD Oil Tinctures
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee  Dropper is a bit shaky
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Pros
 60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee
 Various strengths
 Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
 Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
Cons
 Dropper is a bit shaky
Overview

CBDistillery’s Isolate CBD Oil Tinctures harness the power of pure CBD. CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures include 0.0% THC. When you use CBDistillery CBD Isolate Oil Tinctures, you can be assured you’re using the highest quality CBD on the market.

7. NuLeaf Naturals 300mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural  A bit pricey compared to competitors
 Approximately 100 drops total
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
 Approximately 100 drops total
Cons
 No other flavors
 A bit pricey compared to competitors
Overview

This is one of several concentrations from NuLeaf Naturals. As the lowest concentration, it is the company’s best option for those new to CBD oil. The product is lab-tested and fully organic. It is full-spectrum, so it contains THC in small quantities.

8. cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 750mg
cbdc overall score
4.4
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Vegan and Gluten free  Does not ship internationally
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Pros
 Vegan and Gluten free
 Has a third-party lab test
 Wide variety of CBD strengths and sizes
Cons
 Does not ship internationally
Overview

A 750mg bottle of cbdMD’s Broad Spectrum Oil Tincture does not contain THC. It also has a fairly wide flavor range which is perfect for those who prefer other taste. Vegan consumers are considered since cbdMD offers Vegan products. Aside from all of that, another reason why people love cbdMD is because it’s free from harmful chemicals.

9. Hemp Bombs 750mg CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
3.9
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Wide variety of flavors  Incomplete information about the product
 Lab test results are complete  Does not ship to all international countries
 30-day money-back guarantee
Pros
 Wide variety of flavors
 Lab test results are complete
 30-day money-back guarantee
Cons
 Incomplete information about the product
 Does not ship to all international countries
Overview

Hemp Bombs offer CBD Oil Tinctures that come in a 30ml bottle containing 750mg of CBD. They provide a wide range of flavors perfect for those that have a knack for sweets. Consumers can safely intake this because it’s free of chemicals and pesticides. Hemp Bombs also offer a 20% off on products upon subscription.

How CBD May Help With IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome or IBS is a common gastrointestinal disorder that affects the large intestine(1). Common symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain, cramping, gas, and bloating. Symptoms may also include diarrhea or constipation, or both.

 Cannabidiol, popularly known as CBD, is a compound present in the cannabis plant. CBD does not affect one’s locomotor activity, memory, or body temperature on its own, unlike THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)(2)

THC is the predominant psychoactive constituent of cannabis (sometimes called marijuana).  

CBD and THC work with the ECS (endocannabinoid system), actively controlling gut homeostasis or balance. These compounds interact with the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) found in almost every part of the body(3-4)

The activation of CB1 receptors attenuates small and large bowel muscle tone and inhibits gastrointestinal motility(5). Targeting CB2 receptors decreases inflammation by reducing cytokine and chemokine production from activated immune cells

Cytokines and chemokines are signaling proteins that play a significant role in controlling inflammation(6)

In a study, researchers hypothesized that CBD and THC are among the agents capable of modulating the ECS activities that may be useful to improve other IBS symptoms like motility, visceral pain, and low-grade inflammation(7)

It is believed that plant-based cannabinoids like CBD and THC may mimic the actions of endocannabinoids(8). 

Endocannabinoids are naturally-occurring chemical substances in the body that bind to cannabinoid receptors to signal that the ECS needs to take action. 

Research suggests that clinical endocannabinoid deficiency is an underlying cause of IBS, migraine, and fibromyalgia, a medical condition that triggers pain all over the body(9).  

Although there is a limited study examining how CBD may help with IBS, its activity in the ECS, may help with such a condition.

Nevertheless, more research is warranted to elucidate CBD’s efficacy on irritable bowel syndrome

Benefits of Using CBD for IBS

Current research from the International Journal of Molecular Sciences examined how CBD and other non-psychoactive cannabinoids may help prevent and treat GI (gastrointestinal) disorders, including IBS(10).  

Main alterations observed in IBS include GI motility disturbances(11). GI motility is the movement of food from the mouth through the throat, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and out of the body.

It is believed that modulation of the ECS may benefit IBS patients(12).

A 2020 study from Frontiers in Neurosciences suggested that targeting the ECS may be a promising strategy to modulate gut motility and low-grade intestinal inflammation, improving IBS symptoms onset(13)

Hence, researchers hypothesized that agents capable of modulating the ECS, such as CBD, may provide a potential first-line treatment for IBS patients(14).

Another 2020 study from the journal Antioxidants examined CBD’s antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties(15)

One of the most predominant CBD antioxidant effects is the reduction of protein and lipid modifications(16)

CBD may reduce lipid peroxidation, a process wherein free radicals attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bonds, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids(17).   

Carbon-carbon double bonds are found in naturally occurring fatty acids. 

Meanwhile, polyunsaturated fatty acids include omega-3 and omega-6 fats, which are essential fatty acids that the body requires for cell growth and brain function(18)

A study from Medical Science Monitor suggested that lipid peroxidation and alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant enzymatic system may have a significant role in the development of IBS(19)

The findings showed that elevated lipid peroxidation levels observed in IBS patients may be explained by an increased xanthine oxidase activity and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity(20)

Xanthine oxidase is an enzyme that generates ROS (reactive oxygen species). Meanwhile, antioxidant enzymes can stabilize or deactivate free radicals before attacking cellular components.  

Studies show that CBD is an agonist of A2A (adenosine) receptors, which are G-protein coupled receptors that regulate inflammatory processes(21)

Researchers believe that CBD may prevent oxidative stress by activating the A2A receptors(22)

Oxidative stress refers to a phenomenon triggered by an imbalance between the production and accumulation of ROS in cells and the ability of a biological system to detoxify the reactive products. 

A 2020 study mentioned that oxidative stress may be correlated to several IBS symptoms(23).

In addition, a study by Ethan B. Russo, MD, suggested that cannabinoids, like CBD and THC, may help manage difficult to treat pain(24).  

IBS chronic pain is linked to alterations in bowel movement(25). The chronic abdominal pain in IBS starts in the gut then travels to the brain, which interprets the sensation as pain. 

The findings of these studies may be promising. Still, more longitudinal research is necessary to determine the benefits of using CBD for IBS.      

CBD Usage Guideline for IBS

There are different ways you can take CBD for IBS. The most common CBD delivery methods are as follows(26):

  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Sublingual (under the tongue)
  • Topical absorption
  • Transdermal (active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systematic distribution) 

Ingesting CBD is a good option for individuals suffering from inflammatory bowel conditions, such as IBS or IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) since the compound will be delivered right to where it is needed most(27)

CBD edibles are available in oil, gummies, and capsules. 

The liver processes anything that goes into the stomach before it is used by the body(28). This process is called first-pass metabolism. 

First-pass metabolism refers to the metabolic process by which active compounds pass through the gastrointestinal system and are metabolized by the liver before they become available in the bloodstream(29).

Cannabinoids, like CBD and THC that move through the digestive tract, are chemically distinct. Their bioavailability is usually different from those that enter the body via other delivery methods(30).   

Bioavailability is the extent to which a particular drug becomes entirely available to its intended biological destinations. 

Aside from holding CBD oil under your tongue, you can add the oil to your food or beverage. Fatty foods are ideal for increasing bioavailability(31)

A 2019 research study from the University of Minnesota hypothesized that high-fat foods may increase oral CBD absorption into the body(32).  

CBD Dosage

The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has not approved CBD to treat IBS. Therefore, there is no standard CBD dosage for IBS.

However, it has been shown that mid-range doses of CBD between 10mg and 100mg daily may help with pain, inflammation, and conditions such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory bowel syndrome(33)

Still, make sure to consult a healthcare professional experienced in cannabis use for accurate CBD dosing. They may also suggest the types of CBD you may try for IBS or overall wellness

How Long Does CBD Take to Help With IBS?

How long CBD takes to help with IBS depends on the route of administration used and several other factors like body weight and CBD potency. 

Usually, you can feel the effects of CBD within 30 to 90 minutes via the ingestion method(34)

How Long Will CBD Help With IBS?

How long CBD lasts to help with IBS depends on the bioavailability. 

The bioavailability of CBD via the ingestion method is between 6% and 15%(35). Depending on a person’s gastrointestinal tract, absorption can be both slow and inconsistent(36)

How to Choose the Right CBD for IBS

CBD products are available in tinctures, vapes, edibles like gummies, and topicals like lotions.

However, choosing the right CBD product for IBS can be challenging, given the number of CBD companies claiming to have the best CBD oil in the market.  

Below are pertinent pieces of information to help you choose high-quality CBD products for IBS and overall gut health:

  1. Know about the different CBD extracts. You may choose full-spectrum CBD oil, broad-spectrum CBD oil, or CBD isolates

A full-spectrum CBD oil product contains all of the compounds of the cannabis plant, including CBD and other cannabinoids, terpenes, essential oils, and flavonoids. 

A full-spectrum CBD is known to provide the entourage effect due to the presence of all these cannabis compounds. Its THC concentration is also less than 0.3%(37)

When all the compounds work together, they induce the entourage effect.

The entourage effect is the concept wherein the biologically active compounds of cannabis work better when administered together. 

Terpenes are aromatic compounds present in cannabis and many other plants. 

Flavonoids are phytonutrients (plant chemicals) that have been suggested to exhibit biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral actions(38)

A broad-spectrum CBD oil is similar to full-spectrum CBD. However, it is nearly THC-free(39). Lastly, CBD isolates are made of pure CBD

  1. Support CBD brands that are transparent with their farming practices. Ensure that a third-party lab tested all their products for consistency and potency.

You should also check the COA (certificate of analysis), which indicates whether a product contains harmful contaminants.

  1. Learn about carrier oils. Carrier oils are the products used to dilute essential oils. The most commonly utilized carrier oils for CBD include coconut oil and hempseed oil(40).  

Although most people use the terms hemp oil and hempseed oil interchangeably, they are different from each other.

Hemp oil (a tem often used to refer to CBD oil) is an essential oil that comes from the flowers and leaves of hemp plants

Meanwhile, hempseed oil is made from the pressed seeds of hemp. 

Hempseed oil is rich in fatty acids and nutrients. However, it does not contain CBD(41).   

The Potential Side Effects and Risks of Using CBD for IBS

According to WHO (World Health Organization), CBD is generally safe and is well tolerated in humans and animals(42). Still, CBD may carry some risks and minor side effects, such as(43)

  • Fatigue
  • Dry mouth
  • Reduced appetite
  • Drowsiness
  • Diarrhea 

A common symptom of IBS is diarrhea(44). Since CBD may cause diarrhea in some people, be sure to talk with your healthcare provider and ask for medical advice before trying CBD. Doing so can help you avoid unpleasant side effects

If you are either expecting or breastfeeding, you should not take CBD. 

The FDA strongly advises against the use of CBD, THC, and marijuana in any form during pregnancy or while breastfeeding(45).

According to the FDA, traces of CBD may be transferred to babies through breast milk(46)

In addition, an animal study from the International Journal of Andrology indicated that maternal exposure to psychoactive and non-psychoactive components of marijuana may produce long-term disruption of testicular function in male fetuses(47).  

Legality of CBD

The 2018 Farm Bill indicates that Cannabis sativa L. and other derivatives of cannabis with less than 0.3% THC content on a dry weight basis are deemed legal under federal law(48)

Still, you must review various state laws regarding the use of CBD or medical marijuana to avoid possible legal repercussions. Remember that each state may impose different rules and regulations. 

For instance, although marijuana use is legal in Colorado, individuals who take medical marijuana may still be arrested for impaired driving(49). If they drive with five nanograms of THC per milliliter of whole blood, they can face legal charges for DUI (driving under the influence). 

Moreover, individuals must keep their cannabis products within the borders of Colorado(50). They cannot bring those items to areas like federal lands, including national parks and forests, and Denver International Airport.

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD help with IBS?

    IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) affects one’s digestive system(51). IBS sufferers may have uncomfortable or painful abdominal symptoms, including diarrhea, constipation, bloating, and gas. 

    Other symptoms include low-grade inflammation(52)

    There is limited research on how cannabidiol can help with IBS. However, CBD is believed to have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects(53-54). These potential therapeutic benefits of CBD may help with IBS.

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps with IBS?

    No evidence specifically suggests that CBD helps with IBS. However, a study indicated that agents capable of modulating the ECS, such as CBD, may provide a potential first-line treatment for IBS patients by improving symptoms like low-grade inflammation(55)

    Still, more studies are warranted to elucidate CBD’s efficacy on IBS.

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can make IBS worse?

    No evidence exists suggesting that CBD can make IBS worse. However, one of CBD’s side effects is diarrhea(56). Since CBD may trigger diarrhea in some people, ensure to talk with your healthcare provider before using CBD for IBS.

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication I may be taking for IBS?

    Your healthcare provider may suggest pain medications, fiber supplements, laxatives, or even antidepressants to relieve stress and depression that worsen IBS symptoms(57)

    However, antidepressants may interact with CBD(58). Antidepressants use the cytochrome P450 enzyme system(59)

    The cytochrome P450 is a family of liver enzymes that metabolize about 60% of the pharmaceutical substances people consume.  

    At high doses, CBD may inhibit the activity of these enzymes, which may increase the effect and duration of action of prescription drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450(60).

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD to help with IBS?

    Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary changes, may help manage IBS symptoms(61)

    A low-fodmap diet or diet low in fermentable carbohydrates has also shown potential in helping IBS sufferers(62)

    In addition, a 2019 study showed that multi-strain probiotics supplemented over some time may have the potential to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome(63).

    However, if you are considering using other treatments or diet therapies alongside CBD to help with IBS, be sure to talk with your healthcare provider. This is particularly necessary if you have other health conditions.

  • Can I fail a drug test if I use CBD for IBS?

    CBD is non-psychoactive(64). Therefore, it does not cause a euphoric effect(65). Still, using a full-spectrum CBD oil frequently may cause THC build-up in the body(66)

    An increased level of THC in the bloodstream may result in a positive drug test.

  • What is the dosage for IBS?

    Doses between 10mg and 100mg may help with pain, inflammation, and medical conditions like inflammatory bowel syndrome(67). Still, there is no standard CBD dosage for IBS because the FDA has not regulated it.

  • Is CBD safe for IBS?

    There is no specific study examining CBD’s safety for IBS. Although CBD is generally safe and is well tolerated in humans and animals, CBD may cause diarrhea in some people(68-69)

    Hence, make sure to consult your healthcare provider if you are considering using CBD for IBS.


  1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/irritable-bowel-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20360016
  2. Cannabis, a Complex Plant: Different Compounds and Different Effects on Individuals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3736954/
  3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Manipulating the Endocannabinoid System as First-Line Treatment
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186328/#B59
  4. Cannabidiol
    https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Cannabidiol
  5. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Manipulating the Endocannabinoid System as First-Line Treatment
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186328/#B59
  6. Cytokines and Chemokines at the Crossroads of Neuroinflammation, Neurodegeneration, and Neuropathic Pain
    https://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2013/480739/
  7. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Manipulating the Endocannabinoid System as First-Line Treatment
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186328/#B59
  8. The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator
    https://www.jyi.org/2018-june/2018/6/1/the-endocannabinoid-system-our-universal-regulator
  9. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576607/
  10. Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246936/
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Manipulating the Endocannabinoid System as First-Line Treatment
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186328/
  14. Ibid.
  15. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/
  16. Ibid.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Facts About Polyunsaturated Fats
    https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000747.htm
  19. The Role of Oxidants and Reactive Nitrogen Species in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Potential Etiological Explanation
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3781198/
  20. Ibid.
  21. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/
  22. Ibid.
  23. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Neurological Deficiencies: Is There A Relationship? The Possible Relevance of the Oxidative Stress Status
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230401/ 
  24. Cannabinoids in the Management of Difficult to Treat Pain
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2503660/
  25. Understanding and Managing Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    https://aboutibs.org/treatment/understanding-and-managing-pain-in-ibs/
  26. Healing With CBD, page 189.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  27. Healing With CBD, pages 202-203.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  28. Healing With CBD, page 202.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  29. Healing With CBD, page 282.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  30. Ibid.
  31. Healing With CBD, page. 205.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  32. High Fat Foods Can Increase Oral Cannabidiol Absorption Into the Body
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190813130426.htm
  33. CBD: A Patient’s Guide to Medicinal Cannabis, page 129.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1MILU_6ZjYkII-XMUPHLFPiPQbrz__5Sh/view
  34. Healing With CBD, page 191.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  35. Healing With CBD, page 191.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  36. Healing With CBD, page 202.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  37. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  38. Flavonoids As Antioxidants
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10924197/
  39. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  40. Healing With CBD, page 205.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  41. Hemp Seed Oil Properties
    https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/hemp-seed-oil-properties.html
  42. Cannabidiol (CBD)
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  43. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700 
  44. Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/irritable-bowel-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20360016#:~:text=Irritable%20bowel%20syndrome%20(IBS)%20is,need%20to%20manage%20long%20term.
  45. What You Should Know About Using Cannabis, Including CBD, When Pregnant or Breastfeeding
    https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-should-know-about-using-cannabis-including-cbd-when-pregnant-or-breastfeeding
  46. Ibid.
  47. Maternal Cannabinoid Exposure. Effects on Spermatogenesis in Male Offspring
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3026968/
  48. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD)
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  49. Driving and Traveling
    https://cannabis.colorado.gov/legal-marijuana-use/driving-and-traveling
  50. Ibid. 
  51. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/4342-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs
  52. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Manipulating the Endocannabinoid System as First-Line Treatment
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186328/#B59
  53.  Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/
  54. Research Shows Pain-Relieving Effects of CBD
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210423130221.htm
  55. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Manipulating the Endocannabinoid System as First-Line Treatment
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186328/#B59
  56. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700 
  57. Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/irritable-bowel-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20360064
  58. Healing With CBD, page 116.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  59. Healing With CBD, pages 114-116
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  60. Ibid.
  61. Diet, Lifestyle and Medicines
    https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs/diet-lifestyle-and-medicines/
  62. Try a FODMAPs Diet to Manage Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/diet-and-weight-loss/a-new-diet-to-manage-irritable-bowel-syndrome
  63. Probiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: An Up-to-Date Systematic Review
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769995/
  64. Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246936/
  65. Cannabidiol (CBD)-What We Know and What We Don’t
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  66. Can You Take CBD and Pass a Drug Test?
    https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/can-you-take-cbd-and-pass-a-drug-test/
  67. CBD: A Patient’s Guide to Medicinal Cannabis, page 129.
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1MILU_6ZjYkII-XMUPHLFPiPQbrz__5Sh/view
  68. Cannabidiol (CBD)
    https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  69. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use?
    https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
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