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Is CBD Water-Soluble?

Oil and water do not mix. However, nanotechnology makes water-soluble CBD oil dissolve in water. If you are interested in trying water-soluble CBD, here is some information to help you choose the best water-soluble CBD product.

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

Hemplucid Full-Spectrum CBD Water Soluble


4.6 out of 5
  1. Formulated using whole-plant CBD extract and Nano-enhanced for fast-acting results
  2. Each bottle serves 30ml and available in 4 choices of concentrations (250mg, 500mg, 1000mg, 1500mg)
  3. Third-party lab-tested, test result is currently available on site

Best Water-Soluble CBD

Ambary Gardens Full Spectrum Water Soluble Rapid Delivery 150


3.7 out of 5
  1. Absorbs more quickly than oils which is very helpful in certain circumstances
  2. Each bottle is 2 fl oz with a total of 150mg CBD
  3. Third party lab-tested and result is currently available on site.

Best Flavor-Range

American Shaman Water Soluble CBD


3.5 out of 5
  1. Fast acting water-soluble that is available in five flavors
  2. Each bottle is 30ml with a total of 300mg Full SPectrum CBD
  3. Third party lab-tested and result is currently available on site

Is CBD Water-Soluble? 2022

  1. Hemplucid Full-Spectrum CBD Water Soluble Best Formulated CBD Water Soluble
  2. Ambary Gardens Full Spectrum Water Soluble Rapid Delivery 150 Best Formula in CBD Absorption
  3. American Shaman Water Soluble CBD Most Flavorful Water Soluble CBD


Compare the best CBD Water-Soluble in 2022

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
Hemplucid Full-Spectrum CBD Water Soluble
4.5 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Ambary Gardens Full Spectrum Water Soluble Rapid Delivery 150
3.7 out of 5

1.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
American Shaman Water Soluble CBD
3.5 out of 5

2.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

Is CBD Water-Soluble?

1. Hemplucid Full-Spectrum CBD Water Soluble
cbdc overall score
4.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 No heavy metals and pesticides.  Not available in other sizes.
 Third party lab-tested. Test result is currently available on site.
 Available in four choices of concentrations.
Pros
 No heavy metals and pesticides.
 Third party lab-tested. Test result is currently available on site.
 Available in four choices of concentrations.
Cons
 Not available in other sizes.
Overview

CBD Water Soluble that is formulated using whole-plant CBD extract and Nano-enhanced for fast-acting results. Each bottle serves 30ml and available in 4 choices of concentrations (250mg, 500mg, 1000mg, 1500mg). Third party lab-tested. Test result is currently available on site.

2. Ambary Gardens Full Spectrum Water Soluble Rapid Delivery 150
cbdc overall score
3.7
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Hemp is chemical, pesticide, and fertilizer free.  No allergens specified on site.
 Third party lab-tested. Test result is currently available on site.  No discount available.
 Perfect for CBD Oil users and starters.
Pros
 Hemp is chemical, pesticide, and fertilizer free.
 Third party lab-tested. Test result is currently available on site.
 Perfect for CBD Oil users and starters.
Cons
 No allergens specified on site.
 No discount available.
Overview

Full Spectrum Water Soluble that absorbs more quickly than oils which is very helpful in certain circumstances. Each bottle is 2 fl oz with a total of 150mg CBD. Third party lab-tested and result is currently available on site.

3. American Shaman Water Soluble CBD
cbdc overall score
3.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Available in five flavors.  Not available in other sizes.
 No pesticides, Vegan Friendly, and Gluten Free.
 Third party lab-tested. Test result is currently available on site.
Pros
 Available in five flavors.
 No pesticides, Vegan Friendly, and Gluten Free.
 Third party lab-tested. Test result is currently available on site.
Cons
 Not available in other sizes.
Overview

Fast acting water-soluble that is available in five flavors. Each bottle is 30ml with a total of 300mg Full SPectrum CBD. Third party lab-tested and result is currently available on site.

With so many cannabidiol (CBD) products available on the market, it can be difficult for users to choose the right one. While CBD offers a wide variety of benefits for one’s health, including relief from pain and inflammation, choosing from all the available hemp oil, tinctures, topicals, and edibles can be challenging(1).

Nowadays, there are CBD beverages available, which are made from water-soluble CBD. However, note that CBD is a highly lipophilic molecule (dissolves in fats), which means CBD may combine with the fat content of food to improve its solubility, absorption, and bioavailability(2)

How Water-Soluble CBD Is Made

Manufacturers of CBD, the non-psychoactive component of hemp, rely on nanotechnology to create CBD that can be absorbed into the water. This advanced technology breaks down CBD into tiny particles(nanoemulsions) through sound waves(3)

These emulsifiers are smaller than 100 nanometers in size. One nanometer is one-millionth of a millimeter, which means these CBD particles are small enough to blend with the particles in water(4).

Research on the effectiveness of nanotechnology and CBD is limited. However, one study found that lipid-based CBD nanoparticles absorb more easily into the body(5)

This occurrence is due to the tiny nanoparticles that can pass through cell membranes and into the bloodstream much more quickly than larger CBD particles.

However, since studies on nano CBD are in their infancy, the use of water-soluble CBD and nano CBD have to be explored further. 

Bioavailability: What It Is and Why It Matters

Bioavailability relates to how quickly the human body can absorb a drug or metabolite and how much of a specific product can enter the bloodstream(6).

When it comes to CBD, a person is getting more value from their CBD product when more CBD is absorbed in the body. 

Sufficient bioavailability depends on various factors, including(7):

  • Solubility
  • Dissolution
  • Permeability 
  • Metabolism
  • Stability

CBD Bioavailability: What Research Says

A study mentioned that CBD’s potential is hindered by its low water-solubility, low bioavailability, and its fluctuating onset time, duration of efficacy, and the intensity of its effect (pharmacokinetics)(8).

Due to the fat-loving nature of cannabinoids, one way to improve the bioavailability of CBD is to have a healthy diet of long-chain triglycerides (saturated fats)(9)

A study that used liposomal CBD administration noted that utilizing a sac of phospholipid enclosed in a water droplet to carry drugs and other substances or liposomes in the delivery of CBD showed benefits on the glucose levels of 10 healthy individuals(10)

However, the absorption rate of CBD oil products still depends on CBD and the method of delivery in which the product is taken. 

Like CBD soft gel supplements and CBD capsules, ingested CBD products are believed to have the lowest bioavailability because of the first-pass effect.

The first-pass effect means that the product goes through the digestive system first and is then processed in the liver before being used by the body(11)

The bioavailability of CBD products administered through the ingestion route has an average of 6% to 15%. These figures are significantly lower than the bioavailability of inhaled CBD products that have an average of 16% to 44% absorption rate(12).

Despite its relatively low absorption rate, the ingestion route of administration has the highest average period of effect (6 to 8 hours) compared to the 2- to 4-hour duration of vape inhalation and CBD sublingual administration(13).

The higher bioavailability of inhaled CBD is due to how it goes directly to the porous lungs and bloodstream(14). Vaping and smoking fall under this route of administration.

Moreover, the sublingual or mucosal delivery method has the second-highest bioavailability rate with an average of 6% to 20%(15)

When CBD is taken sublingually, it is absorbed through the capillaries under the tongue’s mucous membrane and the cheeks into the bloodstream(16). CBD tinctures are typically taken using the sublingual method.

Research and clinical trials are still being done to develop a more efficient and effective way to take CBD. 

What Is Water-Soluble CBD?

Oil and water do not mix, and neither do CBD oil and the water in the body. Because the body is made up of about 60% water(17), the bioavailability of many CBD-infused products is affected. Thus, the body may have difficulty absorbing these products. 

CBD oil does not necessarily need to be water-soluble to take effect. However, the high bioavailability of water-soluble products may further maximize the effects of CBD.

A study noted that cannabinoids, like CBD, are naturally hydrophobic molecules that do not blend well with the skin’s aqueous layer(18).

According to a study conducted to test the bioavailability of CBD oral formulations, water-soluble CBD powder was approximately 4.5 times more bioavailable than the lipid-soluble CBD powder(19).

However, the limited studies on water-soluble CBD did not mention the duration of its effects.

Benefits of Water-Soluble CBD 

Some of the possible wellness benefits of water-soluble include the following:

  • Potentially higher bioavailability: A study mentioned that water-soluble CBD has a higher bioavailability than fat-soluble CBD(19)
  • Many possibilities: Once CBD has been absorbed into the water, it can create many delicious beverages and food products 
  • Taste: CBD is known to have a natural grassy, nutty, and earthy flavor.
    A study noted that some water-soluble CBD products are infused with taste enhancers together with the naturally lipophilic compound and non-ionic surfactant (a mild substance attracted to water)(20)

How to Maximize CBD Bioavailability

Because CBD-infused water has its limitations, some CBD users may be looking for other ways to get the most out of their CBD products. 

The good news is that eating certain foods can facilitate faster absorption of CBD by the body. Many foods high in “good fats” – triglycerides, like medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and foods with fatty acids – may help the body absorb the CBD more quickly. Some of these foods are:

  • Coconut oil
  • Soybean oil
  • Fatty fish
  • Avocados
  • Nuts

It is also best to choose the best-quality CBD out there because it may more likely contain the right amounts of CBD. 

Choosing to purchase from a CBD company that sends its products to a third-party lab for testing may also ensure that the buyer receives products that contain the amount of CBD the seller claims to offer.

It is also a good idea to choose a CBD product extracted from organic hemp plants. It may ensure the user is not getting any undesirable “extra content,” such as pesticides or herbicides, in the CBD product.

Health Benefits of CBD-Infused Water

While the Food and Drug Administration or FDA has not officially approved the use of CBD water, it can help treat various health conditions by working with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). 

The ECS is a neuromodulatory system believed to regulate functions in the central nervous system, such as immunomodulation, analgesia, and inflammation(21)

According to Bethany Halford in her paper Medicine from Marijuana, CBD-infused sodas and CBD-infused water promise refreshment and relaxation(22).

The ECS has receptors that are believed to modify central nervous system functions, including pain, moods, and the sleep cycle(23).

Epilepsy

Some studies showed that CBD reduced seizures by up to 45%, without the strong side effects of many traditional seizure medications(24)

Other studies indicated that in tuberous sclerosis, which affects the nervous system the same way as epilepsy, CBD-infused water was effective in reducing seizures by up to 69 % of the time(25).

Multiple Sclerosis

Another nervous system condition is multiple sclerosis, which interrupts the information flowing between the brain and the body. 

Studies showed that CBD-infused water reduced and even eliminated the symptoms of mood swings, pain, and fatigue caused by the condition(26).

Problems With CBD-Infused Water

While CBD water offers many health benefits, there are a few drawbacks that consumers should know. Because this is still a relatively new product, companies are still developing the best products for consumers.

  • Not all CBD water contains a significant amount of CBD. Many brands of CBD water only offer about 2mg to 5mg CBD in each serving size. People using CBD to treat illnesses and conditions may need larger amounts of CBD to see any results.
  • Even CBD water that contains more CBD may not be effective. One study stated that CBD was very unstable and that light can cause this cannabinoid to degrade and become ineffective quickly(27). The problem is that many companies sell their CBD-infused water in a clear container, where the liquid sits for weeks at a time.

Users interested in using CBD dissolved in water should look for options in darker-colored containers. They should also look at the CBD content in each container and the overall product price.

What Is CBD Oil?

Cannabidiol (CBD) oil comes from the hemp plant’s harvested and dried flowers(28). The flowers are steeped in methanol before being placed in freezing temperatures to remove any fats and distilled before a carrier oil is added.

CBD extract in oil form is mainly composed of CBD, the non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant(29)

However, hemp oil extract may also have other compounds aside from CBD (as in full-spectrum CBD oil), including terpenes, flavonoids, and traces of the psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)(30).

In some cases, CBD oil does not include THC. However, it still contains other cannabinoids, like cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabinol (CBN), terpenes, and flavonoid profiles (broad-spectrum CBD oil). CBD oil may also include the CBD molecule alone (CBD isolate)(31).

However, traditional CBD oil comes with its own set of problems because many experts believe that only a small part of the CBD is absorbed into the body.

Conclusion

CBD is a naturally lipophilic molecule that dissolves in lipids or fat; hence, CBD does not mix well with water(32)

This lipophilic characteristic of CBD is one reason for its low bioavailability or absorption rate(33). Novel solutions, like the use of nanotechnology in producing CBD, are being explored to improve this limitation.

Still, the studies on water-soluble CBD products are a relatively new development.

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can water-soluble CBD help?

    CBD (cannabidiol) may help with various medical conditions, such as anxiety, insomnia, chronic pain, and addiction(34)

    CBD is a highly lipophilic molecule, meaning it dissolves in fats. Hence, CBD may combine with the fat in food to enhance its bioavailability, solubility, and absorption(35)

    Bioavailability refers to how much a particular substance can enter your bloodstream(36). You get more value from a specific CBD product when your body absorbs more of it.   

    Although CBD oil does not need to be water-soluble to take effect, the high bioavailability of water-soluble products may further maximize its purported therapeutic benefits. 

    A study estimated that water-soluble CBD powder is 4.5 times more bioavailable than lipid-soluble CBD powder(37).

  • What evidence or research exists to say that water-soluble CBD helps?

    In 2019, a clinical trial examined the usage of a water-soluble sublingual (administered under the tongue) CBD tablet to treat pain linked to diabetic peripheral neuropathy(38)

    In this experiment, the researchers used 0.1mg of a proprietary blend of terpenes and a water-soluble sublingual tablet containing 20mg of CBD. 

    Terpenes are non-psychoactive compounds that provide the aroma and flavor in plants like cannabis.

    Patients were asked to take three CBD tablets per day sublingually. They had to ensure that they took the tablets at six-hour intervals for three weeks. 

    Results showed that patients treated with CBD had clinically and statistically significant improvements in average and highest pain scores, sleep quality, anxiety, and overall quality of life(39).

  • Is there any evidence that water-soluble CBD is not good?

    There is no direct evidence that water-soluble CBD is not good. However, the USFDA (Food and Drug Administration) has not approved cannabis-derived products, including CBD, as medical treatment(40).

  • Will CBD oil-water interact with any current medication I may be taking?

    Like any medication, you have to proceed with caution when planning to take CBD with other prescription medicines. 

    Taking cannabidiol products like CBD oil-water at the same time as prescription drugs or over-the-counter substances may result in altered concentration(41)

    Altered concentration can lead to an increased risk of side effects or medication not working.

  • Are there other treatments or products I should consider alongside water-soluble CBD?

    Before taking CBD-derived products like water-soluble CBD for any medical condition, be sure to consult with your healthcare provider first for advice and guidance. 

    CBD is known for its purported therapeutic benefits, such as its anti-anxiety properties(42). In this case, your physician may prescribe antidepressants or sedatives for your condition(43).

  • Can I fail a drug test if I use water-soluble CBD?

    CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid(44). Therefore, using water-soluble CBD and other cannabidiol products may not result in a positive drug test. 

    However, you may still fail a drug test if you take high doses of full-spectrum CBD frequently. 

    Full-spectrum CBD oil products with less than 0.3% THC are legal in most states in the United States.

  • How much water-soluble CBD should I use?

    The FDA has not regulated the use of CBD products. Therefore, there is no standard dosage for water-soluble CBD. 

    To know how much water-soluble CBD to use, make sure to check the instructions included in the CBD product labels

    The general rule is to begin with a low dose. You may cautiously increase the amount until you see the desired results. 

    You can start taking as little as 10mg each day of a CBD-dominant product(45)

    CBD-dominant products include hemp-derived CBD oils with trace amounts of THC or a cannabis product with a 20:1 CBD-THC ratio or higher. 

    When considering taking a cannabis-based product with THC for the first time, begin with a low dose of 1 to 2.5mg THC(46)

    A review from the Current Drug Safety journal suggested that humans can probably tolerate high doses of CBD up to 1,500mg per day(47).

  • What are the common uses of water-soluble CBD?

    Many CBD brands offer CBD beverages made with water-soluble CBD. You may add water-soluble CBD to your food or drink. 

    CBD is naturally lipophilic. When combined with the fat content in food or drink, CBD’s absorption, bioavailability, and solubility are improved(48).

    Water-soluble cannabidiol offers the same potential benefits as CBD oil.

  • Is water-soluble CBD right for you?

    Consult a physician expert in cannabis use to determine whether water-soluble CBD is right for you.

    In addition, note that not all states in the United States permit the use of CBD and other cannabis-derived products. 

    It would be best to familiarize yourself with various state laws and regulations about the use of medical cannabis to avoid possible legal repercussions.

  • How do I use or take water-soluble CBD?

    Water-soluble CBD products are relatively simple to use. An easy way to ingest CBD is by adding it to your food or beverage. 

    Most CBD brands recommend stirring the water-soluble CBD powder into warm or cold water. Some individuals say that adding the powder to your cup before adding water works best. 

    You can also stir water-soluble CBD into your juices, teas, and smoothies.

  • Are there any conditions where sublingual consumption is not best?

    A study posted in the Frontiers in Pharmacology in 2019 stated that the sublingual and buccal routes may be inconvenient for some individuals. 

    The sublingual method is done by administering the compound under the tongue. Buccal administration is in the cheek area. 

    These routes of administration involve technical procedures allowing the compound to remain in the tongue or cheek area for quick absorption without swallowing(49).

    However, these routes of administrations are only applicable for small doses. In addition, not all drugs can be administered via the sublingual or buccal method. 

    Drugs may also be bitter, unpalatable, or cause irritation to the oral mucosa, making them difficult to swallow.

  • How long does water-soluble CBD take to work?

    A 2018 study was conducted to examine the bioavailability of CBD oral formulation. The researchers indicated that water-soluble CBD powder is 4.5 times more bioavailable than lipid-soluble CBD powder(50).  

    However, the limited studies on water-soluble cannabidiol did not mention the duration of its effects.

  • How long does a water-soluble CBD stay in your system?

    Studies show that water-soluble CBD powder is 4.5 times more bioavailable than lipid-soluble CBD powder(51). However, results did not specifically indicate how long a water-soluble CBD stays in one’s system.

  • What does taking water-soluble CBD feel like?

    Taking water-soluble CBD does not feel like taking medicine since you only add the substance to your drink or food.

  • What does water-soluble CBD taste like? Will it affect my drink?

    Generally, cannabidiol is known to have a naturally nutty, earthy, and grassy flavor. Some people may not like its peculiar taste. For this reason, most CBD brands also offer flavor enhancers to improve CBD’s taste.

  • Is water-soluble CBD better than regular CBD oil?

    Studies show that water-soluble CBD powder is 4.5 times more bioavailable than lipid-soluble CBD powder(52). However, it is not known how long water-soluble CBD stays in one’s system.    

    Meanwhile, CBD oil’s bioavailability when ingested is between 6% to 15%(53). Bioavailability is the extent or rate at which a substance becomes entirely available to its intended biological destinations(54)

    Water-soluble CBD and regular CBD oil are both great products. When choosing which one is better for you, consider your preferred way of consuming CBD.


  1. Grinspoon, P., (August 2018), Cannabidiol (CBD) — what we know and what we don’t, retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  2. Millar, S., Stone N. L., et. al., (November 2018), A Systematic Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Humans, retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01365/full#:~:text=As%20CBD%20is%20a%20highly,et%20al.%2C%202013
  3. Poole, C. P., Owens, F. J., (2003), Introduction to Nanotechnology, retrieved from https://books.google.com.ph/books?hl=en&lr=&id=XfzgEoY9SNkC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=nanotechnology&ots=rPV7weciyd&sig=qy0D0ki7w7NeoTZhSOZT1r0CpXc&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=nanotechnology&f=false
  4. Ibid.
  5. Bruni, N., Della Pepa, C., Oliaro-Bosso, S., Pessione, E., Gastaldi, D., & Dosio, F. (2018). Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(10), 2478. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102478
  6. Le, J., (October 2020), Drug Bioavailability, retrieved from https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/clinical-pharmacology/pharmacokinetics/drug-bioavailability#:~:text=Bioavailability%20refers%20to%20the%20extent,on%20its%20design%20and%20manufacture.
  7. Millar, S. A., Maguire, R. F., et.al., (August 2020), Towards Better Delivery of Cannabidiol (CBD), retrieved from https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/13/9/219/htm
  8. Ibid.
  9. Konieczny, E., (2018), Healing with CBD, retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  10. Blair, E., (n.d.), Next Generation of Liposomal Delivery for Cannabidiol From a Hemp Extract: A Safety Study, retrieved from https://cellg8.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Safety-Study-Published-2.pdf
  11. Konieczny, E., Op. Cit.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Ibid.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Ibid.
  16. Ibid.
  17. USGS Water Science School, (n.d.), The Water in You: Water and the Human Body, retrieved from https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/water-you-water-and-human-body?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects
  18. Huestis M. A. (2007). Human cannabinoid pharmacokinetics. Chemistry & biodiversity, 4(8), 1770–1804. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.200790152
  19. Hobbs, J. M., Vasquez, A. R., et. al., (March 2020), Evaluation of pharmacokinetics and acute anti‐inflammatory potential of two oral cannabidiol preparations in healthy adults, retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ptr.6651
  20. Ibid.
  21. Guindon, J., & Hohmann, A. G. (2009). The endocannabinoid system and pain. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets, 8(6), 403–421. https://doi.org/10.2174/187152709789824660
  22. Halford, B., (July 2018), Medicine from Marijuana, retrieved from https://diverdi.colostate.edu/C480A3/reading%20materials/legal%20&%20policy/20180723%20C&EN%20-%20medicine%20from%20marijuana.pdf
  23. Zou, S., & Kumar, U. (2018). Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. International journal of molecular sciences, 19(3), 833. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030833
  24. Silvestro, S., Mammana, S., Cavalli, E., Bramanti, P., & Mazzon, E. (2019). Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(8), 1459. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081459
  25. Perucca E. (2017). Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Hard Evidence at Last?. Journal of epilepsy research, 7(2), 61–76. https://doi.org/10.14581/jer.17012
  26. Kogan, N. M., & Mechoulam, R. (2007). Cannabinoids in health and disease. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 9(4), 413–430. https://doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.2007.9.4/nkogan
  27. Fairbairn JW, Liebmann JA, Rowan MG. The stability of cannabis and its preparations on storage. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1976 Jan;28(1):1-7. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.1976.tb04014.x. PMID: 6643.
  28. Place, G., (July 2019), How to Harvest and Dry Hemp for CBD Production, retrieved from https://catawba.ces.ncsu.edu/2019/02/drying-hemp-for-cbd-production/
  29. Konieczny, E., (2018), Healing with CBD, retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  30. Ibid.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Millar S., Op. Cit.
  33. Ibid.
  34. Cannabidiol (CBD)-what we know and what we don’t https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  35. A Systematic Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Humans https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01365/full
  36. Drug Bioavailability https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/clinical-pharmacology/pharmacokinetics/drug-bioavailability
  37. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics and acute anti-inflammatory potential of two oral cannabidiol preparations in healthy adults https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ptr.6651
  38. The Use of a Water Soluble Under the Tongue (Sublingual) CBD Tablet for Treating Pain Associated With Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04088929
  39. Sublingual Cannabidiol Tablet Shows Efficacy for Treating Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Phase 2 Trial https://practicalneurology.com/news/sublingual-cannabidiol-tablet-shows-efficacy-for-treating-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-in-phase-2-trial
  40. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD) https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  41. CBD and other medications: Proceed with caution https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cbd-and-other-medications-proceed-with-caution-2021011121743
  42. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604171/
  43. Anxiety disorders https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anxiety/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350967
  44. Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals? https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246936/
  45. Healing With CBD, page 218. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  46. Ibid.
  47. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22129319/
  48. A Systematic Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Humans https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01365/full
  49. Advances in Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Approaches for Sublingual and Buccal Administration https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6848967/
  50. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics and acute anti-inflammatory potential of two oral cannabidiol preparations in healthy adults https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ptr.6651
  51. Ibid.
  52. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics and acute anti-inflammatory potential of two oral cannabidiol preparations in healthy adults https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ptr.6651
  53. Healing With CBD, page 191. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  54. Drug Bioavailability https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557852/
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Why Trust CBD Clinicals?

Our Medical Team

The following medical professionals are part of the CBD Clinicals’ medical review team. We focus on ensuring our content is accurate, evidence-based, current and trustworthy.

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Our Editorial Process

The CBD Clinicals Team is committed to producing CBD-related content that is current, factual, unbiased, evidence-based, and medically reviewed.

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Our Ethical Principles

We are committed to helping individual consumers realize the full benefits of CBD to improve their health and that of their families (including their dogs, cats & other pets).

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Our mission at CBD Clinicals is to provide the most applicable, medically reviewed CBD content on the web.

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