Best CBD Dog Treats for Joint Pain

Interested in trying CBD dog treats for your furry friend? Check out the recommended CBD dog treats to find the best one for your dog’s joint pain.

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

HolistaPet CBD Dog Treats Stress and Anxiety Relief

4.1 out of 5
  1. Enhanced with L-Theanine and Chamomile
  2. Contains other key superfoods like Hemp Seed Powder
  3. Ideal for pets who experience the ill effects of uneasiness, stress and fears.

Best CBD Purity

King Kanine King Kalm Crunch CBD Pet Treats

3.9 out of 5
  1. Comes in different flavors
  2. Free of gluten, pesticides, and solvents
  3. Free shipping on orders $100 and up

Best Review

Honest Paws Mobility - Soft Chews

3.7 out of 5
  1. Made from 100% organic, non-GMO, and locally grown hemp
  2. Upgrades your pet’s joint wellbeing
  3. 30-day money-back guarantee

Best Flavor Range

cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Treats for Dogs

3.4 out of 5
  1. Made with no meat or unnecessary additives
  2. CBD used comes from U.S. hemp that has been grown with organic farming methods
  3. Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp

Best Transparency

Honest Paws Calm - Soft Chews

3.7 out of 5
  1. Full-spectrum
  2. Made from 100% organic, non-GMO, and locally grown hemp
  3. 30-day money-back guarantee

Best CBD Dog Treats for Joint Pain 2022

  1. HolistaPet CBD Dog Treats Stress and Anxiety Relief Best Organic Dog Treats For Stress and Anxiety
  2. King Kanine King Kalm Crunch CBD Pet Treats Best CBD Purity
  3. Honest Paws Mobility - Soft Chews Best for Dog Mobility
  4. cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Treats for Dogs Best Bow Chow
  5. Honest Paws Calm - Soft Chews Best Organic Treats


Compare the Best CBD Dog Treats for Joint Pain 2022

ProductPotencyPurityCustomer ServiceTypeExtractionTransparencyAbsorption
HolistaPet CBD Dog Treats Stress and Anxiety Relief
4.1 out of 5
2.5 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
King Kanine King Kalm Crunch CBD Pet Treats
3.9 out of 5
2.5 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
Honest Paws Mobility - Soft Chews
3.7 out of 5
1.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Treats for Dogs
3.4 out of 5
1.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
Honest Paws Calm - Soft Chews
3.7 out of 5
1.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5

Best CBD Dog Treats for Joint Pain

1. HolistaPet CBD Dog Treats Stress and Anxiety Relief
cbdc overall score

4.1

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

ProsCons

Enhanced with other beneficial ingredients

A little bit pricey compared to other brands

Contains Superfoods

Has 30-day money back guarantee

Overview

Enhanced with L-Theanine and Chamomile to expand alpha wave age and lower your pet’s tension. These extraordinary flavors and calming herbs are joined with other key superfoods like Hemp Seed Powder and Pure CBD Oil to enable your canine to keep up quiet energy and a tranquil loosened up state in any unpleasant or frightening circumstance. This equation is ideal for pets who experience the ill effects of uneasiness, stress and fears.

2. King Kanine King Kalm Crunch CBD Pet Treats
cbdc overall score

3.9

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

ProsCons

Free shipping on orders $100 and up

Incomplete information on their website

Free of gluten, pesticides, and solvents

Overview

King Kanine’s King Kalm Crunch are the perfect treats for your fur-babies because aside from providing health and wellness, it also comes in different flavors for different palates. Each 80z bag has approximately 40 treats and each treat has 3-4mg of CBD.

3. Honest Paws Mobility – Soft Chews
cbdc overall score

3.7

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

ProsCons

Product offering is extensive

Most products were not tested for solvents or mycotoxins

Products are made from 100% organic, non-GMO, and locally grown hemp

Limited information on the company

30-day money-back guarantee

Available in the US only

Free shipping for orders over $49.95

Expedited delivery option is available

Overview

The Honest Paws Mobility line, as the name proposes, upholds your pet’s versatility. All the more explicitly, it upgrades your pet’s joint wellbeing so they can move about more openly. This line is extraordinary for maturing pets that are having a harder time getting around.

4. cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Treats for Dogs
cbdc overall score

3.4

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

ProsCons

One of the few companies that offer CBD Oil for horses

Low terpene and cannabinoid profile

Same CBD Oil benefits as for humans

No THC Animal-specific products (dogs, cats, horses)

Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp

Overview

These treats are made with no meat or unnecessary additives, combined with the powerful properties of CBD derived from U.S. hemp that has been grown with organic farming methods.

5. Honest Paws Calm – Soft Chews
cbdc overall score

3.7

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

ProsCons

Made from 100% organic, non-GMO, and locally grown hemp

Available in the US only

30-day money-back guarantee

Limited information on the company

Free shipping for orders over $49.95

Expedited delivery option is available

Overview

Full-spectrum hemp oil soft chew that combines naturally occurring CBD with a variety of ingredients to promote better behavior and healthy brain function in pets.

How CBD Dog Treats Help With Dog’s Joint Pain 

There are no direct studies on how CBD dog treats help with a dog’s joint pain. However, a Frontiers in Veterinary Science study showed that cannabidiol (CBD) may help with canine osteoarthritis(1).  

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease that causes pain and discomfort(2)

CBD is an active compound found in hemp and cannabis(3). It has combined immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties(4). Thus, it may be promising for a dog’s joint pain

CBD has structural similarities to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, cannabidiol is non-psychoactive. Hence, CBD does not cause a euphoric high, unlike THC(5)

Moreover, cannabidiol acts on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) of both humans and dogs. ECS is a unique communication system in the body and brain that affects many essential functions, including how your dog feels, reacts, and moves(6)

When cannabidiol is extracted and used in oils, treats, soft chews, and other CBD pet products, the non-psychoactive compound may provide various health benefits, such as joint pain relief (7)

Benefits of Using CBD Dog Treats on Dog’s Joint Pain 

There has been a growing interest in CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties that may benefit a dog with joint pain(8)

An ex vivo (outside of the living body) study published on September 4, 2021, provided the first evidence of the immunomodulatory effect of CBD in stimulated whole dog blood(9)

Immunomodulatory drugs can modify the immune system’s response by increasing or decreasing the production of serum antibodies(10)

The 2021 study showed that CBD may reduce the inflammatory response of canines induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS)(11)

LPS is a glycolipid that can stimulate the immune system and create a permeability barrier at the cell surface. In addition, LPS can contribute to the innate resistance that Gram-negative bacteria exhibit against antimicrobials(12)

The researchers observed that CBD may modulate cytokine production(13). Cytokine is a small glycoprotein that plays a role in the inflammatory process. 

The study authors hypothesized that CBD may reduce the inflammatory response of canines, as seen in dogs administered with 50ml and 100ml of CBD(14)

However, due to the lack of scientific information and research data on the use of cannabidiol in dogs, the researchers stated that the results in the ex vivo canine model are inconclusive. 

The authors encourage longitudinal studies to comprehend the purported therapeutic role of CBD in veterinary medicine(15)

Another study from the Pain Management in Veterinary Clinical Practice featured dogs administered with oral transmucosal CBD and an anti-inflammatory drug. The animal subjects showed an improved canine brief pain inventory (BPI) score(16).  

Canine BPI score allows dog owners to measure their pet’s pain(17)

When an older dog develops osteoarthritis, the treatment typically focuses on controlling pain, reducing inflammation, and improving a canine’s quality of life(18)

How Long Do CBD Dog Treats Take to Help With Dog’s Joint Pain

There is no direct research regarding the effects of CBD dog treats to help with joint pain

However, in a 2019 study, researchers tested how dogs would react in a 12-week course of CBD soft chews given twice per day. They hypothesized that hemp-based CBD may be relatively safe for healthy dogs(19).   

Furthermore, dogs appear to absorb CBD better than cats. However, the use of CBD-rich hemp products requires monitoring of liver enzyme values(20)

How Long Will CBD Dog Treats Help With Dog’s Joint Pain

No study has determined how long CBD dog treats take to help dogs with joint pain

However, research indicated that cannabidiol has low bioavailability when administered orally to dogs and humans. This phenomenon is on account of the high first-pass effect through the liver(21)

Bioavailability is the extent to which a drug becomes entirely available to one’s system(22).  

A study from the Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research indicated that a CBD-infused oil formulation had the highest systematic exposures and half-life(23)

The researchers made the hypothesis after giving 75mg or 150mg CBD doses to healthy canines every 12 hours for six weeks.  

The other delivery methods included in the study were oral microencapsulated oil beads and CBD-infused transdermal cream. 

Half-life is the time required for a substance to decrease by 50% of its starting dosage in the body(24).  

On the other hand, the transdermal application is a delivery method wherein active ingredients are delivered into the skin(25)

CBD Dosage for Dogs With Joint Pain 

There is no available dosage of CBD for dogs with joint pain. Generally, standard doses that have been shown to be effective for pain and inflammation are the mid-range doses, between 10mg to 100mg of CBD dose per day(26). 

Osteoarthritis causes chronic joint pain. This condition is also common among senior dogs and large breeds(27)

In 2018, a study from the Frontiers in Veterinary Science examined the pain-relieving effect of CBD in canines with osteoarthritis(28).  

The researchers hypothesized that if osteoarthritic dogs take 2 mg of CBD per kilogram of body weight twice daily, they may have increased comfort and activity. However, the study is inconclusive. 

Furthermore, the Food and Drug Administration or FDA has not approved cannabidiol as a medical treatment(29)

Hence, CBD oil administration should start at low doses. You may use a calibrated dropper to dispense the CBD content on your dog’s food, gradually increasing the dosage if you are not satisfied with the result. 

Remember that the amount of cannabidiol your dog needs depends on its size. A larger dog may require higher doses of CBD (8mg per kilogram) for the compound to take effect(30)

Be careful not to confuse CBD oil with hempseed oil. They are different from each other. 

Hempseed oil does not contain cannabinoids. However, your dog may still benefit from it because it is rich in nutrients and fatty acids(31).  

How Dogs With Joint Pain Can Take CBD Dog Treats 

CBD treats are an excellent method to get cannabidiol extract into your dog, especially if it enjoys treats. 

CBD extracts in dog treats are made similarly to CBD oils. However, the final oil product is infused into a chew or treat(32)

Compared to regular CBD oil for dogs, CBD treats are easier to administer because most pets enjoy them. 

However, the downside of this ingestion method is that you cannot incrementally adjust the dose. CBD treats do not provide as much dosing control as the oil tincture(33)

Choosing the Best CBD Dog Treats for Joint Pain

Most CBD brands claim to have the best and high-quality CBD products for their customers. Some companies even offer a money-back guarantee if their products fail to deliver.

When every CBD company promises the same thing, it can be challenging to determine which CBD product has the highest quality.  

To help you find the best CBD dog treats for joint pain, below are some pertinent information to consider:

1. Opt for products that are derived from organic hemp. If possible, go for non-GMO, gluten-free products or those that contain natural ingredients.

Most CBD brands grow hemp plants from their farms. The THC level of grown hemp must not exceed 0.3%(34).

2. Make sure that the CBD brand you are eyeing uses the CO2 extraction method. This process utilizes compressed carbon dioxide as the extraction solvent, avoiding toxic and flammable chemicals(35).

3. Ensure that the CBD brand you choose enlists the help of a third-party lab to test all their products. The lab report and the certificate of analysis (CoA) must be easily accessible on the company’s website.

Remember that testing CBD products, like CBD treats and soft chews, are necessary to ensure that they do not contain pesticides, preservatives, and residual solvents that can be detrimental to your dog’s health.

4. Compare the CoA with the CBD brand’s claims to determine whether the amount of CBD in their product is accurate.

Note that dogs have the highest endocannabinoid receptors in the brain compared to other species.

Aside from having multiple endocannabinoid receptors, canines are notably smaller than humans. Thus, they are more susceptible to toxicity from excessive THC consumption(36).

For these reasons, it would be best to go for THC-free CBD products if you are eager to give CBD to your dog for its joint pain.

5. Familiarize yourself with the different hemp extracts and decide which one suits your dog best.

The American Kennel Club suggests broad-spectrum CBD pet products over full-spectrum CBD oil for your pet(37).

Broad-spectrum CBD pet products contain compounds naturally found in hemp, including flavonoids, terpenes, and other cannabinoids, except for THC(38).

Flavonoids have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties(39). Terpenes are essential oils that provide distinct odor and taste to plants.

CBD isolates, meanwhile, are pure CBD(40).
A study showed that it may be more beneficial to use full-spectrum hemp oil or broad-spectrum product over isolates due to the benefits of the entourage effect(41).

The entourage effect is a proposition that all the chemical constituents in cannabis work better when taken together than when taken separately(42).

Is CBD Safe for Dogs With Joint Pain? 

There have been limited studies examining the safety of cannabidiol when used by dogs with joint pain. Nevertheless, CBD is relatively safe to use(43).  

Note that CBD does not contain intoxicating properties. Hence, your dog will not get high(44)

A 2018 survey also showed that pet owners endorsed hemp and CBD treats for dogs due to perceived improvement in multiple health issues, including pain and anxiety, with no detrimental side effects(45)

The survey results suggest that pet owners believe CBD may alleviate joint pain and help with a dog’s separation anxiety

Risks and Side Effects of Using CBD Dog Treats on Dog’s Joint Pain  

Like other medication and supplements, CBD products, such as dog treats containing CBD, also carry the risks of a reaction. 

The most common side effects of cannabidiol in dogs include(46)

  1. Dry mouth
  2. Drowsiness 
  3. Lowered blood pressure  

Other Alternative Treatments for Canine Joint Pain 

Most dogs may suffer from joint pain as they age. Apart from using the best CBD oil and other pet CBD products for your canine companion, you may also want to consider the following treatments:

  1. Glucosamine is a naturally occurring compound that may help reduce the symptoms of joint damage. Glucosamine and chondroitin joint supplements are commonly prescribed to arthritic dogs(47)
  2. Chondroitin is a dietary supplement that plays an essential role in water retention and elasticity in the cartilage(48).  
  3. Turmeric (turmeric root) is a flowering plant that may help with inflammation and pain associated with osteoarthritis(49)
  4. Chamomile is a herbal supplement that has been used as a mild sedative to alleviate anxiety, manage hysteria, and calm nerves. Chamomile may be used as a muscle relaxant with anti-inflammatory properties(50).
  5. Superfoods or nutrient-rich foods such as coconut oil may help improve your dog’s overall health and wellness(51). Flaxseed may also help your dog achieve a more beautiful hair coat and healthier skin(52)
  6. Boswellia resin is a plant-based supplement known for its anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic properties. Boswellia may provide symptomatic support in canine osteoarthritis(53)

Legality of CBD 

The current federal law may limit how most veterinarians in the U.S. can discuss the use of cannabidiol products with pet parents. Still, it should not stop you from initiating a discussion about it(54)

In addition, reading various state laws regarding CBD use is necessary to avoid legal repercussions. 

For instance, Colorado expanded its regulations regarding cannabis in 2012 by legalizing the adult use of recreational marijuana(55)

Adults Coloradans can also grow marijuana in their homes for personal use. They can grow up to six marijuana or cannabis plants, with three plants flowering at a time(56).  

Despite these developments, it is not clear whether the Centennial state allows CBD in dogs. 

Meanwhile, licensed veterinarians in Nevada can prescribe hemp and CBD products to their patients, provided that the THC content is less than 0.3%(57).  

If you live in South Dakota, the local government does not permit any CBD products. CBD or hemp oil is illegal in Mount Rushmore state(58), making possession of CBD oil and related products a violation of state law. 

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD dog treats help with a dog’s joint pain?

    Osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease (DJD) is common in canines, especially among senior dogs and large breeds. It is a progressively worsening inflammation of the joint triggered by the deterioration of cartilage(59)

    In 2021, a study from Veterinary Sciences examined the immuno-modulating and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD directly on dogs(60)

    The results showed that CBD may attenuate canine’s inflammatory response.

    Joint pain is associated with inflammation(61). Therefore, dog treats containing CBD may help with your dog’s joint pain.

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD dog treats help with a dog’s joint pain?

    There is no direct evidence that states how CBD dog treats help with a dog’s joint pain

    However, 2021 research demonstrated for the first time the anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating properties of cannabidiol directly in dogs’ immune cells(62)

    The study used a canine ex vivo inflammatory model and hypothesized that CBD may help reduce the inflammatory response of dogs. The researchers encourage further research to elucidate the purported therapeutic role of CBD in veterinary medicine(63).

  • Is there any evidence that CBD dog treats can make a dog’s joint pain worse?

    No studies indicate how CBD dog treats can make a canine’s joint pain worse. 

    However, the researchers from Cornell University tested how dogs would react in a 12-week course of CBD soft chews given twice per day(64). They indicated that hemp-based CBD may be relatively safe for healthy dogs.

  • Will CBD dog treats interact with any current medications my dog may be taking for joint pain?

    Dog treats containing CBD may interact with your dog’s other medications. 

    Researchers advise that it may not be wise to administer cannabidiol concomitantly with other medical treatments due to possible drug interactions(65)

    Although most veterinarians in the U.S. are not allowed to prescribe CBD to their patients, you should be comfortable bringing up the topic with them during consultations(66)

    Veterinarians can provide information about potential drug-to-drug interactions and even give recommendations to use other products. 

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD dog treats to help with my dog’s joint pain?

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often used for pain relief. Joint supplements, such as omega-3 fatty acids, may also help with joint issues(67)

    Make sure to consult a veterinarian before trying various treatments to alleviate your dog’s joint pain. However, note that the current federal law may limit how your veterinarian discusses CBD use with you(68)

    Still, you can be comfortable initiating a discussion with them about your furry friend’s joint health.

  • What are the possible benefits of CBD dog treats for joint pain?

    There is no specific study linking the purported benefits of CBD dog treats to the treatment of joint pain

    However, a 2018 research from the Frontiers in Veterinary Science hypothesized that CBD’s analgesic properties may help alleviate the pain caused by canine osteoarthritis(69). Osteoarthritis causes joint pain(70).

  • What is the dosage for a dog’s joint pain?

    The FDA in the USA has not approved the use of CBD products for a dog’s joint pain. There is no standard dosage of CBD specifically for a dog’s joint pain

    In addition, most veterinarians in the U.S. are not permitted to recommend CBD to their patients(71)

    However, Nevadans can consult licensed veterinarians to determine the right amount of CBD for their dogs(72)

    Gov. Steve Sisolak signed Assembly Bill 101, which made Nevada the first state to legalize the use of specific cannabis products as veterinary treatment(73).  

  • Are there any side effects of CBD dog treats for joint pain?

    Generally, using CBD products, including pet treats, may cause common side effects in dogs, including diarrhea, lower blood pressure, and drowsiness(74)

    Other ingredients in the treats may also cause adverse reactions in dogs.

  • How long do CBD dog treats take to help a dog’s joint pain?

    There is no data indicating how long it will take for CBD dog treats to help with a dog’s joint pain. 

    However, a 2020 study suggested that liposomal cannabidiol (20mg per day) may be as effective as the highest dose of non-liposomal CBD (50mg per day) in improving clinical results for canine osteoarthritis pain(75)

    Liposomal is a substance preparation in which an active ingredient is inside a tiny, fat-like particle(76).

  • What are the different CBD dog treat flavors for dogs with joint pain?

    Dogs with joint pain may enjoy human-grade dog food and organic ingredients

    Popular CBD pet brands, such as Holistapet and Honest Paws, offer CBD dog treats in various flavors, including pumpkin spice, sweet potato, peanut butter, and creamy coconut. 

    When giving CBD treats to your dog, the current federal law may limit your veterinarian in discussing the use of CBD pet products with you(77)

    However, it is still best to initiate a discussion with your vet to determine whether it is worth giving CBD treats to your dog for its joint pain.


  1. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6065210/
  2. Osteoarthritis in Dogs https://www.acvs.org/small-animal/osteoarthritis-in-dogs
  3. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  4. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10920191/
  5. Immune Responses Regulated by Cannabidiol https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7173676/
  6. Hemp Oil for Pets: Everything You Need to Know https://veterinarycannabissociety.org/hemp-oil-for-pets-everything-you-need-to-know/
  7. Ibid.
  8. Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Canine Inflammatory Response: An Ex Vivo Study on LPS Stimulated Whole Blood https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473042/
  9. Ibid.
  10. Immunomodulatory drugs: Oral and systemic adverse effects https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3909428/
  11. Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Canine Inflammatory Response: An Ex Vivo Study on LPS Stimulated Whole Blood https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473042/
  12. Function and biogenesis of lipopolysaccharides https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6091223/
  13. Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Canine Inflammatory Response: An Ex Vivo Study on LPS Stimulated Whole Blood https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473042/
  14. Ibid.
  15. Ibid.
  16. Oral Transmucosal Cannabidiol Oil Formulation as Part of a Multimodal Analgesic Regimen: Effects on Pain Relief and Quality of Life Improvement in Dogs Affected by Spontaneous Osteoarthritis https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/10/9/1505
  17. The Canine Brief Pain Inventory http://www.vet.upenn.edu/docs/default-source/VCIC/canine-bpi-user%27s-guide-2017-07
  18. Osteoarthritis in Dogs — Signs and Treatment https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/osteoarthritis-signs-treatment/
  19. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/10/832/htm
  20. Ibid.
  21. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038832/#b14-cjvr_07_178
  22. Drug Bioavailability https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557852/
  23. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038832/#b14-cjvr_07_178
  24. Half-Life https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554498/
  25. Transdermal drug delivery https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2700785/
  26. CBD: A Patient’s Guide to Medicinal Cannabis https://drive.google.com/file/d/1MILU_6ZjYkII-XMUPHLFPiPQbrz__5Sh/view
  27. Osteoarthritis in Dogs — Signs and Treatment https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/osteoarthritis-signs-treatment/
  28. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6065210/
  29. What You Need to Know (And What We’re Working to Find Out) About Products Containing Cannabis or Cannabis-derived Compounds, Including CBD https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-need-know-and-what-were-working-find-out-about-products-containing-cannabis-or-cannabis
  30. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6065210/ 
  31. Hemp Seed Oil Properties https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/hemp-seed-oil-properties.html
  32. Hemp Oil for Pets: Everything You Need to Know https://veterinarycannabissociety.org/hemp-oil-for-pets-everything-you-need-to-know/
  33. Ibid.
  34. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD) https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  35. Understanding dabs: contamination concerns of cannabis concentrates and cannabinoid transfer during the act of dabbing https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jts/40/6/40_797/_pdf/-char/en
  36. CBD: A Patient’s Guide to Medicinal Cannabis https://drive.google.com/file/d/1MILU_6ZjYkII-XMUPHLFPiPQbrz__5Sh/view
  37. Does CBD Work for Dogs? https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/does-cbd-work-for-dogs/
  38. Hemp Oil for Pets: Everything You Need to Know https://veterinarycannabissociety.org/hemp-oil-for-pets-everything-you-need-to-know/
  39. Flavonoids: an overview https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5465813/
  40. Hemp Oil for Pets: Everything You Need to Know https://veterinarycannabissociety.org/hemp-oil-for-pets-everything-you-need-to-know/
  41. Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143706/
  42. Healing with CBD https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  43. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6826847/
  44. Hemp Oil for Pets: Everything You Need to Know https://veterinarycannabissociety.org/hemp-oil-for-pets-everything-you-need-to-know/
  45. Dog owners’ use and perceptions of cannabis products https://www.ahvma.org/wp-content/uploads/AHVMA-2018-V51-CannabisUseandPerceptions.pdf
  46. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  47. Can Glucosamine for Dogs Help Treat Arthritis and Joint Pain? https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/glucosamine-dogs-arthritis-joint-pain/
  48. Chondroitin https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/chondroitin
  49. A randomized, double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of a diet supplemented with curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract in owner’s dogs with osteoarthritis https://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-017-1317-8
  50. Chamomile https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/chamomile
  51. Can My Dog Eat These Human Superfoods? https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/nutrition/can-my-dog-eat-these-human-superfoods/
  52. Effects of dietary flaxseed and sunflower seed supplementation on normal canine serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and skin and hair coat condition scores https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-3164.2001.00234.x
  53. Dietary support with Boswellia resin in canine inflammatory joint and spinal disease https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14994484/
  54. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/
  55. Legal marijuana use in Colorado https://cannabis.colorado.gov/legal-marijuana-use-in-colorado
  56. Home grow laws https://cannabis.colorado.gov/legal-marijuana-use/home-grow-laws
  57. Nevada veterinarians can treat patients with certain cannabis products https://www.avma.org/javma-news/2021-10-01/nevada-veterinarians-can-treat-patients-certain-cannabis-products
  58. ATTORNEY GENERAL RAVNSBORG CLARIFIES QUESTIONS REGARDING INDUSTRIAL HEMP AND CBD (Cannabidiol) OIL https://atg.sd.gov/OurOffice/Media/pressreleasesdetail.aspx?id=2167
  59. Osteoarthritis in Dogs — Signs and Treatment https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/osteoarthritis-signs-treatment/
  60. Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Canine Inflammatory Response: An Ex Vivo Study on LPS Stimulated Whole Blood https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473042/
  61. Osteoarthritis in Dogs — Signs and Treatment https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/osteoarthritis-signs-treatment/
  62. Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Canine Inflammatory Response: An Ex Vivo Study on LPS Stimulated Whole Blood https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473042/
  63. Ibid.
  64. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/10/832/htm
  65. The Impact of Feeding Cannabidiol (CBD) Containing Treats on Canine Response to a Noise-Induced Fear Response Test https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2020.569565/full
  66. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/
  67. Osteoarthritis in Dogs https://www.acvs.org/small-animal/osteoarthritis-in-dogs
  68. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/
  69. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6065210/
  70. Osteoarthritis in Dogs https://www.acvs.org/small-animal/osteoarthritis-in-dogs
  71. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/
  72. Nevada veterinarians can treat patients with certain cannabis products https://www.avma.org/javma-news/2021-10-01/nevada-veterinarians-can-treat-patients-certain-cannabis-products
  73. Ibid.
  74. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  75. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of daily cannabidiol for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis pain https://journals.lww.com/pain/Citation/2020/09000/A_randomized,_double_blind,_placebo_controlled.24.aspx
  76. Liposomes as Advanced Delivery Systems for Nutraceuticals https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4818067/
  77. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/ 

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