Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Pain

Are you looking for an alternative remedy to manage your dog’s pain? This article discusses the health benefits of CBD oil and how it may help your dog’s needs and overall well-being

Rating
Highlights

Editor's Choice

Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg

4.8 out of 5
  1. Has coconut oil as carrier which is generally easier on dogs
  2. Has milder taste and no flavorings
  3. Easy to use just sprinkle on dog’s food twice daily

Best CBD OIl For Dogs

Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs

4.1 out of 5
  1. Calming,
  2. Full Spectrum
  3. Contains other natural ingredients to boost immunity

Best High Potency

Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil

5 out of 5
  1. Concentrated to approximately 50mg CBD per ml of oil
  2. Great for cats, dogs and other four-legged friends
  3. Can also be used by humans

Best High Potency

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture

5 out of 5
  1. Generous on their options
  2. Different sizes and strengths available for your needs
  3. The flavor peanut butter is available perfect for pets who are picky when it comes to eating

Best Transparency

cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs

3.6 out of 5
  1. Uses hemp grown through organic farming methods.
  2. Contains CBD Oil and MCT Oil only
  3. With two yummy flavors

Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Pain 2022

  1. Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg Best Overall
  2. Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs Best Immunity Support for Dogs
  3. Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil Best Organic
  4. 4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture Best High Potency
  5. cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs Best Range


Compare the best CBD for condition in 2021

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
4.8 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs
4.1 out of 5
1.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5
3.0 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs
3.6 out of 5
1.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
3.5 out of 5
4.5 out of 5
5.0 out of 5
4.0 out of 5

Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Pain

1. Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg
cbdc overall score

4.8

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Same as human lab grade, full spectrum CBD oil

No other flavors

Easier on Dog's digestion

Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients

Overview

Spruce’s dog-friendly CBD has been specially formulated for dogs. Instead of hemp seed oil for the carrier oil, the product contains coconut oil, which is generally easier on the digestion for dogs. The taste is also milder with no flavorings, making it more likely that dogs will eat it with their food.

Using Spruce CBD for dogs is simple. All owners have to do is sprinkle the desired dose on the dog’s food at mealtime once or twice a day. Each dose should consist of about two to three drops per 20 pounds of dog weight.

2. Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs
cbdc overall score

4.1

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Product offering is extensive

Most products were not tested for solvents or mycotoxins

Products are made from 100% organic, non-GMO, and locally grown hemp

Limited information on the company

30-day money-back guarantee

Available in the US only

Free shipping for orders over $49.95

Expedited delivery option is available

Overview

A calming full-spectrum hemp oil that combines naturally occurring CBD with other ingredients for healthy immunity, calm moods, and a healthy brain.

3. Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil
cbdc overall score

5.0

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Pure CBD hemp

No other flavors

All natural

Overview

CBD for dogs, cats and other four-legged friends! Our product is concentrated to approximately 50mg cannabinoids per milliliter of oil. While this product is designed for pets, it’s great for humans, too.

4. 4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture
cbdc overall score

5.0

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Has a wide variety of CBD strengths

A bit expensive

Free shipping on $100 and up

Incomplete lab test results

Overview

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tinctures are generous on their options since there are different sizes and strengths available for you exact needs. The flavor peanut butter is available perfect for pets who are picky when it comes to eating.

5. cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs
cbdc overall score

3.6

CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency

Purity

Customer Service

Type

Extraction

Absorption

Transparency

Pros Cons

Same CBD Oil benefits as for humans

Low terpene and cannabinoid profile

No THC Animal-specific products (dogs, cats, horses)

Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp

Overview

With nothing but MCT oil combined with CBD oil sourced from U.S. hemp that is grown using organic farming methods, these CBD Oil Tinctures for Dogs can be added to their favorite foods while still providing the same effects that you enjoy. We have two flavors to choose from: Natural and Peanut Butter.

How CBD May Help With Pain in Dogs

Cannabidiol, more commonly referred to as CBD, is a component of cannabis plants (marijuana) and hemp plants that may contain analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties(1)

CBD is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid (plant-based cannabinoid), unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which causes a euphoric high(2).

CBD’s pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties are induced by activating the cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) of a dog’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). These receptors are responsible for pain and anxiety processes(3).

The ECS, found in humans and animals, is responsible for the body’s homeostatis or balance. The ECS maintains this balance by regulating pain signals that also activate inflammation(4).  

Meanwhile, a study indicated that dogs have a large number of cannabinoid receptors in their brain, making these animals more sensitive to cannabinoids and more prone to THC toxicity(5).

However, CBD may help in counteracting THC’s harmful effects when the two compounds are administered simultaneously(6).

Benefits of Using CBD for Pain in Dogs

A study in 2018 investigated the effects of CBD oil in dogs with osteoarthritis(7)

The study hypothesized that hemp-based CBD dog treats may have therapeutic properties that may reduce joint pain, inflammation, digestive system issues, and itching in dogs(8).

However, there is a lack of evidence regarding CBD’s efficacy against chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis(9)

Meanwhile, research done on rats and mice indicated that CBD and THC may be effective in managing difficult-to-treat pain(10)

Additionally, a 2018 study on kidney transplant patients who were given 50 to 150 mg of CBD for pain management indicated that the compound may reduce pain from kidney surgery(11)

Due to the research findings on both human and animal subjects, CBD’s purported benefits may be a possible subject for future research on dogs. 

How to Give Dogs CBD Oil for Pain

There are various forms of dog CBD oil you can give your furry friend(12):

  • CBD tinctures 
  • Edibles
  • Topicals

CBD oil tinctures are available in flavored or unflavored variants. They can be administered under your pet’s tongue or mixed into your dog’s food

Tinctures come with a dropper for a measured CBD dosage administration.

Meanwhile, edibles such as dog treats, CBD-infused peanut butter, and chews are a convenient way to give your furry friends CBD, especially if they are picky eaters or do not like the compound’s natural flavor(13).

Lastly, CBD topicals like creams, salves, and balms are applied on your dog’s skin for localized pain relief from joint pains, sunburn, and itching(14).

CBD Dosage for Pain in Dogs

Currently, there is no standard CBD dosage authorized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat and manage pain in canines. 

However, a study published in 2021 in the American Journal of Veterinary Research investigated the effectiveness of CBD administered orally to healthy dogs(15).

The researchers noted that 1 to 12 mg/kg, or milligrams of cannabidiol per kilogram of the dog’s body weight, given to twenty adult beagles once a day for 28 days, were well tolerated by the canine subjects. 

Additionally, a 2019 research noted that a 2mg/kg dose of CBD may have no damaging side effects in healthy dogs and cats(16).

Still, dog owners should be cautious when giving higher doses of CBD to their pet dogs. A high CBD dosage may induce side effects such as drowsiness, dry mouth, and low blood pressure(17).

In addition, caution should be exercised when administering CBD oil containing THC to your dogs, as this psychoactive compound may be toxic to dogs at certain doses(18).  

The weight and size of your pet may also influence the CBD dosage. For example, large dogs may need higher doses than small dogs.

If your pet is in pain, such as joint pain, it is essential to inform your veterinarian immediately. Speak to the veterinarian about your dog’s condition so they can give the proper diagnosis and available treatment options.

Should you decide that CBD may be a plausible alternative for your pet, research the current federal and state laws. Most state regulations prevent veterinarians from suggesting, prescribing, or administering cannabis products on animals(19)

It is highly recommended that you research more information on which brand offers the best CBD for dogs before using it on your pet. 

How Long Does CBD Take to Help With Pain in Dogs?

CBD may have different onset times depending on the compound’s dosage and administration method.

CBD tinctures, usually administered via sublingual administration or applying CBD oil under the pet’s tongue, allow the compound to bypass the gastrointestinal tract and directly enter the bloodstream. 

This method may lead to a faster onset time compared to other methods.

Meanwhile, orally-administered CBD such as edibles and capsules allows CBD oil to pass through the digestive tract before being absorbed by the liver. Thus, the oral administration method may have a slower onset time than sublingual application. 

Lastly, topical CBD products like creams, lotions, and salves may take effect depending on the thickness of the dog’s skin, as topicals do not get absorbed into the bloodstream. 

Additionally, aside from the route of administration and CBD dosage, the compound’s onset time may also vary depending on the canine’s weight, size, and metabolism(20).

How Long Will CBD Help With Pain in Dogs?

No clinical research has shown how long CBD oil takes to help with pain in dogs. 

However, studies have discussed that cannabidiol, when administered orally to dogs and humans, has low bioavailability due to the high first-pass effect through the liver(21)

Bioavailability refers to the duration when a medication becomes wholly available in one’s system(22).  

How to Choose the Best CBD Oil for Pain in Dogs

It can be challenging to decide which CBD product has the highest quality due to many CBD companies marketing the same products. 

To help consumers find the best CBD oil for dogs, here is some crucial information to remember: 

Type of CBD

Full-spectrum CBD oil (also called full-spectrum hemp oil) has all the cannabinoids and cannabis-derived compounds, like flavonoids, terpenes, and a less than 0.3% THC concentration

Flavonoids may contain antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties, whereas terpenes are responsible for the cannabis plants’ distinct fragrance and taste(23).  

It is important to note that when pets ingest high amounts of THC, they may experience vomiting, tremors, and lethargy, indicating THC toxicity(24). For this reason, pet owners usually opt for broad-spectrum CBD oil pet products(25)

Broad-spectrum CBD oil is THC-free while still containing all other cannabinoids and compounds of the cannabis plant(26).

Lastly, CBD isolates are pure cannabidiol

Hemp Source

It is essential to identify the hemp source of your CBD products before purchasing them. 

Some CBD products may contain substances such as fertilizers, pesticides, heavy metals, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be harmful to consumers’ health. 

It is best to choose CBD products produced by trusted companies that provide cruelty-free, non-GMO CBD extracts made from organic hemp

Extraction Methods

There are various extraction methods for obtaining hemp extracts, such as steam distillation and ethanol, natural solvent, and carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction.

The most utilized extraction technique is the CO2 extraction method, wherein compressed CO2 is used as the extraction solvent(27).

Overall Quality

Reputable CBD brands that produce high-quality CBD oil may use non-GMO hemp oil and organic hemp

 Many CBD brands offer CBD dog treats made from gluten-free, non-GMO, and human-grade ingredients.

Ingredients

It is essential to go over the ingredients list of CBD pet products as they may contain potential allergens that can trigger allergic reactions on your dog. 

Choosing organic CBD products with the highest quality and made from non-GMO and natural ingredients is recommended. 

Third-Party Lab Testing

Ensure that the CBD brand uses third-party lab testing for its products. The lab reports and certificates of analysis (COA) should be posted on the company’s website. 

COAs are third-party lab results that show the CBD product’s actual content and disclose the presence of contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, and preservatives that can be harmful to your dog’s health.

The labels on the CBD products should match the details in the COA.

Carrier Oil

Cannabidiol is usually infused with a carrier oil like coconut oil, MCT oil, or hempseed oil.  

Hempseed oil” is different from “hemp oil.” Hemp oil, also known as CBD oil, is an essential oil from the leaves and flowers of hemp plants, while hempseed oil is made from pressed seeds of hemp. 

Hempseed oil contains fatty acids and nutrients but does not have CBD(28)

Website and Customer Service

CBD brands often offer a 30-day money-back guarantee for their customers’ satisfaction.

Honest Paws, HolistaPet, CBDfx, Medterra, and Colorado Healing Acres are a few examples of CBD companies that aim to provide high-quality pet CBD oil products.

Is CBD Safe for My Dog to Take?

Studies investigating the effectiveness and safety of cannabidiol when used for pain in dogs are limited. Nonetheless, CBD is relatively safe to use on healthy dogs(29).  

It is important to note that CBD does not have any intoxicating properties. Thus, the compound will not make your dog high(30)

A survey conducted in 2018 showed that pet owners supported hemp and CBD-infused treats for dogs due to the perceived improvement of their pets’ multiple health issues, such as anxiety and pain, without any significant side effects(31)

The results of the survey also suggest that pet owners believe CBD may relieve joint pain and help manage dogs’ separation anxiety

Risks and Side Effects of Using CBD for Pain in Dogs

Some possible side effects of CBD in dogs may include loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy. Additionally, CBD may cause ataxia when taken in large doses. This condition affects the canine’s coordination and balance(32).

Other side effects of CBD in canines are low blood pressure, dry mouth, and drowsiness(33)

Meanwhile, a study published in 2020 investigated the safety of giving higher CBD doses in healthy dogs. The researchers hypothesized that canines may tolerate up to 640.5mg or around 64.7mg/kg of CBD(34).

The study also suggested that CBD oil formulations that consist of higher CBD content are well tolerated and safer than formulations with higher THC content.

If your dog is prescribed other medications, it is important to note that CBD may inhibit the effects of those drugs. 

CBD is an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 enzyme, which plays a role in metabolizing drugs. The inhibition of this enzyme may lead to medication remaining unmetabolized in the system.  

The American Kennel Club advised that whenever pet owners give their dogs a new supplement, it is preferable to start with small amounts and closely monitor its effects(35).

It is also vital to seek professional advice from your veterinarian regarding your dog’s medical condition and medication before giving CBD products to your pet.

Legality of CBD

Federal laws and some state laws restrict veterinarians from recommending, prescribing, administering, or dispensing cannabis or any cannabis-derived products to their clients(36).

Despite this, pet owners should be comfortable initiating a conversation about CBD oil with their veterinarians. 

It is highly recommended that before giving your dog CBD oil for pain, make sure to verify individual state laws regarding cannabidiol use to avoid legal repercussions. 

Remember that different states may set various laws and regulations about the use of CBD products

In 2021, Assembly Bill 101 was signed by Governor Steve Sisolak, which made Nevada the first state in the USA to authorize cannabinoids as veterinary treatment. 

Thus, licensed veterinarians in Nevada can give patients cannabis products as long as the THC level is less than 0.3%(37)

Note that when your dog consumes excessive amounts of cannabis with THC, THC intoxication may result, affecting your dog’s muscle coordination, leading to balancing issues(38)

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD help with pain in dogs?

    CBD helps by interacting with dogs’ endocannabinoid system and influencing their body’s pain and inflammatory responses. This interaction may relieve pain in dogs(39).

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps with pain in dogs?

    CBD may contain therapeutic benefits that may relieve pain and inflammation(40)

    A 2018 study showed that the compound may reduce pain experienced by dogs with osteoarthritis without any detrimental side effects(41).

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can make the pain in dogs worse?

    Currently, there is no conclusive evidence suggesting CBD may worsen dogs’ pain. However, CBD may induce side effects in canines such as dry mouth, drowsiness, and low blood pressure(42).

    CBD products that have high THC levels may be toxic for your dog(43). Talking to your veterinarian regarding your dog’s medical condition and researching the THC content of CBD products before giving them to your pet is vital.

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication my dog may be taking for pain?

    CBD may interact with your dog’s other prescribed medication by inhibiting the P450 enzyme in your pet’s system. This effect may obstruct the metabolization of drugs(44).

    Asking your veterinarian about any potential drug-to-drug interactions is essential.

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD to help with my dog’s pain?

    Treatments for your dog’s pain may differ depending on the canine’s medical condition.

    Pet owners should consult a veterinarian for treatments that may be taken alongside CBD for dogs suffering from pain.

  • What is the CBD dosage for pain in dogs?

    Presently, there is no standard CBD dosage for pain in dogs. However, research indicated that two milligrams of CBD per kilogram of the dog’s body weight may cause no negative side effects in dogs(45).

  • Are there any side effects of CBD products?

    Side effects of CBD in canines include low blood pressure, dry mouth, and drowsiness(46)

    Dogs that ingest CBD may also experience loss of appetite, lethargy, diarrhea, and vomiting(47)

  • Do vets recommend CBD oil for dogs?

    Many veterinarians endorse the use of CBD on animals due to the compound’s suggested benefits on managing pain and anxiety in humans(48)

    However, federal and some state laws prohibit veterinarians from discussing CBD with their clients. Still, pet owners may start a conversation with their vets regarding the use of CBD for their dogs(49).

    Meanwhile, veterinarians in Nevada may recommend and administer CBD products as long as the products contain less than 0.3% THC concentration(50).

  • Can CBD oil for dogs be used long-term?

    There is no specific research regarding the use of CBD oil for dogs in long-term durations. It is best to thoroughly research more information regarding the use of CBD for dogs before giving it to your pet.

  • How long does CBD take before it starts working for pain in dogs?

    The onset time of CBD may vary depending on the size of your dog. Larger dog breeds may require higher doses before they feel the effects of CBD(51)

    In general, orally ingested CBD has an onset time of 30 minutes(52). Still, consulting your veterinarian before buying any CBD products for your pet is highly encouraged. 

  • Can a dog overdose on CBD?

    There are no clinical studies on whether or not dogs can overdose on CBD. However, CBD products that contain high levels of THC may be toxic for dogs(53).

  • Can dogs get high on CBD?

    CBD is a non-psychoactive compound. Thus, it will not cause a euphoric high(54).

  • Is CBD oil legal?

    The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) advocated for CBD manufacturers to seek authorization from the FDA to guarantee the quality and safety of CBD for dogs(55). Licensed veterinarians in the U.S. cannot recommend CBD to their clients(56)

    However, veterinarians in Nevada are allowed to give patients cannabis products as long as the product contains less than 0.3% THC concentration(57)

    Nevada is the first state in the USA to legalize the use of specific cannabis products as a treatment for animals(58)


  1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of daily cannabidiol for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis pain
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32345916/
  2. The Endocannabinoid System of Animals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770351/
  3. CBD for dogs with arthritis: What does the science actually say?
    https://caninearthritis.org/cbd-for-dogs-with-arthritis-claims/
  4. The Endocannabinoid System of Animals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770351/
  5. The Endocannabinoid System of Animals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770351/
  6. ibid.
  7. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00165/full
  8. ibid.
  9. ibid.
  10. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2503660/
  11. Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29579828/
  12. Page 182 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  13. Page 182 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  14. Page 182 of Healing With CBD
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  15. Randomized, placebo-controlled, 28-day safety and pharmacokinetics evaluation of repeated oral cannabidiol administration in healthy dogs
    https://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/full/10.2460/ajvr.82.5.405
  16. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats
    https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/10/832
  17. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  18. Can CBD Oil Help Dogs With Epilepsy?
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-for-dog-seizures/
  19. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/
  20. Is CBD safe for dogs? Guidelines from vets about giving your dog CBD
    https://www.insider.com/cbd-for-dogs
  21. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038832/#b14-cjvr_07_178
  22. Drug Bioavailability
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557852/
  23. Flavonoids: an overview
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5465813/
  24. Marijuana Poisoning in Dogs
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/marijuana-poisoning-in-dogs/
  25. Does CBD Work for Dogs?
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/does-cbd-work-for-dogs/
  26. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340472/
  27. Understanding Dabs: Contamination Concerns of Cannabis Concentrates and Cannabinoid Transfer During the Act of Dabbing
    https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jts/40/6/40_797/_pdf/-char/en
  28. Hemp Seed Oil Properties
    https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/hemp-seed-oil-properties.html
  29. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6826847/
  30. Hemp Oil for Pets: Everything You Need to Know
    https://veterinarycannabissociety.org/hemp-oil-for-pets-everything-you-need-to-know/
  31. Dog owners’ use and perceptions of cannabis products
    https://www.ahvma.org/wp-content/uploads/AHVMA-2018-V51-CannabisUseandPerceptions.pdf
  32. FAQs about CBD Use in Pets
    https://www.aspcapro.org/resource/faqs-about-cbd-use-pets
  33. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  34. Preliminary Investigation of the Safety of Escalating Cannabinoid Doses in Healthy Dogs
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029731/
  35. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  36. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/
  37. Nevada veterinarians can treat patients with certain cannabis products
    https://www.avma.org/javma-news/2021-10-01/nevada-veterinarians-can-treat-patients-certain-cannabis-products
  38. CBD: A Patient’s Guide to Medical Cannabis
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1MILU_6ZjYkII-XMUPHLFPiPQbrz__5Sh/view
  39. CBD for dogs with arthritis: What does the science actually say?
    https://caninearthritis.org/cbd-for-dogs-with-arthritis-claims/
  40. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of daily cannabidiol for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis pain
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32345916/
  41. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6065210/
  42. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  43. CBD for animals
    https://anticruelty.org/pet-library/cbd-animals
  44. FAQs about CBD Use in Pets
    https://www.aspcapro.org/resource/faqs-about-cbd-use-pets
  45. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats
    https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/10/832
  46. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  47. FAQs about CBD Use in Pets
    https://www.aspcapro.org/resource/faqs-about-cbd-use-pets
  48. US Veterinarians’ Knowledge, Experience, and Perception Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol for Canine Medical Conditions
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00338/full
  49. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/
  50. Nevada veterinarians can treat patients with certain cannabis products
    https://www.avma.org/javma-news/2021-10-01/nevada-veterinarians-can-treat-patients-certain-cannabis-products
  51. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats
    https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/10/832
  52. Healing with CBD. page. 182
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AGlxnhS2SoFeOXEuysv75bd_C9pEnwsU/view
  53. CBD for animals
    https://anticruelty.org/pet-library/cbd-animals
  54. The Endocannabinoid System of Animals
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770351/
  55. CBD for dogs with arthritis: What does the science actually say?
    https://caninearthritis.org/cbd-for-dogs-with-arthritis-claims/
  56. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/
  57. Nevada veterinarians can treat patients with certain cannabis products
    https://www.avma.org/javma-news/2021-10-01/nevada-veterinarians-can-treat-patients-certain-cannabis-products
  58. ibid.

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