Can CBD Help With Spinal Stenosis?

  • Research in 2018 revealed that cannabidiol (CBD) and medical cannabis have analgesic properties helpful in the pain management of patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)[1]. Back pain is a symptom of spinal stenosis.
  • A 2020 study reported that neuropathic pain, another spinal stenosis symptom, might be reduced significantly through the use of CBD[2]. The participants who took CBD also experienced alleviation of their cold and itchy sensations.
  • A review of different studies published in CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets concluded that CBD had anxiety-reducing and antidepressant effects on animals[3].
  • Anxiety and depression are linked with chronic back pain, a symptom associated with spinal stenosis[4].
  • The literature available is limited to CBD’s effects on spinal stenosis symptoms. Further research on CBD as a treatment option for the nerve-related medical condition is warranted. 

Best CBD Oils for Spinal Stenosis

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for New CBD users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Score breakdown
    Value
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  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Check Latest Prices

Best Value

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Value
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Various delicious flavors to choose from
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Free shipping for this particular product within USA
    •  World-class customer service team
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1500mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    Flavours Natural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range $99.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Daily CBD oil users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why People Are Turning to CBD for Spinal Stenosis

Doctors prescribe over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen, antidepressants (like amitriptyline), anti-seizure drugs, and opioids for spinal stenosis[5]. However, these medications may have harmful side effects.

Antidepressants may cause dry mouth, difficulty urinating, constipation, blurred vision, and lowered blood pressure. It may also cause palpitations, weight gain, anorexia, dizziness, insomnia, headaches, and nervousness in some people[6].

Meanwhile, anti-seizure medications may lead to the induction of suicidal thoughts or actions and the worsening of depression. Some of these drugs may also cause severe blood disorders and skin reactions, development of kidney stones, and liver injury[7].

Opioids, the most potent pain-relieving medications, also come with several side effects, such as dizziness, constipation, drowsiness, and hallucinations. Some people may also experience lowered heart rate, decreased blood pressure, nausea, sexual dysfunction, and itching unrelated to allergies[8].

CBD may have properties useful in treating symptoms associated with spinal stenosis.

CBD for Back Pain

Back pain is one of the symptoms associated with spinal stenosis[9].

A study archived in the Journal of Pain Research examined the effects of CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on 11 patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)[10].

The FBSS patients reported moderate to severe chronic pain and persistent low back pain.

The participants received spinal cord stimulation (SCS) treatment combined with CBD and THC for 12 months. The researchers observed that the test subjects’ pain perception decreased significantly.

The authors suggested that the cannabinoids CBD and THC might have analgesic effects. These properties might be useful in treating chronic refractory pain (hard-to-control pain) experienced by FBSS patients.

Cannabinoids are substances that help the endocannabinoid system (ECS) maintain natural harmony in the body[11]. They may come from the body, made in laboratories, or extracted from the Cannabis sativa plant, such as CBD and THC.

Compared with THC, CBD does not have psychoactive effects.

A review in the journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management outlined the analgesic effects of cannabinoids, such as CBD. The researchers discussed the ability of these cannabinoids to manage pain that is difficult to treat[12].

The authors also noted that these cannabinoids demonstrated other benefits, like antiemetic (vomit-preventing), neuroprotective, antioxidant, and proapoptotic properties.

Proapoptotic substances promote apoptosis, the process of programmed cell death, which eliminates unwanted cells in the body[13].

CBD for Neuropathic Pain

Several spinal disorders, such as spinal stenosis, spinal cord injury, and radiculopathy (pinched nerve) due to herniated discs, are common causes of neuropathic pain[14].

Research conducted in 2020 and documented in Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology investigated the efficacy of CBD oil in managing neuropathic pain in 29 patients with peripheral neuropathy[15].

The participants who received CBD reported that their severe pain and cold, itchy sensations reduced significantly. They also did not experience adverse effects.

The authors concluded that CBD oil’s transdermal application might help with significant improvement in pain and other disturbing sensations in peripheral neuropathy patients.

In multiple sclerosis, chronic neuropathic pain is a symptom detrimental to patients’ quality of life[16].

Authors of a study in the journal Frontiers in Neurology reported that CBD might help improve the mobility of people with multiple sclerosis[17]

They also added that CBD had properties that reduced spasticity (muscle tightening), pain, inflammation, depression, and fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis.

CBD for Anxiety and Depression

According to Harvard Medical School, chronic back pain is connected to an individual’s state of mind. Limited movement may result in psychological distress, which can worsen lower back pain[18].

Emotions, like anxiety, have a significant influence on chronic back pain. Emotional control may also become more difficult[19].

A 2017 study documented in The Spine Journal found that chronic low back pain increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression symptoms[20]

However, the authors could not determine whether these symptoms cause back pain or the pain-related condition causes anxiety and depression symptoms.

A 2014 review found in CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets reported that CBD had anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing) and antidepressant effects on several animal models[21]

The literature review revealed that these properties might be caused by the interaction between CBD and the 5-HT1A neurotransmitter, a serotonin receptor subtype.

Serotonin is a vital hormone that helps stabilize mood, happiness, and feelings of well-being. Low serotonin levels are associated with several behavioral and emotional disorders, such as depression and anxiety[22].

A non-systematic literature review in the journal Frontiers in Immunology outlined CBD’s anxiolytic, neuroprotective, and antipsychotic properties[23]

The researchers also concluded that CBD might be promising in treating depression, sleep disorders, post-traumatic stress, epilepsy, and substance abuse.

How CBD Oil Works to Alleviate Symptoms of Spinal Stenosis

CBD’s purported ability to target serotonin receptors may help with the pain and anxiolytic symptoms associated with spinal stenosis.

A 2014 study documented in the British Journal of Pharmacology stated that CBD inhibited chemotherapy medication-induced neuropathic pain[24]

The researchers discovered that the substance produced analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties because of its interaction with the 5-HT1A (serotonin) receptor.

A 2019 study archived in the journal Pain showed that CBD decreased anxiety-like behavior and normalized 5-HT1A activity in a mouse model of neuropathic pain[25]

The rodent test subjects were treated with CBD for one week. The authors also reported that CBD reduced mechanical allodynia. 

Mechanical allodynia is a nerve-related condition characterized by pain from supposedly non-painful stimuli, such as a light touch to the skin[26].

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Spinal Stenosis

The Pros 

  • Previously cited research studies in humans and animals showed that CBD might be promising in alleviating spinal stenosis pain symptoms.
  • Compared with conventional medications for spinal stenosis, CBD is well-tolerated and has an excellent safety profile, as found by the World Health Organization (WHO)[27].
  • According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, CBD seems to be a safe drug with no addictive effects[28]
  • In states that allow CBD use, CBD products may be purchased without a prescription.

The Cons

  • More clinical trials, animal research, and human studies should be conducted to assess CBD’s effects on spinal column conditions, such as spinal stenosis.
  • CBD may still cause side effects, including nausea, fatigue, and irritability[29]
  • Spinal stenosis medications, such as antidepressants and antiepileptics, may have drug interactions with CBD that could potentially be adverse[30]. Thus, CBD should not be combined with these medications. 
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) does not support CBD use for medical conditions other than epilepsy[31].

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Spinal Stenosis

Individuals with spinal stenosis may explore alternative treatments for their health conditions.

A 2016 case study used massage therapy to relieve chronic low back pain in a patient with spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, scoliosis, and disc degeneration-related disease[32]. 

The 61-year-old male exhibited improvement in 9 out of 10 measurements of self-reported pain and activities of daily living. 

Dramatic differences were seen in the test subject’s post-massage therapy, such as improvements in the ability to walk and changes in degrees of pain.

According to the patient, he was able to decrease his pain medication. He was also able to ride his bicycle for the first time in years.

Researchers concluded that massage therapy is a promising treatment accessible and cost-efficient compared with other invasive therapies. They also recommend that this approach should be used as an adjunct therapy to regular medical care.

Another alternative remedy for spinal stenosis is chiropractic treatment[33].

A literature review in the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine investigated the effects of chiropractic treatment on lumbar spinal stenosis. The researchers concluded that the alternative practice might have beneficial effects on the spine-related condition[34].

Still, they recognize that the research is limited and that further clinical investigations should be conducted on chiropractic medicine as an alternative treatment for the different types of spinal stenosis.

Chiropractic treatment involves trained specialists using a small instrument or their hands to apply controlled and sudden forces to the spinal joint. This procedure aims to improve spinal motion and the body’s physical function[35].

Like massage therapy, CBD may help relieve pain due to its analgesic properties[36].

Meanwhile, compared to chiropractic treatment, CBD may also help improve the mobility of people with some conditions that affect the central nervous system, like multiple sclerosis[37].

Surgeries and Future Treatments

Individuals who do not experience pain relief from conventional spinal stenosis treatments, such as physical therapy and pain medications, should consider surgery[38].

Surgery relieves spinal cord and nerve root pressure by creating more space in the spinal canal.

Still, spinal stenosis surgery may have risks, including infection, bleeding, nerve injury, and stiffness[39].

The latest treatment being developed for spinal stenosis is the use of stem cells to treat degenerative spinal diseases. This approach is called regenerative medicine[40].

Stem cells have great potential to develop into various body cell types. They are seen as a repair system for the body[41].

How to Choose the Right CBD for Spinal Stenosis

A 2020 review of scientific research showed that CBD and THC had analgesic properties useful in managing chronic neuropathic pain[42].

However, medical marijuana use is not legal in all US states[43]

Full-spectrum CBD products contain legal amounts of THC. This CBD type also uses all the components of the cannabis plant, such as terpenes, flavonoids, essential oils, and fatty acids. 

It is believed that all these ingredients work together to derive the full therapeutic benefits of the Cannabis sativa plant in a process known as the entourage effect. Thus, full-spectrum CBD oils may be beneficial for treating spinal stenosis.

However, individuals should note that some drug tests may still detect the THC composition of full-spectrum products. 

A THC-free CBD type that contains all the other ingredients of the cannabis plant may also be an option. This type is called broad-spectrum CBD. 

Another option is pure, isolated cannabidiol, known as CBD isolates.

Buyers should refer to the following guidelines to ensure that CBD products are of high-quality:

  1. Check with the local government if CBD purchase and use are legal in the area.
  2. Ensure that the products are high-quality, non-GMO, and organic hemp-derived CBD. 
  3. Read online reviews, especially when the CBD manufacturer has no brick-and-mortar store. These comments and feedback offer genuine and often useful insights from real customers. Always ensure that the government has authorized the store to sell CBD products.
  4. CBD products have different extraction methods. Learning about the extraction process of a CBD product is essential. According to research, the US FDA in pharmaceutical manufacturing acknowledges that CO2 extraction is safe[44].
  5. Search for reports, such as the certificate of analysis of CBD products. These documents verify the validity of the product’s claims and potency. Credible CBD companies employ third-party, independent laboratories to examine their products.
  6. Ensure that the products are legitimate. Researchers reviewed 84 CBD products bought online and found that 26% contained less CBD than labeled, while 43% contained more CBD than what was declared on the product label[45]. They also discovered that 21% contained THC amounts that were enough to get children high.
  7. Consult with a healthcare professional before using any CBD products.

CBD Dosage for Spinal Stenosis

CBD remains to be unregulated. Hence, there is no standard dosage chart for cannabidiol use in treating spinal stenosis nerve pain and other symptoms. 

For CBD dosing, people are recommended to“start low and go slow.” Initial dosage may be small amounts and, if no harmful side effects are observed, the dose may be increased gradually.

Individuals are encouraged to document their reactions to CBD during treatment. Recording their experiences with CBD in a journal may help. 

Always first consult with a doctor before taking any CBD product.

How to Take CBD for Spinal Stenosis

Researchers of a study found that the transdermal application of CBD was optimal for inflammation and pain relief in rodent models of arthritis. They stated that topical CBD application avoided first-pass metabolism and provided more constant plasma levels[46].

The first pass effect happens when a substance or drug gets metabolized at a specific body location, resulting in the reduced active drug concentration when it reaches the site of action[47]

To relieve neck pain and other spinal stenosis symptoms, topicals, like CBD creams, balms, lotions, and salves, may be applied to the painful body part. 

Some topicals have ingredients, like menthol and peppermint, which may be soothing, especially when massaged to the affected area.

CBD oils and tinctures may also be useful for individuals with spinal stenosis. Oils may be taken directly or mixed with food and beverages.

These oils may also be massaged into the painful areas. Meanwhile, tinctures (drops) may be applied under the tongue for added efficacy. 

Some formats allow CBD to be ingested, such as pills, soft gels, edibles, and gummies. 

These ingestible forms may be useful for individuals with spinal stenosis who need a convenient and consistent dosage of CBD.

CBD is available in a vape pen format. Inhalation of CBD may be useful for those with spinal stenosis who want to see instantaneous effects.

However, it may be hard to determine the exact CBD amounts when the substance is taken through vape. Lung problems are also associated with vaping[48].

Understanding Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is characterized by the narrowing of spaces within the spine. This occurrence may add pressure to the nerves that travel through the spine. In most cases, the condition affects the lower back and neck[49].

Some individuals do not exhibit spinal stenosis symptoms, while others experience pain, numbness, tingling sensations, and muscle weakness. 

This medical condition is commonly caused by the wearing down of the spine, which is related to osteoarthritis.

Spinal stenosis is classified according to where it occurs in the spine. The two primary types are cervical stenosis (neck area) and lumbar stenosis (lower back area)[50].

Cervical stenosis symptoms include[51]:

  • Tingling sensations or numbness in the hand, arm, foot, or leg
  • Weakness in the hand, arm, foot, or leg
  • Walking and balancing problems
  • Neck pain
  • Bowel or bladder dysfunction (in more severe cases)

Meanwhile, lumbar stenosis symptoms include:

  • Tingling sensations or numbness in the foot or leg
  • Foot or leg weakness
  • Pain or cramping on the legs after a person walks or stands for a long time
  • Back pain

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis vs. Ruptured Disc

Lumbar spinal stenosis is different from a ruptured disc. A ruptured disc, or an intervertebral disc that has undergone herniation, pinches one or two nerves at a time. The pain caused by a herniated disc is known as sciatica[52]

Sciatica, which causes back pain that affects the leg, may happen at any time. This occurrence is different from pain experienced during stenosis, which happens when those with the condition stand or start walking.

CBD Legality

During the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, hemp was removed from the controlled substances act of the US Drug Enforcement Administration[53]. Hence, federal laws allow the production and marketing of hemp.

The law defines industrial hemp as any part of the Cannabis sativa plant that contains less than 0.30% of THC on a dry weight basis. Therefore, CBD is legal under federal laws.

Meanwhile, THC, which is being promoted by marijuana doctors for medical use, is not legal in all US states[54].

Under the DEA, marijuana, heroin (an opiate), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), ecstasy, peyote, and methaqualone are listed as schedule I drugs or substances[55].

Schedule I substances are not accepted for medical use. They also have a high potential for abuse.

Conclusion

Currently, there are no studies on CBD’s effects on spinal stenosis. However, research found that CBD might have therapeutic benefits on symptoms related to the medical condition.

Researchers discovered that CBD might help with back pain, neuropathic pain, anxiety, depression, and other spinal stenosis symptoms.

For spinal stenosis, topical or transdermal CBD is recommended. Other formats, such as CBD oils and tinctures, may also be useful. 

Further research on CBD as a potential treatment for spinal stenosis is warranted. 

Before taking CBD for any medical condition, individuals are encouraged to speak to medical professionals first.


  1. Mondello, E., Quattrone, D., Cardia, L., Bova, G., Mallamace, R., Barbagallo, A. A., Mondello, C., Mannucci, C., Di Pietro, M., Arcoraci, V., & Calapai, G. (2018). Cannabinoids and spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome refractory pain. Journal of pain research, 11, 1761–1767. https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S166617
  2. Xu, D. H., Cullen, B. D., Tang, M., & Fang, Y. (2020). The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in Symptomatic Relief of Peripheral Neuropathy of the Lower Extremities. Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 21(5), 390–402. https://doi.org/10.2174/1389201020666191202111534
  3. de Mello Schier, A. R., de Oliveira Ribeiro, N. P., Coutinho, D. S., Machado, S., Arias-Carrión, O., Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Nardi, A. E., & Silva, A. C. (2014). Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets, 13(6), 953–960. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871527313666140612114838
  4. Fernandez, M., Colodro-Conde, L., Hartvigsen, J., Ferreira, M. L., Refshauge, K. M., Pinheiro, M. B., Ordoñana, J. R., & Ferreira, P. H. (2017). Chronic low back pain and the risk of depression or anxiety symptoms: insights from a longitudinal twin study. The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society, 17(7), 905–912. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2017.02.009
  5. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2018, March 08). Spinal stenosis. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/spinal-stenosis/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20352966
  6. Morelli, J., MS, RPh. (n.d.). Pain Relief Medications: OTC, Prescription and Side Effects. Retrieved from https://www.rxlist.com/pain_medications/drug-class.htm
  7. Morelli, J., MS, Rph. (n.d.). Seizure Medications List – Common Side Effects and Uses. Retrieved from https://www.rxlist.com/seizure_medications/drug-class.htm
  8. Morelli, J. Pain Relief Medications: OT, Prescription, and Side Effects. op. Cit.
  9. Mayo Clinic Staff. op. Cit.
  10. Mondello, E. op. cit.
  11. Human Endocannabinoid System. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.uclahealth.org/cannabis/human-endocannabinoid-system
  12. Russo E. B. (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 4(1), 245–259. https://doi.org/10.2147/tcrm.s1928
  13. Apoptosis. (n.d.). Retrieved August 06, 2020, from https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/apoptosis
  14. Song, K. S., Cho, J. H., Hong, J. Y., Lee, J. H., Kang, H., Ham, D. W., & Ryu, H. J. (2017). Neuropathic Pain Related with Spinal Disorders: A Systematic Review. Asian spine journal, 11(4), 661–674. https://doi.org/10.4184/asj.2017.11.4.661
  15. Xu, D. H. op. cit. 
  16. Murphy KL, Bethea JR, Fischer R. Neuropathic Pain in Multiple Sclerosis—Current Therapeutic Intervention and Future Treatment Perspectives. In: Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ, editors. Multiple Sclerosis: Perspectives in Treatment and Pathogenesis [Internet]. Brisbane (AU): Codon Publications; 2017 Nov 27. Chapter 4. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470151/ doi: 10.15586/codon.multiplesclerosis.2017.ch4
  17. Rudroff, T., & Sosnoff, J. (2018). Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis. Frontiers in neurology, 9, 183. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00183
  18. Pillay, S., MD. (2016, April 25). The psychology of low back pain. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/psychology-low-back-pain-201604259537
  19. Ibid.
  20. Fernandez, M. op. cit.
  21. de Mello Schier, A. R. op. cit.
  22. Serotonin. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.hormone.org/your-health-and-hormones/glands-and-hormones-a-to-z/hormones/serotonin
  23. Crippa, J. A., Guimarães, F. S., Campos, A. C., & Zuardi, A. W. (2018). Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 2009. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009
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  27. WHO. Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. (2017, Nov 6-10). Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.2_CBD.pdf
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  29. Grinspoon, P., MD. (2018, April 24). Cannabidiol (CBD) – what we know and what we don’t. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  30. Brown, J. D., & Winterstein, A. G. (2019). Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug-Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer Cannabidiol (CBD) Use. Journal of clinical medicine, 8(7), 989. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8070989
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  50. Ibid. 
  51. Ibid.
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  55. Drug Scheduling. (n.d.). Retrieved August 07, 2020, from https://www.dea.gov/drug-scheduling
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