Does CBD Work for Constipation?

  • Constipation, a digestive issue, is a common symptom of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Studies have shown that medical cannabis has eased the symptoms of those suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease(1). CBD is a compound present in varying amounts in cannabis plants.
  • Some people use CBD to treat symptoms of constipation(2). These symptoms include stomach ache, nausea, and bloating.
  • Diarrhea is one of the possible side effects of taking CBD. Diarrhea is the opposite of constipation and may bring further digestive complications if induced(3).
  • Further clinical trials and medical research are needed for CBD to be claimed as a treatment for constipation.

Best CBD Oils

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
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    Quality
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    Lab Testing Transparency
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  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsOrganic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price Range$89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsOrganic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forNew CBD users
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
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Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
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  • Score breakdown
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  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsFull Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take itUnder the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursNatural
    Price Range$99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsNo additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    AllergensNot specified
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forHealth-conscious persons
    Countries servedUSA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
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Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Customer Service
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
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  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take itUsing 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilCoconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price RangeSingle Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsContaminant-free
    AllergensVegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forPatients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
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Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Various delicious flavors to choose from
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Free shipping for this particular product within USA
    •  World-class customer service team
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1500mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContaining less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    FlavoursNatural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range$99.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forDaily CBD oil users
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
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Why People Are Using CBD for Constipation

Constipation is a digestive issue that is often treated with over-the-counter laxatives(4). These drugs contain substances that either loosen stools or increase the bowel movement. 

However, the overuse and misuse of these drugs can cause side effects, such as bloating, stomach pain, and diarrhea. In some cases, a patient becomes dependent on laxatives and develops eating disorders or diarrhea(5)

Meanwhile, other severe gastrointestinal (GI) issues, such as chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), need prescription medications. These disorders can affect the entire GI tract, from mouth to anus. 

Chronic constipation is described as having difficulty in bowel movements, which can last for several weeks. 

There are two causes of constipation. The primary cause has something to do with the dysfunction of the colon and rectum. The secondary cause can be a result of an organic or systemic disease or medications(6)

IBS is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder that affects the large intestine. People with IBS experience constipation, diarrhea, or, in rare cases, both. 

There is no cure for IBS, and its specific cause remains unknown. Medications, such as anti-diarrhea drugs and laxatives, can only help alleviate the symptoms. 

However, prescription drugs are known to cause GI side effects that can start as a mild condition and progress into severe problems, like organ hemorrhage(7). GI side effects include diarrhea and flatulence.

To prevent severe digestive and GI problems caused by drug prescriptions, some people use cannabidiol to treat symptoms of constipation(8).

CBD or cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive compound found in the cannabis plant. The oil is extracted from hemp, a cannabis plant that contains high CBD levels. 

Studies have shown that medical cannabis has eased the symptoms of those suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease(9). Medical cannabis is using the cannabis plant, along with its concentrates, for medicinal purposes.

IBDs are often treated with prescription drugs, such as steroids (corticosteroids), immunomodulators, and biologic agents. However, these treatments carry long-term effects, like malignancy and infection(10).

In a study, patients with ulcerative colitis were given CBD to help treat inflammation(11). Ulcerative colitis is an IBD that causes inflammation in the digestive tract, specifically in the large intestine and rectum. 

Similar to ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease is an IBD that inflames the GI tract. Patients with Crohn’s disease are likely to develop mental health issues, like anxiety and depression(12)

A case study about the correlation between Crohn’s disease and anxiety and using CBD as a treatment was published recently(13). Results showed that CBD’s calming effect on the nerves might help ease the anxiety of those with Crohn’s disease. 

Compared with the drugs mentioned, CBD has a good safety profile with no adverse side effects(14).

How CBD Oil Works to Help Alleviate Symptoms of Constipation

Besides painful bowel movements, constipation symptoms include stomach ache and cramps, nausea, and bloating. These symptoms may reduce the quality of life and hamper the routinary activities of a person.

Dehydration and a diet low in fiber and high in dairy can cause constipation. Some medications, such as opioids, anticholinergics, and calcium channel blockers, can also induce constipation(15)

Opioids are narcotic pain medications, while anticholinergics are used to treat various conditions, such as involuntary muscle movements and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Calcium channel blockers are prescribed to lower blood pressure.

Before administering any CBD product, it is essential to understand how it works in the body, especially with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). CBD binds with the cannabinoid receptors of the body’s ECS. 

The ECS is the body’s system responsible for maintaining equilibrium or homeostasis by regulating one’s sleep, mood, appetite, pain reception, and memory(16).

Endocannabinoids, the natural cannabinoids of the body, work with CB1 and CB2 receptors to communicate with different parts of the body, including the gut. 

CBD for Stomach Ache

People use CBD for multiple medical reasons, one of which is pain reduction(17). A study that examined the use of medical cannabis for chronic pain indicated that the subjects reported reduced pain(18). The intake of opioids was also significantly reduced.

Medical cannabis is a plant-based treatment that contains two major compounds: CBD and THC. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is an active compound that makes a person high.

Similarly, a study about pain management showed results that CBD and THC could reduce pain that is difficult to manage(19). These cannabinoids are found in the form of a mouth spray, which is a prescribed treatment for various pains caused by multiple sclerosis. 

CBD for Nausea

Nausea is a common symptom of constipation and other GI disorders. It is characterized by stomach discomfort that may lead to vomiting. 

Cannabis-based products, like an oral spray with THC and CBD, may effectively reduce nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy(20)

In another study, CBD was also shown to be potentially useful in suppressing nausea and vomiting before, after, or during a chemotherapy session(21). Nausea and vomiting is a common side effect of chemotherapy treatment. 

CBD for Bloating

Bloating caused by constipation can be a sign of inflammation in the digestive system. 

In a study conducted on mice, the test subjects were induced with an intestine inflammation to see if CBD oil helped relieve the inflammation(22). Results showed that intestinal contractions, together with the inflammation and pain, were all inhibited using CBD oil.

Similar studies showed that the ECS of mice with inflamed colons could be activated and function as a protection against inflammation(23). The CB1 receptors were activated, and they presented a promising therapeutic potential for GI diseases with symptoms of inflammation.

In addition to reducing pain, CBD and THC also decreased the instances of cramps and other colitis-related symptoms in rats(24). Results of the study conducted on rats may be useful in further studies to be conducted in humans.

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Constipation

The Pros

  • Common symptoms of constipation, such as stomach pain, nausea, and bloating, may be alleviated by CBD oil, based on the studies presented.
  • CBD has a “good safety profile,” according to the World Health Organization(25). It means that the pharmacology and toxicology of the drug have little to no side effects.
  • There are various formulations of CBD products available. Hence, people with constipation can freely choose what products may work best for them.

The Cons

  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet approved any CBD drug aside from Epidiolex, a CBD drug for severe forms of epilepsy(26)
  • One of the side effects of CBD is diarrhea(27), another digestive problem. 
  • Further clinical studies and trials are needed to support and validate the existing studies on constipation.

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Constipation

Constipation can be managed with simple lifestyle changes. Some of the natural and alternative remedies for constipation are the following:

  • Traditional Chinese medicine practices, like acupuncture, acupressure, and moxibustion ( where mugwort is burned near the body’s acupuncture points)
  • Abdominal massage, which can help relax the abdominal muscles that control bowel movements
  • Homeopathy, which uses natural substances, such as plants and minerals, for treatment and healing
  • Biofeedback therapy, which focuses on controlling the body’s involuntary processes(28)
  • Dietary adjustments
    • Fiber-rich food, like whole grains, fruits, and vegetables
    • Probiotics, like drinks with beneficial bacteria called Lactobacillus casei Shirota(29)
  • Herbs and supplements
    • Psyllium, which is a soluble fiber supplement from the plant Plantago ovata and also known as a natural laxative
    • Flaxseed, which is a plant-based food that contains high fiber and fatty acids 

However, clinical trials are needed to measure the effectiveness of the treatments mentioned above(30).

Meanwhile, CBD is a natural compound that may potentially help with constipation problems. 

Hemp seeds from Cannabis sativa plants contain fiber and fatty acids. They may also contain trace amounts of THC(31).

A study conducted on rats displayed that hemp seed soft capsules (HSSC) made from hemp oil relieve constipation(32)

The HSSC increased the secretion of colon mucus essential in the formation of feces for a regular bowel movement. The result showed that the capsule might be a potential natural laxative for constipation patients.

How to Choose the Right CBD Oil for Constipation

There are three types of CBD to choose from that can address digestive problems, like constipation.

CBD isolate is the purest type of CBD, usually made with 99% concentration. The process of isolating other compounds from the product is called fractional distillation. The process uses heat to remove all other chemicals aside from CBD. 

This type of CBD is for those who want to try using CBD but do not want to get high.

The second type is the broad-spectrum CBD. This type of CBD contains all the beneficial compounds found in the cannabis plant without THC. It also has the benefits of the entourage effect or the unique benefits and effects of each compound combined sans THC.

The last type is the full-spectrum CBD. Based on its name, it has a complete set of active compounds, including THC. This type of CBD also has the full entourage effect with CBD.

Choosing the right CBD oil can be based on preference, lifestyle, and symptoms present. However, for maximum benefit, it is practical to use a full-spectrum CBD oil.

There are also factors to consider when choosing the best CBD oil:

  • Choose brands that use third-party laboratory tests for their products. A third-party lab certificate is a seal of approval, indicating that the product offerings are safe to use. 
  • Check the extraction method used in the product. Look for reputable manufacturers who are transparent about their production process. 
  • Take time to read product reviews, especially when buying from an online shop. When it comes to purchasing from a physician store, make sure that the store complies with the state laws about selling CBD products.
  • Look at the ingredient list to see if there are any synthetic ingredients included in the formulation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a report about possible adverse effects of using synthetic cannabinoids(33)

CBD Dosage for Constipation

There is no regulated dosage of CBD by the FDA. Nevertheless, there are best practices that a person experiencing constipation can follow. 

For first-time users, a small amount and low dosage—around 1mg to 6mg—is a good starting point when taking CBD oil. After a week or if there are no significant improvements, the dosage may increase gradually until the desired result is reached. 

After taking the initial dosage, observe and take note of any significant changes or side effects. Record these results in a journal and show this to a doctor for advice.

The amount of CBD a person may take also depends on the body weight, condition, body chemistry, and concentration of the chosen CBD product. These factors should be considered first, so it is important to consult a physician who specializes in medical cannabis to know the possible effects and avoid any potential risks.

How to Take CBD Oil for Constipation

CBD products come in many different forms, shapes, and sizes. The most common one is the tincture. It is usually administered under the tongue (also called the sublingual method). This method absorbs the substance into the bloodstream through the mucous membranes found underneath the tongue. 

Another way of taking CBD is through vaping. This method enables CBD oil to enter the bloodstream through the lungs. This is the fastest method to obtain the therapeutic effects of CBD. However, the effects only last within a few minutes or hours.

Also available on the market are CBD edibles, such as gummies, brownies, pills, and capsules. These products take a long time to take effect but have a long-lasting impact on the body. 

CBD suppositories may also be effective for constipation relief. These products are rectal laxatives that are directly inserted in the rectum or anus for a direct stimulation on the bowel movement. 

There are also topical CBD products that are used for skin inflammations and infections. Products like lotions, balms, creams, and salves can be applied directly to the affected area. 

Aside from suppositories, mixing tinctures and oils with food or beverage is a recommended way of taking CBD for a more direct effect on the digestive system.

How Cannabinoids Work in the Digestive System

The ECS is linked with the GI in three ways, namely inflammation regulation, digestion, and brain communication. 

Inflammation Regulation

The cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 both function as inflammatory mediators. When the GI is inflamed, the receptors regulate inflammation when activated by cannabinoids(34).

Digestive Process

One of the essential functions of ECS is regulating appetite. When phytocannabinoids stimulate CB1 receptors, a digestive action occurs. This action means nausea is controlled, stomach processes are slowed down, and acid reflux is relieved(35)

Brain and Gut Communication

A study suggested that ECS might be the bridge between the GI tract and the brain, allowing those two organs to interact(36). When the brain is filled with thoughts of stress or pain, the GI’s function is altered(37). This alteration between the two systems can cause conditions like IBS.

Similarities and Differences between IBS and IBD

IBS and IBD are both gastrointestinal conditions wherein constipation may occur. They share other similar symptoms, such as abdominal cramps and pain, diarrhea, and nausea. However, each condition has symptoms that differ from each other.

Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder that targets the colon and disturbs the bowel function. It is characterized by changes in the bowel movement and urinary frequency.

There is no exact cause for IBS. However, studies have shown that it may be caused by the hypersensitivity of chemicals and nerves in the colon or abnormal bowel contractions caused by food or stress(38).

The type of IBS can be defined based on bowel movement. A person can either have diarrhea (IBS-D) or constipation (IBS-C). Although IBS is not a severe condition and can be cured with dietary change and prescription medicines, it can bring discomfort and affect a person’s quality of life.

On the other hand, inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic condition caused by inflammation of the GI tract. Its symptoms include rectal bleeding, sudden weight loss, loss of appetite, fever, and anemia. 

Like IBS, IBD has no known cause. However, based on studies, it is caused by an immune system malfunction and other environmental factors(39)

Some environmental triggers that may cause IBD are frequent smoking, stress, and diet(40). Prescription medications for pain and inflammation, such as aspirin and NSAIDs, may also cause IBD.

There are two types of IBD, and these are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. 

Crohn’s disease usually starts with inflammation in the small intestine and colon. As the condition develops, the inflammation eventually spreads out to other parts of the GI tract. 

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammation of the colon and rectum’s lining, which develops sores or ulcers. These ulcers may bleed and produce pus that may infect the colon. 

People suffering from IBD are treated with medications. However, those with severe cases may need surgery. 

Surgery is necessary when symptoms get worse, medications can no longer control the symptoms, or serious complications start to happen.

The Legality of CBD

The use of CBD for medical purposes is allowed in 18 states in the United States(41). The majority of the states permit CBD use in severe neurological disorders, like epilepsy and seizures.

Out of the 18 states, two states highlighted CBD’s use for IBD, like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. These two states are Iowa and Georgia. 

Meanwhile, three states, namely Virginia, Wisconsin, and Kansas, legalized the use of CBD for any medically-diagnosed condition as long as a physician prescribes it.

Most of the states allow patients to use CBD if they are part of a state-funded clinical trial. The qualified patients are legally protected by the state laws to obtain CBD outside of the research environment. 

As a standard measurement for a patient’s possession, CBD products for medicinal purposes should contain at least 10% CBD and no more than 0.3% THC. Both percentages depend on product volume.

Similarities and Differences Between CBD and THC

There is confusion regarding the two commonly known cannabinoids found in cannabis, CBD and THC.

Both cannabinoids are found in two common species of cannabis, namely hemp and marijuana. The two plants differ in their CBD and THC content.

Hemp plants contain less than 0.3% THC, while marijuana contains a higher percentage of THC. THC is the compound that gives the high sensation. Although both plants contain THC, the high level of THC in marijuana makes it a psychoactive plant. 

Meanwhile, CBD has the opposite effect of THC. CBD is a non-psychoactive compound that does not elicit severe side effects(42)

Both compounds have the same chemical structure, meaning they have the same carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. 

However, they differ in how the atoms are arranged. The difference in the atomical arrangement also has varying effects on the human body. 

As the compounds react to the body’s ECS, they bind with the cannabinoid receptors that affect the standard bodily functions, such as sleep, appetite, and pain.

Conclusion

Constipation is a common digestive problem that affects around 2.5 million people around the world(43).

Although the symptoms are manageable, constipation may be a symptom of other underlying GI conditions, such as IBD and IBS. 

Guidance and supervision under a medical professional specializing in medical cannabis should be observed before engaging in any CBD treatment, especially if prior medications are taken.


  1. Kinnucan J. (2018). Use of Medical Cannabis in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 14(10), 598–601.
  2. Hasenoehrl, C., Taschler, U., Storr, M., & Schicho, R. (2016). The gastrointestinal tract – a central organ of cannabinoid signaling in health and disease. Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society, 28(12), 1765–1780. https://doi.org/10.1111/nmo.12931
  3. Iffland, K., & Grotenhermen, F. (2017). An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2(1), 139–154. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2016.0034
  4. Portalatin, M., & Winstead, N. (2012). Medical management of constipation. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery, 25(1), 12–19. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1301754
  5. Roerig, J. L., Steffen, K. J., Mitchell, J. E., & Zunker, C. (2010). Laxative abuse: epidemiology, diagnosis and management. Drugs, 70(12), 1487–1503. https://doi.org/10.2165/11898640-000000000-00000
  6. Andrews, C. N., & Storr, M. (2011). The pathophysiology of chronic constipation. Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie, 25 Suppl B(Suppl B), 16B–21B.
  7. Jain, V., & Pitchumoni, C. S. (2009). Gastrointestinal side effects of prescription medications in the older adult. Journal of clinical gastroenterology, 43(2), 103–110. https://doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0b013e31818f9227
  8. Hasenoehrl, C., op. cit.
  9. Kinnucan J., op. cit.
  10. Ananthakrishnan, A. N., Donaldson, T., Lasch, K., & Yajnik, V. (2017). Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Elderly Patient: Challenges and Opportunities. Inflammatory bowel diseases, 23(6), 882–893. https://doi.org/10.1097/MIB.0000000000001099
  11. Irving, P. M., Iqbal, T., Nwokolo, C., Subramanian, S., Bloom, S., Prasad, N., Hart, A., Murray, C., Lindsay, J. O., Taylor, A., Barron, R., & Wright, S. (2018). A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Pilot Study of Cannabidiol-rich Botanical Extract in the Symptomatic Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis. Inflammatory bowel diseases, 24(4), 714–724. https://doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izy002
  12. Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation. (n.d.). Depression and Anxiety. https://www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org/mental-health/depression-anxiety
  13. Klier, C. M., de Gier, C., Felnhofer, A., Laczkovics, C., & Amminger, P. G. (2020). A Case Report of Cannabidiol Treatment of a Crohnʼs Disease Patient With Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 40(1), 90–92. https://doi.org/10.1097/jcp.0000000000001152
  14. Iffland, K., op. cit.
  15. Branch, R. L., & Butt, T. F. (2009). Drug-induced constipation. Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin, NA;(257), 987–990. https://doi.org/10.1097/fad.0b013e32833080d1
  16. Sallaberry, C., & Astern, L. (2018). The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator. Journal of Young Investigators, 48–55. https://doi.org/10.22186/jyi.34.5.48-55
  17. Corroon, J., & Phillips, J. A. (2018). A Cross-Sectional Study of Cannabidiol Users. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 3(1), 152–161. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2018.0006
  18. Capano, A., Weaver, R., & Burkman, E. (2019). Evaluation of the effects of CBD hemp extract on opioid use and quality of life indicators in chronic pain patients: a prospective cohort study. Postgraduate Medicine, 132(1), 56–61. https://doi.org/10.1080/00325481.2019.1685298
  19. Russo E. B. (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 4(1), 245–259. https://doi.org/10.2147/tcrm.s1928
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