Does CBD Work for IBS?  

  • CBD has been found to help in the treatment of symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A study in 2016 suggested that CBD might have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects on mice test subjects(1).
  • Another study conducted on rodents reported that the use of a Cannabis sativa extract containing high amounts of CBD helped reduce hypermotility and intestinal inflammation(2).
  • The authors concluded that CBD was more effective when used in combination with other Cannabis sativa components. They observed that pure CBD alone did not exhibit therapeutic properties on the inflamed gut. 
  • An animal study conducted in 2011 has found that CBD had antiemetic (nausea-preventing) properties(3). Nausea is a common symptom observed in people with IBS(4).
  • Despite the promising research supporting CBD’s purported therapeutic effects on symptoms associated with nausea, further research is still needed on CBD’s benefits on IBS itself.

Best CBD Oils for IBS

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsOrganic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price Range$89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsOrganic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forNew CBD users
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Score breakdown
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  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsFull Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take itUnder the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursNatural
    Price Range$99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsNo additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    AllergensNot specified
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forHealth-conscious persons
    Countries servedUSA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Check Latest Prices
Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Customer Service
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take itUsing 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilCoconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price RangeSingle Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsContaminant-free
    AllergensVegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forPatients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Various delicious flavors to choose from
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Free shipping for this particular product within USA
    •  World-class customer service team
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1500mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContaining less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    FlavoursNatural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range$99.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forDaily CBD oil users
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why People Are Turning to CBD for IBS

According to the United States Food and Drug Administration, there is no known cure for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)(5)

IBS is a chronic condition that affects the large intestine(6). Treatments, such as stress management and lifestyle changes, can help alleviate its symptoms.

However, after a period of improvement, these symptoms may suddenly reappear(7). Hence, IBS patients are turning to alternative therapies or complementary treatments(8).

Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychoactive component of the Cannabis sativa plant, might be one of these treatments.

Some studies suggested CBD’s promising effects on symptoms associated with IBS. However, further research is still needed regarding CBD’s potential as a treatment for IBS. 

CBD for Pain

A 2016 research conducted in rodents reported that CBD might reduce inflammation and pain-related behaviors associated with arthritis(9). In the study, the transdermal administration of CBD did not cause adverse effects in the test subjects.

Pain, particularly in the abdomen, is one of the most common symptoms of IBS(10).

Another study published in The American Journal of Gastroenterology outlined the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in treating gastroparesis-related abdominal pain(11).

Gastroparesis is a condition that happens when stomach muscles do not function correctly, resulting in the slow or total lack of movement of food from the stomach to the small intestine(12). The disorder is also known as delayed gastric emptying.

The primary cannabinoids that the authors observed were CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Cannabinoids are compounds that interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) to help it regulate several functions, like pain perception, appetite, mood, and memory(13).

THC and CBD are phytocannabinoids that come from the Cannabis sativa plant. Unlike CBD, THC is psychoactive(14).

CBD for Motility

According to John Hopkins Medicine, the causes of IBS have not been determined entirely. However, intestinal motility is believed to be one of the syndrome’s primary features(15).

Motility is defined as food’s movement from the mouth, through the digestive organs, and out of the body(16).

A 2016 study that was published in the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology observed the effects of CBD in rodent test subjects. 

The research revealed that the administration of a Cannabis sativa extract with high CBD contents reduced chemically-induced hypermotility and intestinal inflammation in the test subjects(17).

However, the authors discovered that CBD was more effective when combined with Cannabis sativa constituents. In the research, pure CBD alone did not exhibit beneficial effects on the inflamed gut. 

CBD for Nausea

The International Foundation for Gastrointestinal Disorders says that nausea is a common symptom observed in IBS patients(18).

A study in 2011 outlined CBD’s antiemetic properties in mice test subjects(19). Researchers suggested that these therapeutic effects might be caused by CBD’s indirect activation of the 5-HT1A receptors located in the brain’s dorsal raphe nucleus.

According to the study’s authors, this activation of the 5-HT1A receptors reduced the release of 5-HT or serotonin in the brain, resulting in CBD’s antiemetic effects.

Serotonin is a hormone involved in several bodily functions, such as nausea, mood, sleep, bowel movements, and blood-clotting(20).

It is also a neurotransmitter found in the central nervous system and other regions of the body(21).

How CBD Oil Works to Alleviate Symptoms of IBS

A 2020 study published in the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience concluded that manipulating the ECS might help treat IBS(22)

The authors reported that targeting ECS receptors cannabinoid (CB) receptors, particularly CB1 and CB2 receptors, might be therapeutic for IBS patients. 

According to the researchers, CB1 receptor activation reduced small and large bowel muscle tone and inhibited gastrointestinal motility. 

Muscle tone is the amount of tension in a muscle. It helps keep the body in a particular posture(23).

The study also reported that the activation of CB1 receptor attenuated intestinal peristalsis. 

Peristalsis is defined as a series of muscle contractions that enable food to move to several processing stations in the digestive tract(24)

The researchers of the 2020 study also found that CB2 receptor activation slowed down gut transit and decreased inflammation by reducing cytokine and chemokine production in activated immune cells(25).

Cytokines and chemokines are signaling proteins that have an essential role in inflammation(26)

  A 2014 study suggested that IBS was highly linked to stress. The researchers concluded that IBS treatment should include stress management strategies(27).

In the study, researchers observed that IBS was strongly correlated with psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. They reported that IBS symptoms might aggravate these psychological conditions(28).

Studies have found that CBD might have promising effects in the treatment of anxiety and depression. 

In a 2015 study, researchers reported that CBD might contribute to the alleviation of several anxiety disorders. These conditions include panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder(29).

Another study conducted in animals found that CBD had anxiety-reducing and antidepressant effects in the test subjects(30)

IBS is characterized by the following symptoms(31):

  • Abdominal pain, cramping, or bloating 
  • Excessive gas
  • Diarrhea or constipation 
  • Stool mucus

Its causes are unknown, but several factors have been identified to contribute to the development of IBS. These include(32):

  • Muscle contractions in the intestine
  • Abnormalities in the nervous system
  • Inflamed intestines
  • Severe infection
  • Gut bacteria changes

IBS vs. IBD

According to the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation, IBS and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are distinct(33)

IBS is classified as a syndrome, a group of symptoms, while IBD is a disease.

IBS does not cause inflammation. Meanwhile, IBD can result in inflammation that may destroy and harm the intestines permanently.

During a colon examination, signs of IBS cannot be diagnosed instantly. Meanwhile, IBD signs can be observed during diagnostic imaging.

IBS sufferers are not prone to developing colon cancer or IBD. Meanwhile, those who have IBD have higher risks of having colon cancer.

The types of IBD include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis(34).

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for IBS

The Pros

  • Human and animal studies have discovered CBD’s therapeutic effects on the symptoms of IBS.
  • CBD is regarded as generally safe to use(35). Its safety profile is more favorable than the safety profile of some conventional medications prescribed for IBS treatment. 

Among these traditionally prescribed IBS drugs are antidepressants, which have serious side effects, including dizziness, erectile dysfunction, heart rhythm problems, and insomnia(36).

  • It is suggested that CBD is non-addictive. Currently, no case of CBD dependence has been reported in humans(37)
  • Aside from CBD’s apparent benefits on IBS symptoms, CBD may have promising effects on mental health and related medical conditions, like anxiety and depression.  

The Cons

  • More research needs to be done on whether CBD helps treat IBS. To date, studies are limited to CBD’s suggested benefits on IBS symptoms, such as pain relief.
  • Despite the reported therapeutic effects of CBD, it is essential to note that CBD has side effects, like diarrhea, tiredness, and changes in weight or appetite (38)
  • The US FDA has not approved the use of medical marijuana and even CBD in the treatment of disorders and diseases except for epilepsy. 
  • There is a proliferation of mislabeled CBD products in the market due to the lack of FDA regulation(39). Hence, patients with IBS are encouraged to seek the medical advice of medical professionals before adding CBD to their medication regimen.

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for IBS

Treatments prescribed for IBS include dietary changes and traditional medications, like antidepressants and pain medications(40)

Harvard Medical School says that IBS patients are exploring alternative treatments for their condition(41). Treatment through probiotics (live microorganisms) and prebiotics are seen as promising alternative treatments for ailments associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gi tract).

Other alternatives include relaxing activities, such as yoga and meditation, as these treatments relax muscles and reduce activity in the nervous system(42).

Compared to these alternative treatments, CBD may also protect gut health due to its purported contribution to reduced intestinal inflammation in human test subjects(43).

Like yoga and meditation, CBD has been shown to reduce anxiety, as supported by a clinical study done in humans(44).

Compared with these treatments, CBD has other reported therapeutic uses. These purported benefits range from neuroprotective properties(45) to pain-reducing effects that may help treat conditions like chronic pain(46)

How to Choose the Right CBD for IBS

CBD oil types can be classified as full-spectrum CBD oil, broad-spectrum CBD oil, or CBD isolate.

A full-spectrum oil is believed to be a more effective treatment than broad-spectrum oils and CBD isolates. 

Full-spectrum oils make use of all the ingredients of a cannabis plant, including less than 0.30% THC, flavonoids, fatty acids, terpenes, and essential oils.

Cannabis sativa’s components are believed to synergize for maximum therapeutic effect. This phenomenon is called the entourage effect.

The downside of using full-spectrum oils is that they contain THC. 

Some drug tests may detect THC. Select individuals may also experience mild psychoactive effects, even if THC amounts in a full-spectrum oil are minimal.

Those who want to avoid THC consumption may go for broad-spectrum CBD. It has all the ingredients of a full-spectrum oil, except for THC.

Individuals who prefer to use CBD purely may purchase isolated cannabidiol. However, as reported in a 2016 study, pure CBD might not be useful in the treatment of some IBS symptoms, like intestinal inflammation(47).

Before using any CBD product, patients should check CBD’s legality according to their state laws.

The US FDA states that CBD and other products that contain less than 0.30%

THC are no longer controlled substances under federal law(48)

CBD Dosage for IBS

Because the US FDA does not regulate CBD, there is no standard dosing chart for CBD. However, patients are encouraged to start low and slow. 

Begin with small amounts of CBD. If there are no adverse effects, the dosage may be increased until the patient finds the right CBD dose.

Once the dosage appropriate for users has been found, IBS patients should use CBD consistently. Effects should be observed in two or three weeks as long as intake is regular. 

Patients are encouraged to document their bodies’ reactions to the use of CBD through a journal. Before taking CBD, IBS patients should consult with their doctor first. 

How to Take CBD for IBS

CBD has various formats that allow patients to use it for IBS in several ways.  These include:

  • CBD oils and tinctures (drops) – CBD may be applied under the tongue for more efficacy. More experienced users prefer this type of administration because they have control over their CBD dosage. 
  • CBD capsules, gel caps, gummies, or edibles – CBD may be mixed with food or beverages. This approach is helpful for those who dislike the grassy taste of CBD.
  • CBD vape pens – Effects are instantaneous when CBD is inhaled. However, vaping may cause lung damage(49). IBS patients who also take CBD via vape pens have no way of determining the amount of CBD they take for each draw.
  • CBD topicals – These CBD formats include salves, balms, lotions, and creams.  IBS patients may apply CBD topically during massages to help alleviate abdominal pain. However, it is challenging to apply consistent doses of CBD when an individual uses CBD topicals.

Conclusion

The use of medical cannabis and CBD may be helpful in the alleviation of IBS symptoms. However, THC may get users high. 

Currently, no treatment can cure IBS entirely. For this reason, more IBS patients are exploring alternative therapies that may help with their gastrointestinal system conditions. 

Conventional approaches include dietary and lifestyle changes. IBS patients are also prescribed pain medications and antidepressants. 

Popular alternative remedies for IBS include treatment through probiotics and prebiotics, yoga, and meditation.

Compared with these treatments, CBD may have promising therapeutic effects on the relief of pain, motility, and nausea. These conditions are some of the most common symptoms of IBS.

It is suggested that the interaction of cannabinoids, like CBD, with the ECS cannabinoid receptors might help treat IBS. 

Currently, studies that have been done are limited to CBD’s benefits on the symptoms of IBS. Further research should be done on CBD’s benefits on IBS alone.

Before using CBD in the treatment of IBS flare-ups, patients should seek professional counsel from their doctors first.  


  1. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in a rat model of arthritis. European journal of pain (London, England), 20(6), 936–948. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.818
  2. Pagano, E., Capasso, R., Piscitelli, F., Romano, B., Parisi, O. A., Finizio, S., Lauritano, A., Marzo, V. D., Izzo, A. A., & Borrelli, F. (2016). An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse. Frontiers in pharmacology, 7, 341. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2016.00341
  3. Parker, L. A., Rock, E. M., & Limebeer, C. L. (2011). Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids. British journal of pharmacology, 163(7), 1411–1422. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01176.x
  4. Nausea and IBS. (2018, February 19). Retrieved from https://www.aboutibs.org/signs-and-symptoms-main/nausea-and-ibs-2.html
  5. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatments Aren’t One-Size-Fits-All. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/irritable-bowel-syndrome-treatments-arent-one-size-fits-all
  6. Irritable bowel syndrome. (2018, March 17). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/irritable-bowel-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20360064
  7. Ibid.
  8. Harvard Health Publishing. (n.d.). Using alternative and complementary treatments to manage IBS. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/using-alternative-and-complementary-treatments-to-manage-ibs
  9. Hammell, D. C. op. cit. 
  10. Irritable bowel syndrome. op. cit. 
  11. APA Barbash, Benjamin MD1; Chawla, Lavneet MD1; Siddiqui, Tausif MD2; Dworkin, Brad MD, FACG, FACN1 Cannabinoids Lead to Significant Improvement in Gastroparesis—Related Abdominal Pain, American Journal of Gastroenterology: October 2018 – Volume 113 – Issue – p S688-S689 
  12. Definition & Facts for Gastroparesis. (2018, January 01). Retrieved from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/gastroparesis/definition-facts
  13. Manzanares, J., Julian, M., & Carrascosa, A. (2006). Role of the cannabinoid system in pain control and therapeutic implications for the management of acute and chronic pain episodes. Current Neuropharmacology, 4(3), 239–257. https://doi.org/10.2174/157015906778019527
  14. Ibid.
  15. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Introduction. (n.d.) retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/gastroenterology_hepatology/_pdfs/small_large_intestine/irritable_bowel_byndrome_ibs.pdf
  16. UC San Diego Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://health.ucsd.edu/specialties/gastro/areas-expertise/motility-physiology/pages/default.aspx
  17. Pagano, E. op. cit.
  18. Nausea and IBS. op. cit.
  19. Parker, L. A. op. cit. 
  20. Serotonin. (2018, December). Retrieved from https://www.hormone.org/your-health-and-hormones/glands-and-hormones-a-to-z/hormones/serotonin
  21. Berger, M., Gray, J. A., & Roth, B. L. (2009). The expanded biology of serotonin. Annual review of medicine, 60, 355–366. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.med.60.042307.110802
  22. Brugnatelli, V., Turco, F., Freo, U., & Zanette, G. (2020, March 26). Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Manipulating the Endocannabinoid System as First-Line Treatment. Retrieved July 01, 2020, from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2020.00371/full
  23. Royal Children’s Hospital. (2005). Occupational Therapy. Retrieved from https://www.rch.org.au/uploadedFiles/Main/Content/ot/InfoSheet_C.pdf
  24. Peristalsis – Health Video: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/anatomyvideos/000097.htm
  25. Brugnatelli, V. op. Cit.
  26. Ramesh, G., MacLean, A., & Philipp, M. (2013, August 12). Cytokines and Chemokines at the Crossroads of Neuroinflammation, Neurodegeneration, and Neuropathic Pain. Retrieved July 01, 2020, from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2013/480739/
  27. Qin, H. Y., Cheng, C. W., Tang, X. D., & Bian, Z. X. (2014). Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome. World journal of gastroenterology, 20(39), 14126–14131. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i39.14126
  28. Ibid.
  29. Blessing, Esther M et al. “Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders.” Neurotherapeutics: the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics vol. 12,4 (2015): 825-36. doi:10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1
  30. de Mello Schier, Alexandre R et al. “Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa.” CNS & neurological disorders drug targets vol. 13,6 (2014): 953-60. doi:10.2174/1871527313666140612114838
  31. Irritable bowel syndrome. op. cit.
  32. Ibid.
  33. IBS vs IBD. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org/what-is-ibd/ibs-vs-ibd
  34. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (2020, March 03). Retrieved July 01, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/inflammatory-bowel-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20353315
  35. Iffland, Kerstin, and Franjo Grotenhermen. “An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies.” Cannabis and cannabinoid research vol. 2,1 139-154. 1 Jun. 2017, doi:10.1089/can.2016.0034
  36. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/antidepressants/side-effects/
  37. “CANNABIDIOL (CBD) Critical Review Report.” World Health Organization, 2018.Parkinson’s Foundation. op. cit. 
  38. Iffland, K. op. cit. 
  39. Freedman, Daniel A, and Anup D Patel. “Inadequate Regulation Contributes to Mislabeled Online Cannabidiol Products.” Pediatric neurology briefs vol. 32 3. 18 Jun. 2018, doi:10.15844/pedneurbriefs-32-3
  40. Irritable bowel syndrome. op. cit.
  41. Harvard Health Publishing. op. cit. 
  42. Ibid.
  43. De Filippis, D., Esposito, G., Cirillo, C., Cipriano, M., De Winter, B. Y., Scuderi, C., Sarnelli, G., Cuomo, R., Steardo, L., De Man, J. G., & Iuvone, T. (2011). Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis. PloS one, 6(12), e28159. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028159
  44. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. The Permanente journal, 23, 18–041. https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/18-041
  45. Maroon, J., & Bost, J. (2018). Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids. Surgical neurology international, 9, 91. https://doi.org/10.4103/sni.sni_45_18
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