Can CBD Help With Ulcerative Colitis?

  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease known to affect the large intestine and cause sores, or ulcers, in the digestive tract(1).
  • Aminosalicylates have been the primary means of treating colitis for many years, with doctors aiming to reduce inflammation in IBD patients and improve their quality of life. Physicians may also prescribe medications, such as corticosteroids and antibiotics, to treat the symptoms of UC(2).
  • Studies have shown that CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties may help treat colitis(3). Several studies report that CBD may prevent colon injury(4), inhibit disturbances in the large intestine(5), and reduce intestinal damage overall(6).
  • However, most of these studies were conducted on animal subjects. There is no substantial evidence that CBD can alleviate ulcerative colitis symptoms in humans.
  • Seeking advice from a medical professional, particularly someone experienced in cannabis use, is best for individuals who want to take CBD for UC.

Best CBD Oil for Ulcerative Colitis

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
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  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsOrganic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price Range$89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsOrganic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forNew CBD users
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
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Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
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    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsFull Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take itUnder the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursNatural
    Price Range$99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsNo additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    AllergensNot specified
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forHealth-conscious persons
    Countries servedUSA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
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Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Customer Service
  • Score breakdown
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    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take itUsing 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilCoconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price RangeSingle Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsContaminant-free
    AllergensVegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forPatients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
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Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Various delicious flavors to choose from
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Free shipping for this particular product within USA
    •  World-class customer service team
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1500mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContaining less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    FlavoursNatural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range$99.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forDaily CBD oil users
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
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Why Some People Are Turning to CBD for Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the colon and causes long-lasting ulcers, or sores, in the digestive tract. 

UC affects the inner lining of the large intestine (microscopic colitis), causing a person to experience bowel movements frequently.

UC commonly affects adults aged thirty to forty years old and is said to account for about $8 to $15 billion in total economic burden in the United States(7)

The cause of this inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not clear. However, researchers believe colitis develops in genetically susceptible individuals as a response to environmental triggers.

Although there is no known cure for ulcerative colitis, doctors may prescribe treatment to reduce the inflammation that causes its symptoms. 

Aminosalicylates have been the main form of treatment for the disease for many years. A physician could also prescribe corticosteroids or antibiotics(8).

A new approach that could potentially alleviate the symptoms of ulcerative colitis is the use of CBD (cannabidiol). Studies have shown that CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties may help treat UC(9).

Cannabidiol is one of the many chemical compounds present in the Cannabis sativa plant, which could be hemp or marijuana.

Compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is predominantly found in marijuana, CBD from hemp is non-intoxicating and does not cause a high when consumed(10). Meanwhile, the use of cannabis (marijuana) induces psychoactive effects. 

A study published in 2009 in the Journal of Molecular Medicine found that cannabidiol may have protective effects in rats with colitis(11)

The researchers examined the large intestines of the subjects and found that CBD was able to reduce injury in the general area.

Another study on rats with ulcerative colitis was carried out the following year to learn about CBD’s effects on this type of IBD. 

Results revealed that THC and CBD inhibited inflammation and functional disturbances in the large intestines of the rodents(12).

The results of these two small studies led another team to continue examining CBD and how it affects colitis in animal models.

In a 2011 study published by the scientific journal PLOS One, scientists once again found that CBD reduced intestinal damage in mice with colitis(13)

Meanwhile, a clinical trial found that applying CBD as a topical can improve colonic inflammation in mice with UC(14).

Despite these positive results, most of the studies on CBD’s effects on colitis were carried out on rodents. However, at least one clinical trial attempted to translate the supposed health benefits of CBD on human subjects with UC.

The study compared the effectiveness of CBD oil capsules on individuals with UC to another group that was given placebo pills. 

The CBD group participants were given 50 mg of CBD capsules twice each day, increasing up to 250 mg twice daily, if tolerated(15).

After ten weeks, twenty-four percent of the subjects that took CBD claimed to have improved remission rates, stating that they no longer experience colitis symptoms. 

Meanwhile, several participants also reported improved quality of life scores compared to the placebo group(16).

Although appearing to have potential, CBD’s effects on human subjects with ulcerative colitis are unclear. The lack of human studies is why researchers today could not conclude the efficacy of cannabidiol in adults with active UC.

How CBD Oil Works to Help with Ulcerative Colitis

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a system present in most mammals and is responsible for regulating several critical bodily functions. Its discovery in the 90s has led many researchers to believe that it could be manipulated to bring about therapeutic effects in parts of the body it controls(17).

Knowing how the ECS works is essential in understanding how CBD may help alleviate ulcerative colitis and IBD symptoms.

Cannabinoids, like CBD, express their therapeutic effects in the body through receptors in the ECS(18). The two primary endocannabinoid receptors are the CB1 and CB2 receptors.

CB1 receptors are primarily distributed on neural tissue and the central nervous system. CB2 receptors mediate the functions concerning the immune system.

A study in 2001 mentioned that CB1 receptors are said to play a role in controlling gastrointestinal motility and gastric intestinal secretion(19). This statement is supported by at least two studies on mice, which demonstrated that CB1 and CB2 receptors are crucial in modulating colonic inflammation(20).

Although both CB1 and CB2 receptors are considered mediators of inflammation in the ECS, the CB2 receptor seems to be the primary regulator of inflammation and immune functions(21).

When CB2 receptors are activated, they trigger a response which fights inflammation in the body. This anti-inflammatory reaction is said to help treat chronic inflammatory diseases, one of which is colitis(22).

CBD supposedly provides its anti-inflammatory benefits by interacting with the cannabinoid receptors in the ECS. Doing so could help treat inflammation of the colon, which is common in ulcerative colitis.

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Ulcerative Colitis

The Pros

  • CBD is said to have anti-inflammatory properties(23) that could potentially alleviate ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease symptoms.
  • Several studies on cannabis and inflammatory bowel conditions support the concept that compounds, like CBD, can be used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases(24).
  • CBD intake does not result in a euphoric high, unlike THC, which is the psychoactive component prevalent in medical marijuana.
  • People can purchase CBD oil products even without a prescription so long as they do so in locations where they are legal.
  • According to a study in 2018, cannabidiol is non-addictive and may even help with substance abuse and drug addiction(25).

The Cons

  • Most of the findings from the studies mentioned earlier were obtained from clinical trials on rodents. At the time of writing, there is no direct evidence proving that CBD can effectively treat ulcerative colitis.
  • Research on CBD’s efficacy on human subjects with colitis has shown limited clinical response, with the results of these studies being generally inconclusive.
  • People who take CBD may experience adverse effects, such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue, and headache(26).
  • At this time, Epidiolex is the only CBD product approved and evaluated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)(27).
  • The FDA also warns the public that using CBD and other medications together may affect how these drugs work, potentially causing severe side effects(28).

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Ulcerative Colitis

Herbal medicines have been used in treating IBDs, like ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. They are said to be effective in alleviating inflammatory bowel disease symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract

In Italy, complementary medicines, particularly herbal therapies, are frequently used by patients with inflammatory bowel diseases(29).

Likewise, Chinese literature recognizes the IBD treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbal remedies. 

Herbs, such as aloe vera, Boswellia serrata, and turmeric, are often used in the hopes of alleviating the symptoms of colitis(30).

This belief is based on the alleged anti-inflammatory effects that these herbs provide upon consumption.

Aloe vera is said to have therapeutic potential in treating IBD, based on the positive results of a clinical trial on patients with the disease(31). Meanwhile, Boswellia serrata(32) and curcumin from turmeric(33) are also reported to have anti-inflammatory activities.

CBD has been shown to possess characteristics that could combat inflammation and help with IBDs, like colitis. There are CBD products available in the form of tinctures and capsules that are infused with herbal medicines.

Users can find CBD oil mixed with herbs, such as aloe vera, Boswellia serrata, and turmeric. There are also CBD supplements in the form of soft gels that contain Boswellia and curcumin.

How to Choose the Best CBD Oil for Ulcerative Colitis

Choosing the right type of CBD oil is imperative to experiencing CBD to the fullest. Three variants of CBD oil are being manufactured by companies today.

The first is full-spectrum CBD, which has all of the chemical compounds that are naturally found in cannabis. This type also has other chemical compounds, like terpenes that provide the distinctive aroma in cannabis plants and flavonoids, which give their unique colors.

Full-spectrum CBD also contains trace amounts of THC, which cannot cause a psychoactive reaction.

Combining all of these compounds and consuming them provides the user with the entourage effect. This effect means that the cannabis constituents are more effective when consumed together compared to taking them individually.

Cannabidiol is not the only compound of cannabis that is said to have therapeutic effects. When choosing a CBD product, users often decide to select one containing the full range of cannabinoids to maximize their health benefits.

The second type of CBD oil is called broad-spectrum, which is similar to full-spectrum. It also contains all of the phytocannabinoids that are derived from cannabis except THC. 

This variety of CBD is ideal for individuals who do not want to consume THC.

The third type of oil is known as isolate, which contains pure cannabidiol. Users that are allergic to specific cannabinoids of the hemp plant, or those who want to take pure CBD, can opt for CBD isolates.

This type of CBD is often available in powdered form but can sometimes be found as crystals.

Regardless of whether a person chooses full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, or isolate, careful consideration is necessary to obtain the best CBD oil suitable for one’s preferences.  

Here are several tips to ensure that high-quality, safe, and reliable cannabis products are bought today:

  1. Look for the certificate of analysis (COA) or the laboratory report of the CBD product selected. This document is especially important since it indicates that the item has undergone thorough testing and contains precisely the specifications listed on its label.
  2. Read up on product and shop reviews when buying from an online store. If purchasing from a physical dispensary, check if it has proper authorization to sell CBD.
  3. Only buy organic CBD derived from hemp. The hemp plant is the most reliable source of quality cannabidiol.
  4. Ensure that the legalities involving CBD are followed in the state where it is planned to be bought and used.
  5. Consult a medical professional, preferably someone experienced in medical cannabis, before deciding to use CBD for the symptoms of ulcerative colitis.

Additional Tips to Get the Best CBD Oil Products

  • Keep an eye out for CBD brands claiming that their CBD is acquired from the stalk and seeds of hemp plants. Cannabidiol is not found in hemp seeds, and there are minimal traces of CBD in the stalks of hemp.
  • Do not purchase CBD vape cartridges containing thinning agents, such as propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol, as these can be toxic and harmful to one’s health.
  • Avoid purchasing low-quality CBD edibles and gummies that are made of artificial colors and sub-standard ingredients.
  • Contact CBD brands directly for any questions or concerns. Try another CBD company if they do not respond.

CBD Dosage for Ulcerative Colitis

There are no official guidelines concerning the consumption of CBD for ulcerative colitis. However, it might help to review the dosage of past human clinical trials to have an idea concerning the safe amount for intake.

From the study mentioned earlier, patients with UC were given 50 mg of CBD oil capsules twice a day. The participants who tolerated it well took increasing amounts, reaching as much as 250 mg twice per day for ten weeks.

The study showed that the subjects who took CBD felt better and claimed to no longer experience colitis symptoms. A few individuals also reported mild reactions, such as dizziness and nausea.

A systematic review of CBD dosing found that patients who took doses between 1 and 50 mg/kg per day reported significant improvements in their conditions(34). This review took into account the results of twenty-three studies and found that CBD was well-tolerated in all subjects.

Perhaps the best rule to apply with regards to CBD dosage is to start with a small amount and then observe its effects. If there are no severe reactions, users can gradually increase their dosing until they experience the desired outcome.

How to Take CBD Oil for Ulcerative Colitis

When seeking the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD for colitis, users can choose to take CBD sublingually via tinctures and droppers. This approach involves placing drops of CBD oil under the tongue and keeping it there for several seconds before swallowing.

Applying CBD by way of tinctures is probably the fastest way to deliver cannabidiol to the body as the compound can enter the bloodstream immediately.

CBD in capsule form is also another way to take cannabidiol, allowing individuals to take them daily, similar to supplements.

Meanwhile, users can find CBD edibles in the form of cookies and gummies that can be consumed as snacks. 

This kind of product is usually available in various flavors and can be a delightful introduction to CBD. However, edibles can take effect longer than other forms of CBD, as it has to travel through the gastrointestinal tract first.

Conclusion

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammation of the colon that primarily affects the lining of the large intestine, causing people to experience frequent bowel movement or flare-ups

UC commonly occurs in adults between the ages of thirty to forty years old and is reported to be a significant economic burden in the United States.

There is no clear indication of what causes colitis and, as of this time, scientists have not yet found a cure for the disease.

Aminosalicylates are the most prescribed treatment for UC, with doctors aiming to reduce inflammation and improve the quality of life of IBD patients. 

Several studies have shown that CBD is a possible medical treatment option for ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory bowel conditions. Researchers discovered that CBD could prevent injury and inflammation to the colon, potentially providing relief for colitis disease activity.

Experts believe that CBD may reduce inflammation by interacting with the CB1 and CB2 receptors of the ECS.

However, most randomized controlled trials were carried out on animals, with no direct evidence showing that CBD is an effective treatment for UC symptoms in humans.

When deciding to purchase CBD for intestinal inflammation, interested cannabis users should consult a doctor to get the right medical advice. 

People can benefit from visiting a healthcare provider experienced with cannabis oil and CBD.


  1. Cohen RD, Yu AP, Wu EQ, Xie J, Mulani PM, Chao J. Systematic review: the costs of ulcerative colitis in Western countries. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;31(7):693-707. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2010.04234.x
  2. Collins P, Rhodes J. Ulcerative colitis: diagnosis and management. BMJ. 2006;333(7563):340-343. doi:10.1136/bmj.333.7563.340
  3. Atalay S, Jarocka-Karpowicz I, Skrzydlewska E. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019;9(1):21. Published 2019 Dec 25. doi:10.3390/antiox9010021
  4. Borrelli F, Aviello G, Romano B, et al. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis. J Mol Med (Berl). 2009;87(11):1111-1121. doi:10.1007/s00109-009-0512-x
  5. Jamontt JM, Molleman A, Pertwee RG, Parsons ME. The effects of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160(3):712-723. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00791.x
  6. De Filippis D, Esposito G, Cirillo C, et al. Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28159. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028159
  7. Cohen RD. et al. op. cit.
  8. Collins P, Rhodes J. op. cit.
  9. Atalay S. et al. op. cit.
  10. Meissner H, Cascella M. Cannabidiol (CBD) [Updated 2020 Mar 9]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556048/
  11. Borrelli F. et al. op. cit.
  12. Jamontt JM. et al. op. cit.
  13. De Filippis D. et al. op. cit.
  14. Schicho R, Storr M. Topical and systemic cannabidiol improves trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis in mice. Pharmacology. 2012;89(3-4):149-155. doi:10.1159/000336871
  15. Kafil TS, Nguyen TM, MacDonald JK, Chande N. Cannabis for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD012954. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012954.pub2
  16. Ibid.
  17. Pacher P, Bátkai S, Kunos G. The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58(3):389-462. doi:10.1124/pr.58.3.2
  18. Picardo S, Kaplan GG, Sharkey KA, Seow CH. Insights into the role of cannabis in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2019;12:1756284819870977. Published 2019 Sep 3. doi:10.1177/1756284819870977
  19. Pertwee RG. Cannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract. Gut. 2001;48(6):859-867. doi:10.1136/gut.48.6.859
  20. Kimball ES, Schneider CR, Wallace NH, Hornby PJ. Agonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 inhibit experimental colitis induced by oil of mustard and by dextran sulfate sodium. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291(2):G364-G371. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00407.2005; Massa F, Marsicano G, Hermann H, et al. The endogenous cannabinoid system protects against colonic inflammation. J Clin Invest. 2004;113(8):1202-1209. doi:10.1172/JCI19465
  21. Ashton JC, Glass M. The cannabinoid CB2 receptor as a target for inflammation-dependent neurodegeneration. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2007;5(2):73-80. doi:10.2174/157015907780866884
  22. Turcotte C, Blanchet MR, Laviolette M, Flamand N. The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016;73(23):4449-4470. doi:10.1007/s00018-016-2300-4
  23. Atalay S. et al. op. cit.
  24. Picardo S. et al. op. cit.; Ahmed W, Katz S. Therapeutic Use of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2016;12(11):668-679.; Hasenoehrl C, Storr M, Schicho R. Cannabinoids for treating inflammatory bowel diseases: where are we and where do we go?. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;11(4):329-337. doi:10.1080/17474124.2017.1292851
  25. Gonzalez-Cuevas G, Martin-Fardon R, Kerr TM, et al. Unique treatment potential of cannabidiol for the prevention of relapse to drug use: preclinical proof of principle. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018;43(10):2036-2045. doi:10.1038/s41386-018-0050-8
  26. Kafil TS. et al. op. cit.
  27. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2020, March 5). What You Need to Know (And What We’re Working to Find Out) About Products Containing Cannabis or Cannabis-derived Compounds, Including CBD. Retrieved from: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-need-know-and-what-were-working-find-out-about-products-containing-cannabis-or-cannabis.
  28. Ibid.
  29. D’Inca R, Garribba AT, Vettorato MG, et al. Use of alternative and complementary therapies by inflammatory bowel disease patients in an Italian tertiary referral centre. Dig Liver Dis. 2007;39(6):524-529. doi:10.1016/j.dld.2007.03.001
  30. Ke F, Yadav PK, Ju LZ. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(1):3-10. doi:10.4103/1319-3767.91726
  31. Langmead L, Makins RJ, Rampton DS. Anti-inflammatory effects of aloe vera gel in human colorectal mucosa in vitro. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004;19(5):521-527. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2004.01874.x
  32. Krieglstein CF, Anthoni C, Rijcken EJ, et al. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, a constituent of a herbal medicine from Boswellia serrata resin, attenuates experimental ileitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2001;16(2):88-95. doi:10.1007/s003840100292
  33. Holt PR, Katz S, Kirshoff R. Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50(11):2191-2193. doi:10.1007/s10620-005-3032-8
  34. Millar SA, Stone NL, Bellman ZD, Yates AS, England TJ, O’Sullivan SE. A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2019;85(9):1888-1900. doi:10.1111/bcp.14038
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Spruce is a family-owned business based out of Raleigh, North Carolina. The company was founded in 2018 in the belief that modern medicine is broken and that there is a need for alternatives to dangerous pharmaceuticals. Spruce’s lab-grade CBD oil is 100% natural and tested by a third-party lab in...

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Best CBD Oil for High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Why People Are Taking CBD for High Blood Pressure? According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), high blood pressure can harden the arteries, which decreases the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart, leading to heart disease(5). In a 2015 study conducted by researchers from the...

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NuLeaf Naturals Review

Based in Colorado, USA, and founded in 2014, NuLeaf Naturals is one of America’s top pioneering hemp companies. NuLeaf Naturals wellness products are derived from specially bred therapeutic hemp (Cannabis Sativa) plants grown on licensed farms in Colorado. Their hemp CBD plants are 100% organic whole-plant extracts and grown with...

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Best CBD for Neuropathy (Nerve Pain)

As medical cannabis products have become more popular, people are turning to them to treat everything from anxiety to depression to chronic pain. Individuals who are suffering from neuropathy may show interest in trying CBD oil. What Is CBD? CBD comes from a plant that is part of the Cannabaceae...

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SabaiDee Review + Discount Coupon Code for 2020

SabaiDee CBD products are tested both in-house and by independent laboratories to verify the quality of every batch. Their products all come with SabaiDee’s Happiness Guarantee. 

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Top 4 Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Cancer (2020)

Why Some People are Using CBD for Dogs with Cancer? An article posted by the American Kennel Club (AKC) says that there is no conclusive scientific data on using cannabidiol (CBD) to treat dogs specifically. However, there is anecdotal evidence from dog owners suggesting that CBD can help with neuropathic...

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CBD Oil for Kids with Anxiety

Why People are Turning to CBD for Children with Anxiety? CBD has become a popular OTC treatment that parents give their children, says Doris Trauner, M.D., professor of neurosciences and pediatrics at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and a physician at San Diego’s Rady Children’s Hospital....

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CBD Oil for Candida

Why People are Turning to CBD for Candida? Candidiasis or thrush is a medical condition caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like fungus. This type of fungus spreads over within the mouth and throat, and it usually infects men and women alike. Certain cannabinoids, like CBD, have been shown as a...

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