Can CBD Oil Help With Liver Damage?

  • A study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology noted that cannabidiol (CBD) improved the symptoms of acute liver failure on animal subjects. Results showed that CBD might be a potential therapeutic agent for treating human hepatic encephalopathy (1)
  • A 2017 in vitro study posted in Pharmacognosy Research demonstrated how CBD had bioactivities against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) (2).
  • A study released in Scientific Reports has shown how CBD alleviated the abnormal retention of fat within the liver of ethanol-induced animal subjects (3).
  • However, CBD can cause liver damage when used in extremely high doses (4). Before taking CBD, one must consult a licensed physician.   

Best CBD Oil for Liver Damage

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for New CBD users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Score breakdown
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  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Check Latest Prices

Best Value

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Value
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Various delicious flavors to choose from
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Free shipping for this particular product within USA
    •  World-class customer service team
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1500mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    Flavours Natural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range $99.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Daily CBD oil users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why People Are Turning to CBD for Liver Damage

Liver damage treatment depends on the underlying condition. Some liver problems can be remedied with lifestyle modifications, such as losing weight or stopping alcohol. Some may require treatment or surgery (5)

Medication for liver damage often involves corticosteroids. Treatments, such as prednisone, may cause side effects, such as glaucoma, weight gain, high blood pressure, and mood swings (6)

Moreover, surgery or a liver transplant may result in several complications, such as infection, bleeding, seizures, failure, or rejection of the donated liver (7)

The side effects of these treatments have caused individuals to look for an alternative approach to treating their livers. 

Moreover, some individuals with liver conditions that cannot be treated with pharmaceutical drugs are also on the lookout to reclaim their health.

CBD is becoming a popular alternative for many health problems. However, there are still many questions about whether CBD can help with liver damage or not. 

While some studies have acknowledged CBD’s potential ability to stimulate liver regeneration through in vitro and vivo experiments, there is a recent study that linked CBD to liver damage in animal subjects. 

CBD vs. Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a liver condition caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). There is currently no vaccine for this infection. Infected individuals may experience fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, joint pain, and jaundice.

In 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there were new 1.25 million HCV infections worldwide (8)

An in vitro study found that CBD might have bioactivities against HCV. The study added that CBD’s direct antiviral activity indicated that it might be effective against viral and nonviral hepatitis (autoimmune hepatitis) (9)

Although the study showed promising results of CBD against HCV, it was also noted that CBD did not affect the hepatitis B virus (10)

Individuals must consult a physician before considering the use of CBD for hepatitis C. Untreated hepatitis C may lead to long-term infection known as chronic hepatitis C, which may result in severe liver damage (11)

CBD vs. Alcoholic Liver Disease

Alcoholism can induce hepatosteatosis (fatty liver disease), commonly known as alcoholic liver disease (ALD). 

With early detection and lifestyle change, ALD is reversible. If left untreated, however, this can later progress to severe liver problems, such as cirrhosis and hepatitis. 

Researchers found that oxidative stress is one of the primary factors in inducing steatosis. A study demonstrated that CBD reduced ethanol-induced liver injury on animal subjects by reducing oxidative stress (12)

Moreover, the study observed how CBD stimulated autophagy (removal of damaged liver cells) during in vitro and vivo experiments. 

The study noted how all these mechanisms might be essential for alleviating steatosis. 

CBD vs. Non-alcoholic Liver Disease

As the name implies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NALD) is a condition concerning individuals who consume little to no alcohol. 

The causes of NAFLD may be any of the following:

  • Overweight or obesity
  • Insulin resistance 
  • High levels of triglycerides (fat) in the body
  • High blood sugar

Management of NAFLD may be challenging since no treatment has been approved for the condition (13). Many health experts will recommend a change in lifestyle and diet habits. 

A study posted on Hepatology mentioned that high-fat diets might result in elevated leptin levels and plasma insulin. 

The increase in glucose levels is often accompanied by hyperglycemia, indicating that the body is insulin resistant (14)

Many scientists have tested CBD’s efficacy for weight loss. A recent study posted in the Frontiers in Endocrinology mentioned the positive influence of CBD on the liver. 

The administration of CBD reduced intracellular lipid (fat) content in an in vitro hepatosteatosis model. The review also acknowledged the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD (15)

Moreover, a 2017 study published by Plos One conducted a study on cannabis users and found a strong relationship between cannabis use and reduced prevalence of NAFLD (16)

More clinical studies are needed to verify CBD’s efficacy in reducing lipid content in the liver and its anti-obesity properties. 

How CBD Oil Works to Help With Liver Damage

The human endocannabinoid system (ECS) is composed of G-protein-coupled receptors, such as the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2).

CB1 receptors are located throughout the body. The majority of them are located in the central nervous system. CB2 receptors can be found primarily in the immune system (17).

The endocannabinoid system has been studied for decades for its role in modulating various physiological functions and peripheral organs. 

Modulating the ECS activity might have several therapeutic responses to health conditions and diseases (18).

A study released in Pharmacological Reviews mentioned evidence indicating the role of the ECS in the control of gastrointestinal motility and secretion. 

The authors in the study further expounded how the ECS can influence appetite, energy, weight balance, and metabolism. They found that administering a CB1 antagonist reduced food intake and body weight among animal test subjects. 

The study also mentioned that CB1 receptor knockout mice treated with CB1 antagonists were resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO) (19)

Another study posted in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences discussed how CB1 antagonists reduced obesity in DIO mice (20).

The role of the CB2 receptor was discussed by a study published in Hepatology. This study tested how the CB2 receptor agonist improved fibrogenesis and accelerated liver regeneration (21)

The British Journal of Pharmacology posted a study that explained how CBD might have the ability to behave as a CB2 receptor inverse agonist, which may contribute to anti-inflammatory properties (22).

The British Journal of Pharmacology also published a study that explained how CBD might work as both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists. The study mentioned how CBD, in low doses, might act as CB1 antagonist (23)

This is supported by an independent 2019 study published in the Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease. In the study, the scientists used CBD to block CB1 receptors of insulin-resistant rats, preventing proteinuria and renal function decline. This study has shown that CBD can act as a CB1 antagonist (24).

The study from the British Journal of Pharmacology further explained that CBD might behave as a CB2 receptor antagonist and inhibit immune cell migration and reduce signs of inflammation (25)

Moreover, CBD has been shown to stimulate CB2 receptors during an in vitro study. This interaction resulted in the proliferation of T-cells and macrophages responsible for the release of inflammatory cytokines that cause autoimmune hepatitis (26)

Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Liver Damage

The Pros

  • CBD might improve symptoms of acute liver failure, thus serving as a potential therapeutic agent for treating human hepatic encephalopathy (27)
  • During an in vitro study, CBD displayed bioactivities against the hepatitis C virus. CBD’s direct antiviral activity indicated that it might be useful against viral and nonviral hepatitis (28).
  • A study has shown that CBD might be useful in reducing alcohol liver injury by reducing oxidative stress (29).
  • An in vitro study demonstrated how CBD reduced intracellular lipid content in the fatty liver model (30)
  • CBD might have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that could help maintain homeostasis in the liver (31)
  • Many distinguished health agencies, including the World Health Organization (WHO), stated that CBD is generally well-tolerated and safe (32)
  • Prescriptions are not needed when buying CBD oil. 

The Cons

  • According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), CBD in high doses can lead to liver injury (33)
  • The CBD industry remains unregulated. Individuals should research product specifications, third-party laboratory tests, testimonials, and reviews. 
  • CBD might have several drug interactions with other medications. Always consult a physician before taking CBD. 

How Does CBD Compare to Other Alternative Treatments?

There are several herbal treatments available for individuals who want to treat their liver conditions naturally. However, health experts have discovered that these may also cause harm if caution is not exercised (34)

Sho-saiko-to is an herbal medicine used for chronic hepatitis in China and Japan. Its use as an oriental classical medicine was first introduced 1500 years ago.  

Various clinical studies suggested that Sho-saiko-to might help protect against the development of hepatocellular carcinoma among individuals with cirrhosis. However, the mechanism for this remains unclear (35)

The Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan, who had approved Sho-saiko-to as a treatment for liver disease, had to revisit the efficacy of the herb as it caused adverse respiratory effects among patients, resulting in 10 deaths (36)

Silymarin (milk thistle) is another natural herb that is used to treat liver and biliary disorders. The oldest reported use of Silymarin dates back to the ancient Greeks and Roman period when people used the plant to treat snake bites and liver conditions (37)

Holy basil is another plant that is believed to have hepatoprotective properties. The plant contains phytochemicals that have analgesic and anti-inflammation properties (38)

Like most of the herbal treatments mentioned, CBD is also a natural compound derived from Cannabis sativa (hemp). The use of cannabis sativa started during the medieval Islamic period when physicians used the plant to treat various conditions (39)

A study has shown how CBD restored liver and brain function among animal subjects with induced-hepatic failure.  The study also acknowledged the anti-inflammation and antioxidant properties of CBD, which could help in maintaining homeostasis in the liver (40)

How to Choose the Right CBD Oil for Liver Damage

CBD oil comes in three types of concentrations. 

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all the cannabinoids present in hemp, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). 

THC is the cannabinoid known for producing psychoactive effects. In a full-spectrum CBD concentrate, THC levels cannot exceed the U.S. legal limit of 0.3%. 

Many studies have shown that THC may also have some hepatoprotection properties. 

A study published in Hepatology found that THC attenuated the progression of autoimmune hepatitis in animal subjects. Results indicated the decreased plasma levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and reduced tissue injury (41).

For individuals who want the benefits of all the cannabinoids present in hemp, full-spectrum CBD oil is the best option.

Although the full-spectrum concentrate has very low THC, some individuals prefer not to have THC in their system due to work and other personal reasons. Therefore, their next option can be broad-spectrum.

Broad-spectrum CBD oil contains all the cannabinoids present in hemp, except for THC. 

Lastly, CBD isolate is a concentrate made especially for individuals who want to take CBD into their system. CBD isolates may be good for people who want CBD without the presence of carrier oils and other cannabinoids. 

Since individuals with liver problems may be vulnerable to many substances and compounds, it is advisable to do extensive research before choosing a CBD brand. 

The certificate of analysis (COA) is a third-party lab result presented by legitimate CBD brands who want to assure their customers that their concentrations are the same as what they advertise. 

The COA also indicates that the extract is free from harmful chemicals, such as heavy metals, pesticides, and other contaminants. Moreover, the COA specifies the extraction process used for the CBD oil concentration. 

For individuals with liver problems, it is recommended that they choose CBD oil with CO2-extraction. This is a method that does not use any solvents. 

Here are other factors to consider when taking CBD oil for liver health:

  • Vaping enthusiasts should choose a CBD brand that does not use fillers and other toxic substances, like propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol. CBD vapes that contain nicotine are also harmful.
  • The carrier oil may be an essential factor to consider due to allergy, intolerance, and liver safety issues. Carrier oils can be hempseed oil, MCT (unrefined coconut oil), grapeseed oil, sunflower oil, or avocado oil. 
  • Choose non-GMO organic hemp. This is usually specified by the brand. 
  • Do some additional research by reading testimonials and recommendations from other customers. 

It is strongly recommended that individuals suffering from mild to severe liver damage consult a hepatologist before adding CBD to their daily regimen. 

Discussing the formulation and ingredients used with your physician may be crucial for one’s liver health. 

CBD Dosage for Liver Damage

There is currently no universal dosage recommended for CBD users. However, it is recommended that one starts with a low dose. 

A 2019 study released in the British Journal of Pharmacology recommended that CBD be taken from less than 1 to 50 milligram per kilogram a day (42).  Once the system gets used to CBD, the dosage may be increased.

One must also use discretion when using CBD and always discuss their dosage with physicians. CBD may cause liver injury when used in high dosages (43).

How to Take CBD Oil for Liver Damage

The most recommended approach to taking CBD for liver damage is through CBD tinctures. One can use a dropper to put CBD oil under the tongue.

CBD vape is another option to consider for individuals who do not want to take CBD oil orally. Some experts consider vaping to be a more effective and faster mode of delivery (44)

However, one must make sure that the CBD oil or cartridge does not contain harmful chemicals that can further damage the liver (45)

Can CBD Oil Cause Liver Damage?

Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved medication that contains CBD oil. It is primarily used for children with rare forms of epilepsy. However, Epidiolex in doses higher than the recommended 10-20 milligram per kilogram per day may cause liver injury (46)

The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences posted a review in 2019 that showed how higher doses of CBD oil on 8-week old mice models led to liver toxicity (47). Molecules published this study, followed by Forbes and other media entities.

The dosage amounts used in the study were 246mg/kg, 738mg/kg, and 2460mg/kg. The study later observed that a single dose of 2460 mg/kg exhibited hepatotoxicity and increased bilirubin. They also added that a similar response was observed among monkeys injected with lethal CBD doses. 

The authors explained that the purpose of this experiment was to study the potential effects of lethal doses of CBD among living organisms. They added that the dosage that produced fatal results in the study does not apply to real-life scenarios (48)

The authors also mentioned that more studies are needed to determine the consequences of prolonged use of CBD.

Another thing to note in the study is that scientists used hexane as the extraction solvent for their CBD concentrate. Hexane is a chemical made from crude oil and is a potentially toxic compound when used on animals and humans (49).

Most CBD oil manufacturers use three extraction methods, such as hydrocarbon extraction, ethanol extraction, and CO2-extraction. The extraction method should be indicated in the certificate of analysis (COA). 

Individuals are advised to always research the brand properly before purchasing. The COA is crucial in determining if the CBD concentrate is safe and free from harmful chemicals. 

Conclusion

Studies have shown that CBD might have hepatoprotection properties. It has been indicated that CBD can reduce lipid content and reduce oxidative stress in alcoholic liver injury (50).

It has also been shown that CBD might have bioactivities against the hepatitis C virus (51). Lastly, a study has shown that CBD might potentially restore liver function during hepatic encephalopathy (52).

Individuals with liver damage must always consult their doctors before adding CBD to their daily regimen. 


  1. Avraham, Y., Grigoriadis, N., Poutahidis, T., Vorobiev, L., Magen, I., Ilan, Y., Mechoulam, R., & Berry, E. (2011). Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice. British journal of pharmacology, 162(7), 1650–1658. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01179.x
  2. Lowe, H. I., Toyang, N. J., & McLaughlin, W. (2017). Potential of Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Viral Hepatitis. Pharmacognosy research, 9(1), 116–118. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.199780 
  3. Yang, L., Rozenfeld, R., Wu, D., Devi, L. A., Zhang, Z., & Cederbaum, A. (2014). Cannabidiol protects the liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy. Free radical biology & medicine, 68, 260–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.12.026
  4. Ewing, L. E., Skinner, C. M., Quick, C. M., Kennon-McGill, S., McGill, M. R., Walker, L. A., … Koturbash, I. (2019). Hepatotoxicity of a Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extract in the Mouse Model. Molecules, 24(9), 1694. doi:10.3390/molecules24091694
  5. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012-. Corticosteroids. [Updated 2014 May 30]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK548400/
  6. The Mayo Clinic. Corticosteroids Overview. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/steroids/art-20045692
  7. The Mayor Clinic. Liver Transplant Overview. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/liver-transplant/about/pac-20384842
  8. The World Health Organization. Hepatitis C overview. Retrieved from  https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-c
  9. Lowe, H. I., (2017), Op cit.
  10. Ibid.
  11. The Mayo Clinic. Hepatitis C Overview. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hepatitis-c/symptoms-causes/syc-20354278#:~:text=Long%2Dterm%20infection%20with%20the,Bruising%20easily
  12. Yang, L., (2014), Op cit. 
  13. Alswat K. A. (2013). The role of endocannabinoids system in fatty liver disease and therapeutic potentials. Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association, 19(4), 144–151. https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-3767.114505
  14. Tam, J., Liu, J., Mukhopadhyay, B., Cinar, R., Godlewski, G., & Kunos, G. (2011). Endocannabinoids in liver disease. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 53(1), 346–355. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.24077
  15. Bielawiec, P., Harasim-Symbor, E., & Chabowski, A. (2020). Phytocannabinoids: Useful Drugs for the Treatment of Obesity? Special Focus on Cannabidiol. Frontiers in endocrinology, 11, 114. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00114
  16. Adejumo AC, Alliu S, Ajayi TO, Adejumo KL, Adegbala OM, et al. (2017) Cannabis use is associated with reduced prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE 12(4): e0176416. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176416
  17. Alswat K. A. (2013). Op cit.
  18. Pacher, P., Bátkai, S., & Kunos, G. (2006). The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological reviews, 58(3), 389–462. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.58.3.2
  19. Ibid.
  20. Rossi, F., Punzo, F., Umano, G. R., Argenziano, M., & Miraglia Del Giudice, E. (2018). Role of Cannabinoids in Obesity. International journal of molecular sciences, 19(9), 2690. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092690
  21. Teixeira-Clerc, F., Belot, M. P., Manin, S., Deveaux, V., Cadoudal, T., Chobert, M. N., Louvet, A., Zimmer, A., Tordjmann, T., Mallat, A., & Lotersztajn, S. (2010). Beneficial paracrine effects of cannabinoid receptor 2 on liver injury and regeneration. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 52(3), 1046–1059. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.23779
  22. Thomas, A., Baillie, G. L., Phillips, A. M., Razdan, R. K., Ross, R. A., & Pertwee, R. G. (2007). Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro. British Journal of Pharmacology, 150(5), 613–623. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0707133
  23. Pertwee R. G. (2008). The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. British journal of pharmacology, 153(2), 199–215. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0707442
  24. Ho, C., Martinusen, D., & Lo, C. (2019). A Review of Cannabis in Chronic Kidney Disease Symptom Management. Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease, 6, 2054358119828391. https://doi.org/10.1177/2054358119828391
  25. Pertwee R. G., (2008)., Op cit. 
  26. Lowe, H. I., Toyang, N. J., & McLaughlin, W. (2017). Potential of Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Viral Hepatitis. Pharmacognosy research, 9(1), 116–118. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.199780
  27. Avraham, Y., (2011)., Op cit. 
  28. Lowe, H. I.,(2017)., Op cit. 
  29. Yang, L., (2014), Op cit. 
  30. Bielawiec, P., (2020)., Op cit. 
  31. Ibid.
  32. WHO. Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. (2017, Nov 6-10). Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.2_CBD.pdf.
  33. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. What you need to know  (And What We’re Working to Find Out) About Products Containing Cannabis or Cannabis-derived Compounds, Including CBD., Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-need-know-and-what-were-working-find-out-about-products-containing-cannabis-or-cannabis#:~:text=Liver%20Injury%3A%20During%20its%20review,the%20potential%20for%20liver%20injury.
  34. Xiong, F., & Guan, Y. S. (2017). Cautiously using natural medicine to treat liver problems. World journal of gastroenterology, 23(19), 3388–3395. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v23.i19.3388
  35. Ibid
  36. Wu, S. X., Sun, H. F., Yang, X. H., Long, H. Z., Ye, Z. G., Ji, S. L., & Zhang, L. (2014). Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica, 39(15), 2983–2988. PMID: 25423845
  37. Xiong, F., & Guan, Y. S. (2017)., Op cit.
  38. Ibid.
  39. Lozano, I.,(2008), The Therapeutic Use of Cannabis sativa (L.) in Arabic Medicine.  Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics. https://doi.org/10.1300/J175v01n01_05
  40. Avraham, Y., Grigoriadis, N., Poutahidis, T., Vorobiev, L., Magen, I., Ilan, Y., Mechoulam, R., & Berry, E. (2011). Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice. British Journal of Pharmacology, 162(7), 1650–1658. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01179.x
  41. Tam, J., Liu, J., Mukhopadhyay, B., Cinar, R., Godlewski, G., & Kunos, G. (2011). Endocannabinoids in liver disease. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 53(1), 346–355. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.24077
  42. Millar, S. A., Stone, N. L., Bellman, Z. D., Yates, A. S., England, T. J., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2019). A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 85(9), 1888–1900. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14038
  43. Ewing, L. E., (2019)., Op cit.
  44. Solowij N. Peering Through the Haze of Smoked vs Vaporized Cannabis—To Vape or Not to Vape? JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(7):e184838. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.4838
  45. El Golli, N., Jrad-Lamine, A., Neffati, H., Rahali, D., Dallagi, Y., Dkhili, H., Ba, N., El May, M. V., & El Fazaa, S. (2016). Impact of e-cigarette refill liquid with or without nicotine on liver function in adult rats. Toxicology mechanisms and methods, 26(6), 419–426. https://doi.org/10.3109/15376516.2016.1160963
  46. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves First Drug Comprised of Active Ingredient Derived from Marijuana to Treat Rare, Severe Forms of Epilepsy., (2018)., Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-drug-comprised-active-ingredient-derived-marijuana-treat-rare-severe-forms
  47. Ewing, L. E.,(2019)., Op cit.
  48. Ibid. 
  49. National Center for Biotechnology Information., PubChem Database. Hexane, CID=8058, (Updated on July 2020)., Retrieved from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Hexane (accessed on July 16, 2020)
  50. Bielawiec, P., (2020)., Op cit. 
  51. Lowe, H. I.,(2017)., Op cit. 
  52. Avraham, Y., (2011)., Op cit.
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