How Can CBD Oil Help With Lyme Disease?

  • Sleep disruption is a common symptom of Lyme disease, a condition caused by infected tick bites. A 2019 study published in the Permanente Journal concluded that sleep and anxiety scores improved in human subjects who were given cannabidiol (CBD) (1)
  • CBD may also help with joint and pain inflammation, another Lyme disease symptom. The European Journal of Pain published a 2016 animal study on transdermal CBD use in subjects with arthritis. Results showed that the daily application of CBD gel reduced spontaneous pain (2).
  • The Journal of Experimental Medicine printed a study that suggested non-psychoactive cannabinoids, such as CBD, have the potential to suppress chronic neuropathic pain in animal test subjects(3). The study also noted CBD’s analgesic properties.
  • CBD has the potential to reduce heart palpitations of infected individuals. A 2010 lab experiment published in the British Journal of Pharmacology demonstrated the cardioprotective properties of CBD on animal test subjects (4).
  • A report published in the Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek Journal mentioned that CBD might affect a few pathogenic bacterial populations. However, gram-negative bacteria, such as Lyme disease-causing bacteria, are resistant to CBD (5).

Best CBD Oils for Lyme Disease

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsOrganic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price Range$89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsOrganic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forNew CBD users
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Score breakdown
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  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsFull Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take itUnder the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursNatural
    Price Range$99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsNo additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    AllergensNot specified
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forHealth-conscious persons
    Countries servedUSA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Check Latest Prices

Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Customer Service
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take itUsing 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier OilCoconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug TestContains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    FlavoursPeppermint
    Price RangeSingle Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    ContaminantsContaminant-free
    AllergensVegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forPatients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Various delicious flavors to choose from
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Free shipping for this particular product within USA
    •  World-class customer service team
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available?15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    FormOil Tincture
    IngredientsCannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take itUnder tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1500mg per bottle
    Carrier OilOrganic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug TestContaining less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    FlavoursNatural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range$99.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    AllergensVegan, Gluten free
    Refund policyWithin 30 days
    Recommended forDaily CBD oil users
    Countries servedUSA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why People Are Turning to CBD Oil for Lyme Disease

A study published in Reumatologia mentioned that 10% of recovered Lyme disease patients continue to experience symptoms (6). This condition is called Post-treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLD). The study also mentioned the lack of treatment for people suffering from PTLD.

PTLD symptoms may include rashes (resembling a bullseye), severe fatigue, joint pain, neck stiffness and pain, muscle aches, memory problems, nerve pain, nerve inflammation, and sleep disruption.

People who have recovered from the disease are often left to endure lingering symptoms without any prescribed treatments. There have been reports that these symptoms can even last for decades (7)

Prolonged pain and sleep disorders can diminish the quality of life among individuals with PTLD. However, long-term use of prescribed medication may not be advisable due to their many side effects (8).

Thus, there has been an interest in alternative approaches, like CBD, that may help with Lyme disease symptoms. 

CBD vs. Chronic Pain

A study released by Pharmacological Reviews mentioned that modulating the ECS activity may trigger a therapeutic response to neuropathic pain and inflammation (9)

The European Journal of Pain published a 2016 study reporting that transdermal CBD application reduced the pain rating scores among animal test subjects with arthritis (10).

The study discussed that the scores were reduced from median 4 to median 1.5 after the daily application of CBD gel. 

The study concluded that CBD possessed the therapeutic potential for relieving inflammation and arthritis pain-related behaviors without any side effects. 

The study also compared CBD to current medications often prescribed by doctors for patients with arthritis (11)

Current medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for arthritis, taken orally, can cause side effects, like upset stomach, nausea, and vomiting (12)

CBD vs. Sleep Problems and Fatigue

A study conducted by the Sleep-Wake Disorders Center revealed that all Lyme disease patients have poor sleep quality. Moreover, the study concluded that sleep disruptions are the cause of fatigue (13)

Lyme disease can disrupt neurotransmitters in the brain, causing insomnia. Individuals with insomnia are sometimes prescribed with over-the-counter sleeping agents, such as melatonin, antihistamines, and other herbal supplements. 

In other cases, doctors may prescribe hypotonic drugs, such as benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine agonist receptors (BzRAs), chronobiotic agents, and low-dose doxepin hydrochloride. 

However, a 2015 study published on the Sleep Disorders Journal reported that these common sleep medications have residual effects that may impair daytime activities (14)

Some individuals cannot tolerate the residual effects of strong sleep medications because they disrupt daytime activities at home, work, or school.

A 2019 experiment published in the Permanente Journal concluded that the sleep and anxiety scores of 72 adult patients have improved after taking CBD (15). On average, the patients reported improvements in sleep quality and anxiety. These improvements were sustained over time. 

The experiment also discovered minimal side effects, one of which is fatigue. However, fatigue was later concluded to be a result of wrong dosing. 

CBD vs. Brain and Nerve Inflammation

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a neuromodulatory system in the human body. Its primary function is modulating the central nervous system (16)

The ECS is primarily composed of cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptors 2 (CB2). These receptors have therapeutic potential for treating various pathologies (17)

CBD has been found to interact and stimulate with CB1 and CB2 receptors. 

The Journal of Experimental Medicine printed an animal study suggesting that non-psychoactive CBD might help suppress chronic neuropathic pain. CBD was also shown to exhibit analgesic properties (18).

Another animal study, published in the journal Bentham Science Publishers Limited, mentioned that cannabinoids, such as CBD, might have the ability to modulate neuroinflammatory disorders (19)

The study suggested that cannabinoids inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both human cell cultures and animal models. This action has been thought to be mediated mainly by CB2 receptors (20).

Some Lyme disease symptoms are similar to those of brain inflammation (encephalitis). Encephalitis symptoms may include headache, fever, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, seizure, hallucination, slurred speech, and loss of consciousness (21).

CBD vs. Heart Palpitation

A study released by the British Journal of Pharmacology noted that CBD might help suppress cardiac arrhythmias and reduce infarct size (death of tissue due to reduced blood flow) (22).

In the study, animal subjects induced with the conditions were treated with CBD 30 minutes before coronary artery occlusion. 

Test results demonstrated that CBD reduced both cardiac arrhythmias and infarct size. The study suggested that CBD might possess cardioprotective properties (23).

CBD may have demonstrated promising results in animal subjects. However, human beings who are experiencing cardiac arrhythmia must always consult a medical professional before taking alternative treatments.

How CBD Oil Works to Help With Lyme Disease

Several scientific studies have been conducted on how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) modulates the function of several systems in the human body. 

A study from the British Journal of Pharmacology acknowledged that cannabinoids, such as CBD and THC, may trigger CB1 and CB2 receptors (24). This stimulation may contribute to alleviating the symptoms of PTLD.

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Lyme Disease

The Pros

  • Doctors usually prescribe only a round of antibiotics for Lyme disease patients. Once the patient recovers, doctors no longer provide additional treatment. CBD oil possesses properties that may address symptoms, like sleep disruptions and fatigue (25).
  • Studies have shown that CBD might help with Lyme disease symptoms, such as joint pain, inflammation, and nerve pain (26).
  • CBD does not induce psychoactive effects. Legitimate CBD brands keep the THC levels lower than 0.3%.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has mentioned that CBD is non-addictive. It is safe for daily intake (27)
  • CBD can be purchased without a prescription. CBD brands are available online and in local dispensaries.

The Cons

  • It is not advisable to use CBD in conjunction with prescribed medicines. CBD has been shown to interact with other drugs by affecting how the body metabolizes the medication. 
  • CBD may reduce the population in a few pathogens. However, Lyme disease-causing bacteria and other gram-negative bacteria are resistant to CBD (28)
  • The CBD industry is highly unregulated.
  • CBD has side effects, including drowsiness, dry mouth, diarrhea, and reduced appetite (29)

How CBD Oil Compare to Alternative Treatments for Lyme Disease Symptoms

Alternative treatments for treating sleep disruptions, anxiety, and pain associated with Lyme disease include wellness procedures, like hypnosis, acupuncture, and meditation. 

Individuals suffering from sleep disruptions may also turn to essential oils and chamomile tea. 

Some brands sell CBD-infused essential oils and CBD tea bags. These products can also be an option for individuals who want to optimize wellness.  

Although CBD cannot cure Lyme disease or completely eradicate all its symptoms, some studies have acknowledged CBD’s potential to improve an individual’s quality of life (30)

How to Choose the Right CBD Oil for Lyme Disease

There are three different types of CBD oil available. 

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all the cannabinoids present in hemp. These cannabinoids may include cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) not exceeding 0.3%. 

Full-spectrum CBD oil works best for Lyme disease symptoms since individuals can take advantage of the benefits from all the cannabinoids. 

Broad-spectrum CBD oil contains all the cannabinoids without THC. For individuals who do not want psychoactive effects, this type of CBD oil is recommended. 

Lastly, CBD isolates provide CBD in its purest form. This type is chosen by individuals who cannot tolerate other cannabinoids. 

When buying a CBD product, consumers must look for the certificate of analysis (COA).

The COA is a third-party lab test result that determines if the CBD concentration in the product is the same as the concentration advertised by the brand. 

The COA also confirms the cannabinoids’ potency. The test results also guarantee that the product is free from heavy metals, pesticides, and other contaminants.

How Much CBD Oil Should Be Taken for Lyme Disease?

Dosing and frequency of intake depend on how an individual responds to CBD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research to determine how individuals with Lyme disease react to CBD. 

First-time CBD users are advised to start with a low dose, gradually increasing it once their bodies grow accustomed to CBD. 

However, it is important to consult with a doctor for guidance before trying any CBD product.

How to Take CBD Oil for Lyme Disease

Individuals experiencing widespread pain may want to find immediate relief. The quickest way to achieve results is through CBD vape pens or CBD vape oil.

However, studies show that vaping may lead to unfavorable side effects (31).

A quick and easy way of administering CBD is by placing a few drops of CBD tincture under the tongue. This method may be used to address sleep disruptions, palpitations, fatigue, and widespread pain. 

Individuals who prefer not to ingest CBD may use CBD topicals, such as creams and transdermal patches. These products may be used on joint and neck pains. With topicals, CBD does not have to go through the gastrointestinal system.

FAQ:

Can Late-Stage Lyme Disease Be Cured?

Late-stage Lyme disease is treated with intravenous antibiotics for 14-21 days. Side effects include mild to severe diarrhea and low white blood cell count, making the patient susceptible to several antibiotic-resistant pathogens. 

In some cases, the infection becomes dormant and reactivate when the immune system gets compromised.

Untreated Lyme disease may progress to heart problems, chronic joint inflammation, cognitive defects, and peripheral neuropathy (32)

Post-treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

Some of the symptoms of PTLD are so severe that they are comparable to symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis and fibromyalgia. In a study, some individuals register high on the Fatigue Severity Scale (33)

As PTLD is linked to other health conditions, diagnosis becomes difficult. Some doctors conduct additional tests to determine if the patient is experiencing a resurgence of infection or an unrelated illness. 

Lyme disease patients are sometimes tested for multiple sclerosis because the symptoms are similar. Moreover, doctors must conduct additional tests since a review has suggested that Lyme disease may trigger fibromyalgia (34)

The United States Farm Bill authorized the production, delivery, and selling of hemp. When the law was signed, hemp was removed from the list of controlled substances under the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) (35)

Hemp-derivatives, such as CBD oil, can be produced, sold, and bought as long as THC levels do not exceed 0.3%.

Hemp-derived products can legally be sold in 50 States and U.S. territories. Although heavily unregulated, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) remains watchful of products containing CBD (36)

Can Stevia Cure Lyme Disease?

A group of microbiologists experimented on Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract as a potential cure for Lyme disease (37)

They discovered that stevia extracts have the ability to reduce the population of Borrelia burgdorferi samples. After a 7-day and 14-day subculture of treated Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria treated with Stevia had no regrowth.

Additional studies are needed to confirm whether Stevia can cure Lyme disease. However, this promising result may one day lead to another treatment option. 

Can CBD Cure Lyme Disease?

A study published in the journal Antonie van Leeuwenhoek showed that CBD and another cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), reduced the population of staphylococci and streptococci (38)

However, CBD and THC do not affect gram-negative bacteria, such as Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease bacteria), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella enterica. 

What Causes Lyme Disease?

The parasite, Ixodes scapularis, is responsible for causing Lyme disease. This parasite is commonly known as a black-legged tick or deer tick. Usually found in plants and grass, these ticks can also latch on to stray dogs, horses, and raccoons. 

People may encounter these ticks when going through plants or sitting on the grass. The ticks have no ability to fly or jump. They wait with their front legs outstretched and ready to latch on a passing human or animal. 

This particular species of tick can carry up to seven types of pathogens, two of which are Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii. These are bacteria from the spirochetes group. 

B.burgdorferi and B.mayonii are responsible for causing Lyme disease. In some cases, these bacteria can be resistant to antibiotics. 

There are reports that a recovered individual may retain dormant bacteria. They may reemerge when the immune system becomes weak.

The Center for Disease Control (CDC) mentioned that 300,000 individuals are infected with Lyme disease every year in the U.S (39).

Can CBD Interact With Antibiotics?

The Journal of Clinical Medicine conducted a 2019 study that discussed the interaction between Epidiolex and Amoxicillin. Epidiolex is the only FDA-approved drug (for child epilepsy) containing CBD (40).

The study found that the combination of CBD and Amoxicillin led to an increased risk of side effects. The interaction also led to a decrease in the efficacy of the antibiotics that were used. 

Conclusion

According to the CDC, new tick-borne diseases are constantly being discovered. The number of reported cases has also been growing steadily in the US every year. They also mentioned that the parasite’s geographical territory is expanding, making it a public health concern (41).

Early and accurate diagnosis is critical in overcoming Lyme disease. Symptoms may differ among early-stage and late-stage Lyme diseases. Individuals are advised to seek the help of a medical professional immediately upon discovering a tick bite or when symptoms arise.

Studies have suggested that CBD oil may have positive effects on lingering symptoms of Lyme disease, such as widespread pain and inflammation(42).

Also, CBD has been shown to promote better sleep, reduce fatigue, and improve anxiety and depression (43).

Although these tests on animals and human subjects have shown promising results, more studies are needed to verify CBD’s validity thoroughly.

Individuals must consult with a physician before adding CBD to their daily regimen.


  1. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. The Permanente journal, 23, 18–041. https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/18-041
  2. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European journal of pain (London, England), 20(6), 936–948. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.818
  3. Xiong, W., Cui, T., Cheng, K., Yang, F., Chen, S. R., Willenbring, D., Guan, Y., Pan, H. L., Ren, K., Xu, Y., & Zhang, L. (2012). Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors. The Journal of experimental medicine, 209(6), 1121–1134. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20120242
  4. Walsh, S. K., Hepburn, C. Y., Kane, K. A., & Wainwright, C. L. (2010). Acute administration of cannabidiol in vivo suppresses ischaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias and reduces infarct size when given at reperfusion. British journal of pharmacology, 160(5), 1234–1242. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00755.x
  5. Van Klingeren B, Ten Ham M. Antibacterial activity of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1976;42(1-2):9-12. doi:10.1007/BF00399444
  6. Ścieszka, J., Dąbek, J., & Cieślik, P. (2015). Post-Lyme disease syndrome. Reumatologia, 53(1), 46–48. https://doi.org/10.5114/reum.2015.50557
  7. Post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052487/
  8. The Mayor Clinic: Chronic Pain: Medication Decisions. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/chronic-pain-medication-decisions/art-20360371#:~:text=Benefits%20and%20risks.,-Research%20shows%20that&text=Long%2Dterm%20use%20of%20opioids,few%20days%20increases%20your%20risk.
  9. Fine, P. G., & Rosenfeld, M. J. (2013). The endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids, and pain. Rambam Maimonides medical journal, 4(4), e0022. https://doi.org/10.5041/RMMJ.10129
  10. Hammell, D. C. (2016), Op Cit.
  11. The Mayor Clinic: Chronic Pain: Medication Decisions, Op cit.
  12. Ibid
  13. Greenberg HE, Ney G, Scharf SM, Ravdin L, Hilton E. Sleep quality in Lyme disease. Sleep. 1995;18(10):912-916.
  14. Fitzgerald, T., & Vietri, J. (2015). Residual Effects of Sleep Medications Are Commonly Reported and Associated with Impaired Patient-Reported Outcomes among Insomnia Patients in the United States. Sleep disorders, 2015, 607148. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/607148
  15. Shannon, S., Lewis. (2019), Op cit.
  16. Lu, H. C., & Mackie, K. (2016). An Introduction to the Endogenous Cannabinoid System. Biological psychiatry, 79(7), 516–525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.07.028
  17. Dhopeshwarkar, A., & Mackie, K. (2014). CB2 Cannabinoid receptors as a therapeutic target-what does the future hold?. Molecular pharmacology, 86(4), 430–437. https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.114.094649
  18. Xiong, W. (2012), Op cit.
  19. Saito, V. M., Rezende, R. M., & Teixeira, A. L. (2012). Cannabinoid modulation of neuroinflammatory disorders. Current neuropharmacology, 10(2), 159–166. https://doi.org/10.2174/157015912800604515
  20. Ibid.
  21. The Mayo Clinic. Encephalitis Overview. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/encephalitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20356136#:~:text=Encephalitis%20(en%2Dsef%2Duh,like%20symptoms%20are%20more%20severe.
  22. Walsh, S. K., Hepburn, C. Y., Kane, K. A., & Wainwright, C. L. (2010), Op cit.
  23. Ibid.
  24. Pertwee R. G. (2008). The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. British journal of pharmacology, 153(2), 199–215. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0707442
  25. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019), Op cit. 
  26. Xiong, W., (2012), Op cit.
  27. WHO. Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. (2017, Nov 6-10). Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.2_CBD.pdf.
  28. Van Klingeren B, (1976), Op cit.
  29. Bauer, B. (2018, Dec 20). What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use? Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  30. Shannon, S. (2019), Hammell, D. C.,(2016).Xiong, W. (2012), Op cit.
  31. John Hopkins Medicine. F Vaping Facts You Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/5-truths-you-need-to-know-about-vaping#:~:text=2%3A%20Research%20Suggests%20Vaping%20Is%20Bad%20for%20Your%20Heart%20and%20Lungs&text=It%20causes%20you%20to%20crave,of%20having%20a%20heart%20attack.
  32. The Mayo Clinic. Lyme Disease Overview. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lyme-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20374651
  33. Rebman AW, Bechtold KT, Yang T, et al. The Clinical, Symptom, and Quality-of-Life Characterization of a Well-Defined Group of Patients with Posttreatment Lyme Disease Syndrome. Front Med (Lausanne). 2017;4:224. Published 2017 Dec 14. doi:10.3389/fmed.2017.00224
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  35. The 2018 United States Farm Bill. Retrieved from https://www.usda.gov/farmbill
  36. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  37. Theophilus, P. A., Victoria, M. J., Socarras, K. M., Filush, K. R., Gupta, K., Luecke, D. F., & Sapi, E. (2015). Effectiveness of Stevia Rebaudiana Whole Leaf Extract Against the Various Morphological Forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi in Vitro. European journal of microbiology & immunology, 5(4), 268–280. https://doi.org/10.1556/1886.2015.00031
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  39. CDC data surveillance on lyme disease. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/datasurveillance/index.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Flyme%2Fstats%2Findex.html
  40. Brown, J. D., & Winterstein, A. G. (2019). Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug-Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer Cannabidiol (CBD) Use. Journal of clinical medicine, 8(7), 989. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8070989
  41. Why is CDC Concerned About Lyme Disease? Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/why-is-cdc-concerned-about-lyme-disease.html
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  43. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019), Op cit.
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