Can CBD Help With CTE?

  • Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is characterized by the harmful accumulation of tau proteins in the brain(1). An inflammatory response, known as neuroinflammation, is thought to be a key contributor to CTE development(2).
  • The cannabis-derived compound, cannabidiol (CBD), has been reported to possess properties that can combat neuroinflammation(3).
  • CBD is reported to bind to the CB1(4) and CB2 receptors(5), which researchers believe allows the compound to exert neuroprotective effects in the body.
  • Still, there is still a lack of human clinical data to prove that CBD can benefit individuals with CTE.

Best CBD Oils for CTE

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
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    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

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    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
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    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
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    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for New CBD users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
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Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
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    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

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    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
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    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
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Best Value

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Value
  • Score breakdown
    Value
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  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

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    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
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    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
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  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Various delicious flavors to choose from
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Free shipping for this particular product within USA
    •  World-class customer service team
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1500mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    Flavours Natural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range $99.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Daily CBD oil users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why People Are Turning to CBD for CTE

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative brain disease caused by repetitive hits to the head. It is commonly found in athletes and people with a history of repeated brain trauma.

In CTE, a type of protein, known as tau, begins to accumulate and slowly spread throughout the brain, destroying brain cells along the way(6).

Memory loss, impaired judgment, confusion, and progressive dementia are some of the indicators of CTE

The cognitive signs of chronic traumatic encephalopathy usually appear later than the other symptoms.

Neuroinflammation, an inflammatory response within the brain, is believed to play a critical role in the development of CTE(7).

Microglial cells of the nervous system used for immune defense are said to contribute to the accumulation and spread of the tau protein. 

When activated, these cells bring about a neuroinflammatory response that researchers believe can be targeted for therapeutic interventions(8).

The cannabis constituent, known as CBD (cannabidiol), has been reported to have neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties(9).

A review published in 2017 assessed several studies on CBD’s effects on animal models of Alzheimer’s disease.

The studies revealed that CBD was able to reduce neuroinflammatory response and cell damage while promoting neurogenesis(10). Neurogenesis is the process wherein neurons are made in the brain.

Furthermore, the review showed that cannabidiol was able to reverse and prevent the development of cognitive deficits in rodents(11). Cognitive impairment is one of the primary symptoms of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.  

In 2019, a study published by Frontiers in Pharmacology found that consuming CBD oil restored behavioral alterations in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury(12). The study’s authors suggested that CBD may be used to improve neurological functions caused by trauma.

Although studies have hinted at CBD’s potential health benefits for CTE, there is still a lack of human evidence to prove that it can effectively treat the condition.

How CBD Oil Works to Help with CTE

Studies conducted on animals and humans revealed that CBD exerts therapeutic benefits for brain function and protection by how it affects the endocannabinoid system (ECS)(13).

The ECS is a system in mammals that is said to maintain homeostasis or balance in the body.

CBD reportedly binds to the CB1 receptors of the ECS(14). Numerous studies have shown that this type of receptor plays a neuroprotective role against neuronal damage(15).

Another study examined the neuroprotective effects of CBD and found that the compound provides potent neuroprotection through an anti-inflammatory CB1 receptor mechanism(16).

Furthermore, authors in a 2010 study learned that CBD induced robust neuroprotection in the brain of newborn mice by acting on another group of ECS receptors called CB2(17).

The activation of CB2 receptors has been linked to a delayed progression of neurodegenerative events, particularly those involving microglial cells(18).

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for CTE

The Pros

  • Studies previously mentioned have shown that CBD possesses neuroprotective effects that could benefit patients with CTE.
  • CBD was found to engage with various receptors of the body, particularly CB1 and CB2, which have been implicated in neuroprotective roles.
  • Many places in the United States (Colorado) have legalized the purchase and consumption of cannabidiol. People can obtain CBD products even without a prescription.
  • CBD is non-psychoactive. It does not cause a euphoric “high” to its users when consumed.
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) acknowledges the potential opportunities that cannabis and cannabis constituents may offer(19).
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes the safety and non-addictiveness of CBD(20).

The Cons

  • There is a knowledge gap concerning CBD’s effectiveness in treating neurodegenerative conditions. A lack of human clinical trials has made it difficult to determine whether or not the compound benefits CTE patients.
  • Using CBD is not risk-free. Studies on human subjects have shown that the compound can cause diarrhea, fatigue, vomiting, and drowsiness(21).
  • Epidiolex, a medication for treating two unique forms of epilepsy, is the only CBD product approved by the FDA. No other marketing applications have been found for cannabis and its constituents(22).
  • Researchers in a 2018 study found that CBD products are likely to be mislabeled, especially those sold online(23).

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for CTE

Taking vitamins and minerals, such as D, E, and zinc, are believed to help with traumatic brain injury(24).

In a clinical trial, a combination therapy consisting of vitamin D and progesterone was found to reduce neuroinflammation in an animal model(25).

Animals treated with vitamin E showed a significant attenuation or reduction of learning deficits(26).

Vitamin E is considered an essential antioxidant primarily because of its ability to protect from oxidative stress damage. Oxidative stress is regarded as a significant contributor to neurodegeneration(27).

A study on zinc supplementation also hinted that the mineral might be an effective treatment for improving cognitive impairment and depression, following traumatic brain injury(28).

Like these supplements, CBD has beneficial neuroprotectant effects, as shown in the studies mentioned previously.

Also, people can find CBD products infused with vitamins D, E, and zinc today. 

These items are usually available in the form of CBD tinctures and are advertised to improve overall health.

How to Choose the Right CBD for CTE

Since there is a lack of studies on CBD for CTE, there is no official recommendation on the type of CBD to use.

However, understanding the different forms of the compound may help users identify the most appropriate CBD for their needs.

There are three types of CBD: full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, and CBD isolates.

The CBD in full-spectrum form is known for the “entourage effect,” a synergistic action that occurs among cannabis constituents(29).

It is labeled “full-spectrum” because this CBD variant contains all of the phytocannabinoids that are naturally present in cannabis plants

Full-spectrum CBD may be considered as the most potent form of cannabidiol available.

Quality full-spectrum CBD products are generally high in cannabidiol, with trace amounts of other cannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Broad-spectrum CBD is cannabidiol that has been extracted from cannabis along with the other compounds, except for THC. This type of CBD contains terpenes and other cannabinoids found in the plant.

Some individuals prefer to purchase the broad-spectrum variety due to its lack of THC.

CBD isolate is the purest type of CBD that can be bought today. This form of CBD only contains pure cannabidiol.

CBD isolates are often referred to as crystals because it is sold in crystalline form. These crystals can be crushed into powder for easier consumption.

Whichever form of CBD buyers select, choosing only the highest quality available is important.

The following are tips to help users obtain only the best CBD oil:

  • Buy organic, non-GMO CBD that has been extracted from hemp plants. Industrial hemp is a reliable source of obtaining cannabidiol.
  • Get a copy of the certificate of analysis or COA of the chosen CBD product. This laboratory report indicates that the item contains the exact specifications mentioned on its label.
  • Be sure to know the legalities concerning the use of CBD in the state where one plans to purchase the compound. Awareness is crucial to avoid legal repercussions.
  • Browse and read testimonials of a store before purchasing online. If deciding to buy from a dispensary, check to see if they have the proper authorization to sell cannabidiol products.
  • Talk to a healthcare professional, preferably a doctor knowledgeable in medical cannabis.

Additional Advice to Obtain the Best CBD Oil Products

  1. Avoid brands that claim their CBD was extracted from the seeds and stalks of the hemp plant. The seeds of hemp do not have cannabidiol, and the stalks only have trace amounts of the compound.
  2. Ensure that CBD edibles, such as CBD gummies, are assessed carefully before buying. Some CBD companies may sell snacks containing artificial or sub-standard ingredients that can be harmful.
  3. Feel free to switch to another CBD brand if the present company does not respond appropriately to questions concerning their products.

CBD Dosage for CTE

No official guidelines exist on CBD dosage for chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Although the FDA recognizes cannabidiol’s potential, it has not yet found another marketing application for CBD.

However, one can look at past research to find a dosing range that may be beneficial for their needs.

A 2019 study found that CBD appeared to provide a wide range of activity between 1 and 50 mg/kg per day(30). The study’s authors also noted that the side effects of CBD are generally mild and infrequent.

How to Take CBD Oil for CTE

There are many ways to take CBD hemp oil. Users can find tinctures, edibles, topicals, and even vapes.

CBD oil tinctures allow users to apply drops under the tongue. These products come with droppers that make it easy to measure the amount of CBD desired.

Edibles, such as gummies and cookies, are a more direct way of taking cannabidiol. There are also CBD capsules and tablets that can be administered similarly to supplements.

Applying topicals by way of creams, balms, and salves are ideal for massage therapies.

CBD vaping pens used with liquids containing various flavors are also available. However, vaping is not recommended, as it can lead to the worsening of lung disorders(31).

What Causes CTE?

Repeated head impacts can damage the fibers coursing through the brain. This brain injury can lead to a buildup of a protein known as tau, which is thought to cause cell death(32).

Losing brain cells can interfere with the brain’s normal functions, causing neurological problems, like memory loss, aggressiveness, and depression.

Several types of head injuries may lead to tau accumulation in the brain. These head injuries include:

  • Mild traumatic brain injuries or concussions
  • A series of mild hits with no symptoms
  • Serious brain damage, like traumatic brain injury (TBI)

CTE is common in contact sports(33). Football players, former NFL players, boxers, and military veterans have a high risk of developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

How Is CTE Diagnosed?

At this time, chronic traumatic encephalopathy can only be diagnosed by analyzing the brain tissue of a dead patient.

Doctors who specialize in brain diseases remove the brain tissue and use chemicals to identify tau protein clumps. They then search the brain systematically for patterns related to CTE.

The process can take several months to be completed. The analysis is often not part of the normal autopsy.

Treating a disorder that can only be officially diagnosed after the patient has died is difficult. However, there are steps available that may address the symptoms and provide relief.

Many CTE treatments involve the identification of these symptoms and treating them with targeted therapies.

Conclusion

CTE is a neurodegenerative disease caused by repetitive hits to the head. It is often present in athletes and individuals who continuously experience repeated head traumas and brain traumas.

The inflammatory response of the brain, called neuroinflammation, is thought to contribute significantly to the development of CTE.

CBD is believed to benefit patients with CTE due to its neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties.

Several studies have shown the benefits of CBD as a neuroprotectant. The chemical was found to engage with cannabinoid receptors of the ECS to exert its therapeutic effects.

However, no human clinical trials on CBD for CTE have been completed. This lack of data means that CBD has not been proven to be an effective solution for treating the disorder.

People should consult a doctor before deciding to incorporate CBD in their daily regimen.


  1. Concussion Legacy Foundation. What is CTE? Retrieved from: https://concussionfoundation.org/CTE-resources/what-is-CTE
  2. Cherry JD, Tripodis Y, Alvarez VE, et al. Microglial neuroinflammation contributes to tau accumulation in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2016;4(1):112. Published 2016 Oct 28. doi:10.1186/s40478-016-0382-8
  3. Booz GW. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51(5):1054-1061. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.01.007
  4. Laprairie RB, Bagher AM, Kelly ME, Denovan-Wright EM. Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2015;172(20):4790-4805. doi:10.1111/bph.13250
  5. Castillo A, Tolón MR, Fernández-Ruiz J, Romero J, Martinez-Orgado J. The neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB(2) and adenosine receptors. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;37(2):434-440. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2009.10.023
  6. Concussion Legacy Foundation. op. cit.
  7. Cherry JD, Tripodis Y, Alvarez VE, et al. op. cit.
  8. Makinde HM, Just TB, Cuda CM, Perlman H, Schwulst SJ. The Role of Microglia in the Etiology and Evolution of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Shock. 2017;48(3):276-283. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000859
  9. Booz GW. op. cit.
  10. Watt G, Karl T. In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer’s Disease. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:20. Published 2017 Feb 3. doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00020
  11. Ibid.
  12. Belardo C, Iannotta M, Boccella S, et al. Oral Cannabidiol Prevents Allodynia and Neurological Dysfunctions in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:352. Published 2019 Apr 16. doi:10.3389/fphar.2019.00352
  13. Maroon J, Bost J. Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids. Surg Neurol Int. 2018;9:91. Published 2018 Apr 26. doi:10.4103/sni.sni_45_18
  14. Laprairie RB, Bagher AM, Kelly ME, Denovan-Wright EM. op. cit.
  15. Zou S, Kumar U. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(3):833. Published 2018 Mar 13. doi:10.3390/ijms19030833
  16. Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Nozako M, et al. Delayed treatment with cannabidiol has a cerebroprotective action via a cannabinoid receptor-independent myeloperoxidase-inhibiting mechanism. J Neurochem. 2007;102(5):1488-1496. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04565.x
  17. Castillo A, Tolón MR, Fernández-Ruiz J, Romero J, Martinez-Orgado J. op. cit.
  18. Fernández-Ruiz J, Pazos MR, García-Arencibia M, Sagredo O, Ramos JA. Role of CB2 receptors in neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;286(1-2 Suppl 1):S91-S96. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2008.01.001
  19. U.S. Food & Drug Administration (2020, August 3). FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  20. World Health Organization (2018). CANNABIDIOL (CBD) Critical Review Report. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  21. Huestis MA, Solimini R, Pichini S, Pacifici R, Carlier J, Busardò FP. Cannabidiol Adverse Effects and Toxicity. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2019;17(10):974-989. doi:10.2174/1570159X17666190603171901
  22. U.S. Food & Drug Administration (2020, August 3). op. cit.
  23. Freedman DA, Patel AD. Inadequate Regulation Contributes to Mislabeled Online Cannabidiol Products. Pediatr Neurol Briefs. 2018;32:3. Published 2018 Jun 18. doi:10.15844/pedneurbriefs-32-3
  24. Lucke-Wold BP, Logsdon AF, Nguyen L, et al. Supplements, nutrition, and alternative therapies for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. Nutr Neurosci. 2018;21(2):79-91. doi:10.1080/1028415X.2016.1236174
  25. Tang H, Hua F, Wang J, et al. Progesterone and vitamin D combination therapy modulates inflammatory response after traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2015;29(10):1165-1174. doi:10.3109/02699052.2015.1035330
  26. Conte V, Uryu K, Fujimoto S, et al. Vitamin E reduces amyloidosis and improves cognitive function in Tg2576 mice following repetitive concussive brain injury [published correction appears in J Neurochem. 2004 Sep;90(6):1541]. J Neurochem. 2004;90(3):758-764. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02560.x
  27. La Fata G, Weber P, Mohajeri MH. Effects of vitamin E on cognitive performance during ageing and in Alzheimer’s disease. Nutrients. 2014;6(12):5453-5472. Published 2014 Nov 28. doi:10.3390/nu6125453
  28. Cope EC, Morris DR, Scrimgeour AG, Levenson CW. Use of zinc as a treatment for traumatic brain injury in the rat: effects on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012;26(7):907-913. doi:10.1177/1545968311435337
  29. Russo EB. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7):1344-1364. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x
  30. Millar SA, Stone NL, Bellman ZD, Yates AS, England TJ, O’Sullivan SE. A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2019;85(9):1888-1900. doi:10.1111/bcp.14038
  31. Chand HS, Muthumalage T, Maziak W, Rahman I. Pulmonary Toxicity and the Pathophysiology of Electronic Cigarette, or Vaping Product, Use Associated Lung Injury. Front Pharmacol. 2020;10:1619. Published 2020 Jan 14. doi:10.3389/fphar.2019.01619
  32. Cleveland Clinic. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). Retrieved from: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17686-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-cte
  33. Concussion Legacy Foundation. op. cit. 
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