Can a Daily Dose of CBD Help With Dementia? 

  • The World Health Organization states that no treatment has been found to cure dementia completely(1). The common medications can only manage but not reverse the progression of dementia. Also, these drugs tend to have adverse effects on patients(2)
  • Dementia patients and their families are turning to CBD use in treating the syndrome because of CBD’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties(3)
  • A study has shown that CBD has neuroprotective effects that prevent cell death(4). Another study outlines CBD’s antipsychotic properties in patients with Parkinson’s disease, a form of dementia(5)
  • Further studies need to be made on CBD’s therapeutic benefits to dementia patients, especially on the proper CBD dosage for effective treatment of the syndrome.
  • Before using CBD on dementia patients, always inform medical professionals first.  

Best CBD Oils for Dementia

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for New CBD users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Score breakdown
    Value
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    Lab Testing Transparency
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  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Check Latest Prices
Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Customer Service
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures Products
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Plenty of concentrations to choose from for all people with various kinds of needs
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    300 mg - 7500 mg / 30 ml bottle, 1000 mg - 1500 mg / 60 ml bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    30 ml: 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml), 750 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 50 mg per dropper (1ml), 3000 mg - 100 mg per dropper (1ml), 5000 mg - 166.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 7500 mg - 250 mg per dropper (1ml), 60 ml: 1000 mg - 16.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    Flavours Natural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range 30 ml Bottles: $29.99 for 300 mg, $69.99 for 750 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg, $149.99 for 3000 mg, $239.99 for 5000 mg, $339.99 for 7500 mg 60 ml Bottles: $74.99 for 1000 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    30 ml - $0.05 - $0.10, 60 ml - $0.06 - $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for CBD users with different needs
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why People are Turning to CBD for Dementia 

According to the World Health Organization, no treatment has been found to cure dementia completely(6)

There are many types of dementia, namely Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and frontotemporal dementia(7)

The treatment options available cannot stop dementia nor reverse its progression(8). The approved treatments also have limited therapeutic effects and have been discovered to have adverse effects on dementia patients. 

Medications used to treat Alzheimer’s, the most common form of dementia, can cause vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, hallucinations, dizziness, and fatigue(9).

For these reasons, family members of dementia patients are turning to cannabidiol (CBD), the active ingredient of the cannabis plant that does not generate a high in users. 

Recent studies suggest that CBD may help in the treatment of dementia.

A study in 2019 that was published in the journal Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety has shown that cannabinoids, like CBD, had promising therapeutic effects on dementia(10). The study reported that the use of CBD on dementia patients was proven to be safe.

Another study was conducted on ten female dementia patients that had severe behavior problems. 

Researchers concluded that higher dosages of a combination of CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) improved the test subjects’ behavior problems(11). THC is the active ingredient of Cannabis Sativa that can generate a high in users.

Muscle rigidity also markedly improved, thereby making transfers and daily care easier for staff handling dementia patients.

In the 2019 study, the researchers gradually increased the dosage of the THC and CBD combination, hence exhibiting positive results.

How CBD Oil Works to Alleviate Symptoms of Dementia

CBD’s potential benefits to manage dementia include its ability to reduce inflammation and oxygen buildup. It also might help stimulate the brain and protect the nervous system(12).

CBD may also attenuate anxiety and stress and reduce the decline of cognitive functions, such as memory. 

According to a 2017 study, CBD demonstrates anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It also acts as a neuroprotectant that improves brain functions(13).

The study focused on Alzheimer’s and discovered that CBD is anti-inflammatory, as it reduced critical elements in reactive gliosis, namely inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).

In gliosis, glial cells undergo a reactive change caused by damage to the central nervous system (CNS). 

Glial cells are the most abundant cells in the CNS. They surround, support, and provide insulation between neurons(14)

Another study conducted on Alzheimer’s patients outlined CBD’s ability to prevent the production of amyloid-beta proteins(15), which are large membrane proteins essential for neural growth and repair.

In later life, these proteins collect in the brain cells, destroy synapses, and clump into plaques that eventually result in nerve cell death(16), leading to the loss of thought and memory.

The researchers also concluded that CBD helps in the suppression of gene production related to Alzheimer’s disease.

CBD as Anti-Inflammatory

A 2018 study said that CBD reduced neuroinflammation(17). The study also demonstrated CBD’s ability to decrease inflammatory cytokine production.

Cytokines are molecules that help in cell-to-cell communication in immune responses. They are also responsible for the movement of cells towards infection, trauma, and inflammation sites in the body(18).

CBD as Antioxidant

Oxidative stress occurs when oxidants outnumber antioxidants(19).

Oxidative stress is a major cause of neurodegenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia(20). It is also involved in other diseases like Parkinson’s and Huntington’s.

A study on mice reveals that CBD has antioxidant properties. It also has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects(21).

CBD as Brain Stimulant, Neuroprotectant

CBD may have therapeutic benefits to the nervous system and its brain cells. 

According to a study done in 2017 and published in the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology, CBD promotes hippocampal neurogenesis(22). This occurrence is the production of new neurons in the hippocampus.  

Hippocampal neurogenesis significantly decreases in patients with Alzheimer’s(23).

A study on the treatment of Alzheimer’s reveals that long-term use of cannabidiol helps prevent the development of social recognition memory impairments in rodents(24). The study highlights CBD’s antioxidant, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties.

Researchers revealed that CBD’s neuroprotective properties are related to its ability to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. It also helps modulate glial cells and helps prevent the death of nerve cells(25)

The study also discovered that CBD had neuroprotective effects and therapeutic benefits for patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Another study that was also done on Parkinson’s disease patients showed CBD’s efficacy in treating psychosis that comes with the disease(26). For four weeks, the test subjects were given a flexible dose of CBD, starting with an oral dose of 150 mg per day. 

The researchers concluded that CBD might be useful in treating psychosis in Parkinson’s disease patients. The test subjects did not experience adverse side effects during the clinical trial. 

CBD for Nightmares

A study has found that CBD helps improve sleep-related conditions that are associated with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in patients who have Parkinson’s disease(27). Some of these conditions include paralysis of muscles during nightmares and active behavior when one is dreaming.

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Dementia

The Pros

  • Studies conducted on humans and animals have revealed CBD’s therapeutic properties that may help treat the various conditions classified under dementia.
  • Medications for dementia have several side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hallucinations, among others(28). Meanwhile, CBD generally has an excellent safety profile as its side effects are minimal. The most common are diarrhea, tiredness, and changes in weight or appetite(29).  
  • The World Health Organization has not recorded any case of CBD dependence in humans (30). Hence, it is not a substance that has the potential for abuse.
  • As long as state laws allow CBD use, buying CBD products does not require a prescription.

The Cons

  • There is a need for further research on medical cannabis-related products, like CBD, in the treatment of dementia and its many diseases.
  • There is a need for a standard dosage for CBD when used as a dementia treatment. Currently, the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved its use for mental health-related conditions and other ailments except for epilepsy. 
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors are typically prescribed for dementia treatment. Some of the commonly used cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil and galantamine. These are both metabolized by cytochrome P450(31). Caution should be taken when using CBD with these dementia medications because of possible drug interactions. CBD may reduce the efficacy of these medications as it can inhibit these liver enzymes(32)
  • There have been incidences of mislabeled CBD products because the FDA does not regulate these(33). Buyers should be cautious and should only purchase from credible manufacturers.  

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Dementia

Dementia medications typically cause the following:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting 
  • Diarrhea
  • Appetite loss
  • Muscle pain
  • Sleep problems
  • Fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Itchiness or rashes
  • Dizziness
  • Hallucinations
  • Agitation or aggression

Because of these side effects, which can be especially detrimental to elderly dementia patients, people have been exploring alternative treatments. 

Acupuncture

One alternative dementia remedy is acupuncture. Compared to massage therapies that focus on the stimulation of movement and blood flow in the body, acupuncture is believed to enhance the flow of energy in the body(34).

A study published in the journal Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine states that acupuncture was more effective when used alongside Western medication and herbal medication(35).

The researchers concluded that acupuncture had mixed efficacy in treating cognitive impairments and dementia. 

Herbal Supplements

Herbal supplements are also used for the treatment of dementia. These herbal remedies include Ginkgo Biloba, as clinical studies have shown that it helps in memory loss(36).

Reports state that a standard preparation of the herb improves neurocognition and enhances the everyday activities of Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia patients. 

CBD

Compared to these remedies that only treat a few aspects of dementia, the use of cannabis-related products, like CBD, may have more advantages. 

CBD’s antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties may help alleviate the various symptoms of dementia. 

World Health Organization findings show that in the early stages of dementia, it is overlooked as its onset is gradual(37)

Symptoms vary, but they are generally cognitive and psychological changes.

Mayo Clinic lists the following symptoms of dementia(38):

Cognitive changes:

  • Memory loss
  • Difficulty communicating or finding words
  • Difficulty with spatial and visual abilities (getting lost while driving)
  • Difficulty solving problems or reasoning
  • Difficulty handling tasks that are complex
  • Planning and organizing difficulties
  • Coordination and motor function problems
  • Disorientation and confusion

Psychological changes:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Personality changes
  • Hallucinations
  • Agitation
  • Paranoia
  • Inappropriate behavior

CBD for Cognitive Functions

A study in 2018 has found that long-term medical use of CBD results in improved cognition, particularly in memory, verbal learning, and attentional switching(39).

Another study conducted on schizophrenic patients has shown that CBD improves cognition in multiple impairment studies(40). These preclinical models of cognitive impairment include Alzheimer’s, neuro-inflammatory, and neurological disorders. 

CBD for Depression

A study in 2018 and published in the journal Frontiers in Immunology outlines CBD’s ability to alleviate the symptoms of depression, epilepsy, schizophrenia, social phobia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson’s disease, among others(41).

The researchers concluded that CBD’s antipsychotic and anxiety-reducing effects help in the treatment of various conditions.

CBD for Anxiety

A study reports CBD’s anxiety-reducing effects and its potential in treating various types of anxiety, including social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder(42)

How To Choose The Right CBD for Dementia

Before purchasing a CBD oil product, it is essential to know its three types: full-spectrum CBD oil, broad-spectrum, and isolates.

In a full-spectrum CBD oil, all the parts of a cannabis plant are used. These are trace amounts of THC, terpenes, fatty acids, flavonoids, and essential oils. F

Full-spectrum CBD oil is believed to be the most effective type of CBD oil because all the ingredients of Cannabis Sativa synergize for maximum therapeutic effect, known as the entourage effect. 

It is important to note that THC, however, may be detected via drug tests. It can also cause mild psychoactive effects. For those who want to avoid these risks, using broad-spectrum CBD is more recommended.

 Broad-spectrum CBD oils have the same components as full-spectrum oils except for THC. People seeking to use CBD purely or avoiding its other components because of allergies may resort to using CBD isolates. These are made from isolated cannabidiol alone, so they are pure CBD. 

There is a significant difference between CBD oil and hemp oil (also known as hemp seed oil or hemp extract). CBD is derived from a hemp plant’s flowers, stalks, and leaves. Meanwhile, hemp oil is extracted from raw hemp seeds. Because of this method, there are only trace amounts of CBD in hemp oil or none at all.

Here are tips to consider before buying CBD products:

  1. Before making any purchase, patients should ensure first that CBD use is legal in their state. 
  2. Buy high-quality items only such as non-GMO and organic, hemp-derived products.
  3. When purchasing online, make sure to check reviews and research on the brand and its offerings.
  4. Different methods are employed in extracting CBD oil. A report says that the US FDA in pharmaceutical manufacturing recommends CO2 extraction because it is recognized as a safe process (43)
  5. High-quality CBD products give consumers access to batch testing reports and lab analyses. Accredited third-party laboratories issue certifications on a CBD product’s components and quality.
  6. Patients with dementia or their family members should consult with a medical professional first before buying CBD products. 

CBD Dosage For Dementia

There is no standard dosage chart for CBD, as the US FDA has not approved its use other than for epilepsy. The rule is to start with small amounts and increase dosage if no adverse reactions are observed.

It is recommended to begin with a small dose of 1 to 2 mg daily for one week, then increase by 2 to 3 mg weekly until significant symptom improvements are noticed(44)

The dosage should be based on the patient’s body weight—the heavier the patient, the larger their dose. For average adults, the standard dose is approximately a maximum of 5 mg. 

Dementia patients or their family members should talk to a doctor before adding CBD to their medication regimen.  

How to Take CBD Oil for Dementia

Several forms of CBD products are available in the market. It is recommended to administer CBD in gelcap form to dementia patients(45)

Compared to tinctures (dropper), gel caps help in the administration of consistent CBD amounts. For elderly patients, the act of swallowing pills also feels more familiar. 

Other product forms that will enable patients to take CBD orally include CBD oil, sprays, capsules, or gummies. If the administration of CBD to dementia patients and other diseases is complicated, CBD products can be mixed with food and beverages. 

For more efficacy, tinctures may be applied sublingually (under the tongue) for 60 to 90 seconds before swallowing.

CBD oil, meanwhile, can be used during massages to relieve chronic pain in patients. 

There are also topical CBD formulations available to patients, including lotions, salves, and creams. Since CBD has limited absorption when applied topically, it is recommended to purchase products that use CBD micellization, encapsulation, or nanotechnology. 

The methods and technologies mentioned above guarantee that the active ingredient CBD is transmitted through dermal layers and does not merely stay on the skin.

CBD vapes and pens are also available, but these are not recommended for dementia patients who are usually elderly.

Conclusion

Currently, there is no absolute cure for dementia.

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases can only be managed, not cured completely. Thus, patients and their family members are turning to alternative treatments like CBD.

Several studies support the use of CBD in the treatment of dementia because of its excellent safety profile. Side effects of CBD are minimal and rarely adverse. 

CBD’s benefits on neurodegenerative diseases include its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It also has neuroprotective and brain-stimulating effects that may have therapeutic benefits on dementia patients. 

Further studies need to be conducted, especially on the proper dosage of CBD to achieve maximum efficacy in treating dementia.

Family members are recommended to consult with a doctor first before administering CBD to their loved ones with dementia.


  1. “Dementia.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dementia.
  2. Watt, Georgia, and Tim Karl. “In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer’s Disease.” Frontiers in pharmacology vol. 8 20. 3 Feb. 2017, doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00020
  3. Ibid. 
  4. Ferreira-Junior, Nilson C et al. “Biological bases for a possible effect of cannabidiol in Parkinson’s disease.” Revista brasileira de psiquiatria (Sao Paulo, Brazil : 1999) vol. 42,2 (2020): 218-224. doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2019-0460
  5. Zuardi, AW, et al. “Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Psychosis in Parkinson’s Disease.” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 23, no. 8, Nov. 2009, pp. 979–983, doi:10.1177/0269881108096519.
  6. World Health Organization. op. Cit.
  7. Dementia Care Central. “Using CBD (Cannabidiol) to Treat the Symptoms of Alzheimer’s & Other Dementias.” Dementia Care Central, 17 Feb. 2020, www.dementiacarecentral.com/aboutdementia/treating/cbd/.
  8. Watt, G. 2017 Feb. 3. op. cit. 
  9. Ibid.
  10. Hillen, Jodie Belinda et al. “Safety and effectiveness of cannabinoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: a systematic review.” Therapeutic advances in drug safety vol. 10 2042098619846993. 15 May. 2019, doi:10.1177/2042098619846993
  11. Broers B, Pata Z, Mina A, Wampfler J, de Saussure C, Pautex S. Prescription of a THC/CBD-Based Medication to Patients with Dementia: A Pilot Study in Geneva. Med Cannabis Cannabinoids. 2019;2(1):56–59.
  12. Dementia Care Central. 2020 Feb. 17. op. cit. 
  13. Watt, G. 2017 Feb. 3. op. cit. 
  14. Shiel Jr., William C. “Definition of Glial Cell.” MedicineNet, MedicineNet, 27 Dec. 2018, www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11382.
  15. Libro, Rosaliana et al. “Cannabidiol Modulates the Expression of Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Genes in Mesenchymal Stem Cells.” International journal of molecular sciences vol. 18,1 26. 23 Dec. 2016, doi:10.3390/ijms18010026
  16. Goldman, Bruce. “Scientists Reveal How Beta-Amyloid May Cause Alzheimer’s.” News Center, 19 Sept. 2013, med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2013/09/scientists-reveal-how-beta-amyloid-may-cause-alzheimers.html#:~:text=Scientists%20at%20the%20Stanford%20University,lead%20to%20nerve%20cell%20death.
  17. Maroon, Joseph, and Jeff Bost. “Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids.” Surgical neurology international vol. 9 91. 26 Apr. 2018, doi:10.4103/sni.sni_45_18
  18. Mandal, Ananya. “What Are Cytokines?” News, 26 Feb. 2019, www.news-medical.net/health/What-are-Cytokines.aspx.
  19. Huang, Wen-Juan et al. “Role of oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease.” Biomedical reports vol. 4,5 (2016): 519-522. doi:10.3892/br.2016.630
  20. Luca, Maria et al. “The Role of Oxidative Damage in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Dementia.” Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity vol. 2015 (2015): 504678. doi:10.1155/2015/504678
  21. Cheng, David et al. “Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice.” Journal of Alzheimer’s disease: JAD vol. 42,4 (2014): 1383-96. doi:10.3233/JAD-140921
  22. Campos, Alline C et al. “Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders.” Frontiers in pharmacology vol. 8 269. 23 May. 2017, doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00269
  23. Moreno-Jiménez, E.P., Flor-García, M., Terreros-Roncal, J. et al. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is abundant in neurologically healthy subjects and drops sharply in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Nat Med 25, 554–560 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0375-9
  24. Cheng, D. 2014. op. cit.
  25. Ferreira-Junior, N. 2020. op. cit. 
  26. Zuardi, AW. 2009 Nov. op. cit. 
  27. Chagas, M H N et al. “Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series.” Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics vol. 39,5 (2014): 564-6. doi:10.1111/jcpt.12179
  28. “Dementia Drugs: Understanding Common Side Effects and How They May Affect the Heart.” Alzheimer’s Society, 6 Sept. 2018, www.alzheimers.org.uk/blog/dementia-drugs-understanding-common-side-effects-and-how-they-may-affect-heart.
  29. Iffland, Kerstin, and Franjo Grotenhermen. “An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies.” Cannabis and cannabinoid research vol. 2,1 139-154. 1 Jun. 2017, doi:10.1089/can.2016.0034
  30. “CANNABIDIOL (CBD) Critical Review Report.” World Health Organization, 2018.
  31. Grossberg, George T. “Cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease:: getting on and staying on.” Current therapeutic research, clinical and experimental vol. 64,4 (2003): 216-35. doi:10.1016/S0011-393X(03)00059-6
  32. Yamaori S, Ebisawa J, Okushima Y, Yamamoto I, Watanabe K. Potent inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A isoforms by cannabidiol: role of phenolic hydroxyl groups in the resorcinol moiety. Life Sci. 2011 Apr 11;88(15-16):730-6. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2011.02.017. Epub 2011 Feb 26.
  33. Freedman, Daniel A, and Anup D Patel. “Inadequate Regulation Contributes to Mislabeled Online Cannabidiol Products.” Pediatric neurology briefs vol. 32 3. 18 Jun. 2018, doi:10.15844/pedneurbriefs-32-3
  34. Dementia Care Central. “Alternative Treatments & Therapies for Preventing & Slowing the Progression of Dementia / Alzheimer’s.” Dementia Care Central, 25 July 2019, www.dementiacarecentral.com/aboutdementia/treating/other/.
  35. Chan-Young, Kwon, et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Auricular Acupuncture for Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: A Systematic Review.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Hindawi, 31 May 2018, www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/3426078/.
  36. Liu, Jianxun, et al. “Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Vascular Dementia: An Overview of Scientific Evidence.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Hindawi, 27 Dec. 2016, www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7293626/.
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  38. Mayo Clinic Staff. “Dementia.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 19 Apr. 2019, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dementia/symptoms-causes/syc-20352013.
  39. Solowij, Nadia et al. “Therapeutic Effects of Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment on Psychological Symptoms and Cognitive Function in Regular Cannabis Users: A Pragmatic Open-Label Clinical Trial.” Cannabis and cannabinoid research vol. 3,1 21-34. 1 Mar. 2018, doi:10.1089/can.2017.0043
  40. Osborne, Ashleigh L et al. “A systematic review of the effect of cannabidiol on cognitive function: Relevance to schizophrenia.” Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews vol. 72 (2017): 310-324. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.11.012
  41. Crippa, José A et al. “Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age.” Frontiers in immunology vol. 9 2009. 21 Sep. 2018, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009
  42. Blessing, Esther M et al. “Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders.” Neurotherapeutics: the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics vol. 12,4 (2015): 825-36. doi:10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1
  43. Kankala, Ranjith Kumar et al. “Solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids: an eco-friendly nanonization approach for processing biomaterials and pharmaceutical compounds.” International journal of nanomedicine vol. 13 4227-4245. 23 Jul. 2018, doi:10.2147/IJN.S166124
  44. Dementia Care Central. 2020 Feb. 17. op. cit. 
  45. Ibid.
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