Does CBD Work for Lupus?

    • Lupus is an autoimmune disease that may affect the whole body. There is no treatment for lupus(1).
    • Studies have shown that CBD may help manage and treat the symptoms of the disease, such as inflammation, pain, and hypertension, which may be caused by anxiety and stress(2).
    • A 2018 study found that people with lupus, who have the lowest disease activity while having an elevated 2-AG and CB2 receptors for inflammation and pain, have an endocannabinoid system working effectively to suppress lupus(3).
    • However, CBD is an immunosuppressant, based on a 2020 study published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research(4). CBD may weaken the immune response of the body.

Best CBD Oils for Lupus

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for New CBD users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Check Latest Prices
Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Customer Service
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices
Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures Products
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Plenty of concentrations to choose from for all people with various kinds of needs
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    300 mg - 7500 mg / 30 ml bottle, 1000 mg - 1500 mg / 60 ml bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    30 ml: 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml), 750 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 50 mg per dropper (1ml), 3000 mg - 100 mg per dropper (1ml), 5000 mg - 166.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 7500 mg - 250 mg per dropper (1ml), 60 ml: 1000 mg - 16.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    Flavours Natural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range 30 ml Bottles: $29.99 for 300 mg, $69.99 for 750 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg, $149.99 for 3000 mg, $239.99 for 5000 mg, $339.99 for 7500 mg 60 ml Bottles: $74.99 for 1000 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    30 ml - $0.05 - $0.10, 60 ml - $0.06 - $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for CBD users with different needs
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why People Are Using CBD for Lupus

There are several medications for people with lupus because of the vast array of possible symptoms a patient may have. Treatments depend on the severity of the condition. 

People with lupus are prone to have serious complications that affect the body’s major organs, such as the skin, heart, lungs, and kidneys(5).

Because of the numerous disorders that come with having lupus, several medications are prescribed by medical professionals as treatment options. 

The Lupus Foundation of America’s list of drugs commonly used for lupus include(6):

    • Antimalarial drugs, like hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, for rashes and UV light protection
    • Anti-inflammatory drugs, like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), for swelling and pain reduction
    • Biologics, like monoclonal antibody belimumab, to help the immune system function properly
    • Immunosuppressants, like cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and azathioprine, to control the overactive immune system
    • Anticoagulants, like aspirin, heparin, and warfarin, to prevent blood clots
    • Steroids (corticosteroids), like prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, and hydrocortisone, to help with the body’s inflammatory response 

The mentioned drugs and medications can be combined as prescribed by doctors and may cause side effects. 

Taking a higher dosage of NSAID can cause gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach ulcers. Too much of it can reduce the kidney’s blood flow and may affect how the organ eliminates waste(7).

Initially, doctors administer steroids in the lowest possible dosage. Long-term use and high dosage of steroids may have more adverse effects on patients than benefits(8)

Continuous consumption of the drug may lead to osteoporosis and may increase the risk of infections, especially on open wounds(9)

Medical professionals recommend immunosuppressants to those who have severe lupus cases but cannot take higher doses of steroids. Immunosuppressants lower the immune system activity. 

Lupus patients who are taking these drugs might have higher chances of developing other infections, like shingles, and severe diseases, like cancer(10).

Given these side effects, some people have turned to natural alternatives, like cannabis (medical marijuana) to treat lupus symptoms(11). Marijuana plants contain cannabinoids, the most active of which is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

THC is the psychoactive counterpart of CBD. Products with this component can make the user high, so caution is advised.

There is no concrete evidence and documentation that CBD alone can directly treat lupus. However, according to studies, CBD may help manage other autoimmune disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, and type 1 diabetes(12).

Autoimmune diseases are chronic medical conditions wherein the immune system attacks the body’s healthy tissues and cells. 

How CBD Oil Works to Help Alleviate Symptoms of Lupus

There are four different kinds of lupus, but the most common is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This kind of lupus elicits an abnormal response from the immune cells, enabling the immune system to attack the body’s healthy tissues(13)

These immune cells are called T cells and B cells. The former are white blood cells that fight foreign bacteria that enter into the body. The latter are the cells that produce antibodies.

There are four kinds of lupus, and they all share common symptoms, such as(14):

    • Pain throughout the body including chest pain
    • Inflammation or swelling of body parts and joints
    • Headaches
    • Fatigue
    • Light sensitivity
    • Fever
    • Butterfly rash on cheeks and nose
    • Hair loss
    • Mouth and nose sores
    • Hypertension

CBD may help reduce inflammation and pain, the primary symptoms of lupus, through the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the body.

The ECS impacts the body’s immune response, regulating pain and inflammation. It also controls other bodily functions, like sleep, cognition, and metabolism(15).

Endocannabinoids, like anandamide and 2-AG, act as neurotransmitters that activate cannabinoid receptors, namely CB1 and CB2. The ECS produces both of these endocannabinoids.

Anandamide has a direct correlation with CB1 receptors, with both of them functioning with the nervous system. Meanwhile, 2-AG and CB2 receptors are both associated with pain and inflammation relief(16). 2-AG or 2-Arachidonoylglycerol is the endocannabinoid linked with pain relief, appetite, and mimics the function of THC(17).

These two pairs working together create equilibrium, also known as homeostasis. This process links to how CBD can affect the processes in the body.

A 2018 study found that people with lupus have significantly increased levels of 2-AG, bound with CB2, compared to those who do not have the disorder. 

The elevated 2-AG levels are evident in those who have the lowest disease activity. The findings suggest that the symptoms are under control, and the ECS is working effectively to suppress lupus(18).

The results showed that cannabis might serve as an immune-modulating and regulating tool to maintain balance in an over- or under-reacting immune system(19).

CBD for Inflammation

Inflammation caused by lupus can target different parts of the body, including joints, hands, feet, and even heart, especially during flare-ups or increased disease activity(20).

Researchers of a study published in the journal Future of Medicinal Chemistry discovered cannabinoids to be a potential lupus treatment because of its anti-inflammatory properties(21).

Some lupus patients may develop lupus myositis or the inflammation of skeletal muscles. According to a 2017 study, about 2% of the patients diagnosed with lupus have myositis and are more likely to have other complications, such as skin rash and alopecia areata(22)

Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder that attacks the hair follicles which results in hair loss and baldness. 

CBD oil tinctures can treat skin rashes and other skin inflammation, like eczema, with a low level of cannabinoids(23). The topical use of CBD ointments on skin inflammations is also regarded as a safe and effective treatment, as cited in a 2019 study(24)

CBD for Pain Relief

A study showed that almost 100% of people suffering from lupus experience muscle and joint pain(25). More than half of the people stated that joint pain was the first symptom they felt after developing lupus.

When a lupus patient’s joints are inflamed, the person is more likely to develop lupus arthritis if not addressed quickly. 

Compared to rheumatoid arthritis, lupus arthritis is less painful and less destructive. However, if untreated, lupus arthritis can lead to muscle atrophy or loss of muscle tissue(26).

A 2018 study stated that chronic pain is the most common reason why people use cannabis for medical purposes(27). This kind of pain includes neuropathic pain or nerve pain that targets the sensory system and is difficult to treat or locate. 

Significant studies show the positive effects of cannabinoids in suppressing inflammatory and nerve pains in rodents(28)

Based on a study conducted on rats with osteoarthritis, CBD may be safe and therapeutic for joint pain relief(29). CBD experiments with animals as test subjects showed no signs and symptoms of harmful side effects. These experiments show a promising result for the potential treatment of pain on humans.

CBD for High Blood Pressure

People with lupus who are long-term steroid users may pose a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, like high blood pressure, heart failure, and stroke(30).

CBD has shown to have a positive impact on the cardiovascular system by widening blood vessels to increase blood flow and lower blood pressure(31)

Blood pressure can increase due to anxiety and stress about the medical condition. Based on a study published in Medicine, about 25% of lupus patients have depression, while 37% have anxiety(32)

A high strength but moderate dosage of CBD can be an agent for relaxation for people suffering from anxiety-related disorders, such as panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder(33).  

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Lupus

The Pros

    • Studies aforementioned showcased CBD’s benefits in alleviating common symptoms for lupus. CBD may be safer than most drugs prescribed that may have severe side effects.
    • The Lupus Foundation of America expresses its support for further research on using medical cannabis in treating lupus symptoms(34)
    • CBD “is generally well-tolerated with a good safety profile,” according to the World Health Organization(35)
    • CBD oil may be purchased over-the-counter in states and areas where they are legally available.

The Cons

    • Medical marijuana, cannabis plants used for treating illnesses and medical conditions, is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)(36)
    • CBD is an immunosuppressant, based on a 2020 study published on Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research(37). It means that CBD may weaken the immune response of the body.
    • Some medications may negatively react when used at the same time with CBD. The reaction can result in adverse drug events, like injury, overdose, and allergic reactions(38). Consult with a doctor knowledgeable with medical marijuana before purchasing any CBD product.
    • There are unregulated and unsafe CBD products that have unproven medical claims that can harm the user. FDA has been warning the public about particular claims(39).

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Lupus

More than 50% of adults with lupus resort to complementary and alternative medicine as an addition or replacement to their prescribed medications(40)

Complementary treatments are services or medications that are added to the current treatment to treat lupus. Meanwhile, alternative medicines are treatments or services that are used as substitutes for prescription drugs.

Complementary and alternative treatments include the following(41):

    • Traditional Chinese medicine, like acupuncture and Tai Chi
    • Wellness programs, like massage therapy and meditation
    • Herbal medicines and other supplements, like omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and N-Acetyl Cysteine
    • Homeopathy and naturopathy, which are natural approaches to holistic healing
    • Chiropractic pain relief treatment to correct bone alignment problems by “cracking” the spine
    • Ayurveda, which is a non-traditional treatment that originated in India
    • Biofeedback, which uses electrical sensors connected to the body to measure the body’s overall well-being

Though some of the mentioned treatments promote well-being and are harmless, these non-conventional practices still need further clinical research and rigorous scientific testing. 

Consult a physician first to know if a particular treatment has side effects or may induce a specific reaction to the current medication.

On the other hand, CBD is also considered complementary and alternative medicine with the following characteristics:

    • Hemp oil from cannabis seed can be a source of essential amino and fatty acids. These include eighteen different chemicals, such as hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, and terpenes, known for their medicinal properties(42).
    • While there are no treatments for lupus, CBD may help manage lupus symptoms, like inflammation, chronic pain, high blood pressure, and anxiety(43).

How to Choose the Right CBD Oil for Lupus

Choosing the right CBD oil for lupus requires knowing which spectrum works best for lupus.

For more significant healing effects and enhanced health benefits, pick the full-spectrum CBD oil. It includes phytonutrients from hemp, which are the natural chemicals produced by plants. 

Full-spectrum CBD oils deliver the entourage effect. The synergy of the combined chemicals, including THC, is a powerful and potent effect.

The broad-spectrum CBD oil is suitable for those who are sensitive and prone to allergic reactions. It delivers results slightly similar to the full-spectrum oil minus the THC.

Making informed choices based on the usage and purpose should be the top priority in considering the right CBD oil for any ailment or condition.

Other reminders that one should keep in mind while choosing the right CBD oil are the following:

    • Research thoroughly and ensure that a reputable supplier or source manufactures the product.
    • Be familiar with medical marijuana laws in the area and make sure to abide by those.
    • Read product reviews before buying online. Look at positive and negative reviews about the store and the products. When buying a product in-store, ask if the store is authorized by the state or municipality to sell CBD. 
    • Look for certification codes or a certificate of analysis to ensure that the product underwent quality control from an accredited laboratory(44).

CBD Dosage for Lupus

There is no specific dosage recommended for lupus treatment since there is no FDA-approved CBD treatment for lupus. Keep in mind that every treatment differs from one lupus patient to another. 

However, it is best to take small amounts of CBD or a CBD:THC ratio as an ideal and safe measurement. If dissatisfied with results, the dosage can be gradually increased

Observe and take note of any side effects that may occur. It is better to track the dosage and possible reactions, side effects, or improvements for later consultation with a trusted physician. 

Ultimately, seek information first from a medical practitioner before adding any CBD medication to the prescribed medication.

How to Take CBD Oil for Lupus

CBD products come in different forms that can fit into a person’s lifestyle and condition.

The most common forms of CBD are oil and tincture. Both provide instant comfort and relief for pain and inflammation. The former can be used with vape, while the latter can be mixed with food

Ingesting CBD oil can sometimes leave an oily taste. The tincture is more suitable for direct ingestion because it has a broad selection of flavors.

Topical CBD products, like creams, lotions, salves, and patches, work well with skin inflammations and body pain. Products like these can be applied directly to the skin. These products can treat skin rashes caused by lupus(45).

The American Academy of Dermatology suggested that topical CBD products may improve skin conditions, such as acne, psoriasis, and eczema(46).

Other CBD products also come in pills. Beginners can also explore other CBD products in the form of gummies, lozenges, and other food items, like brownies for convenient consumption. 

The Legality of CBD Oil

Out of the 50 states of the United States, 33 allow the use of medical marijuana(47)

Out of the 33, only four states have been vocal about their permission to use marijuana to treat lupus, namely Hawaii, New Jersey, Illinois, and New Hampshire. Seven other states allow medical marijuana for lupus upon the recommendation of a physician.

Conclusion

Lupus is a life-changing autoimmune condition that has no cure. Every year records an estimated 16,000 new cases of lupus(48).

Living as an immunocompromised person can be difficult. However, knowing the right type, right dosage, and the right way to take alternative treatments, like cannabinoids, may be a significant step towards a better life.

CBD can help alleviate lupus symptoms, such as inflammation and pain, hypertension, anxiety, skin infections, and photosensitivity. 

Because of the side effects that come with certain drugs, people with lupus should engage in a conversation with their respective doctors about their interest in and questions on the use of CBD before using the products.


    1. Lupus Foundation of America. (2013, July 25). Finding the treatment approach for you. Retrieved from https://www.lupus.org/resources/finding-the-treatment-approach-for-you
    2. Nagarkatti, P., Pandey, R., Rieder, S. A., Hegde, V. L., & Nagarkatti, M. (2009). Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Future medicinal chemistry, 1(7), 1333–1349. https://doi.org/10.4155/fmc.09.93
    3. Navarini, L., Bisogno, T., Mozetic, P., Piscitelli, F., Margiotta, D., Basta, F., Afeltra, A., & Maccarrone, M. (2018). Endocannabinoid system in systemic lupus erythematosus: First evidence for a deranged 2-arachidonoylglycerol metabolism. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology, 99, 161–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2018.04.010
    4. Nichols J and Kaplan B. Immune Responses Regulated by Cannabidiol. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Vol. 5, No. 1. 27 Feb 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2018.0073.
    5. Johns Hopkins Lupus Center. (2019a). How Lupus Affects the Body. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinslupus.org/lupus-info/lupus-affects-body/
    6. Lupus Foundation of America., op. cit.
    7. Horizon, A. A., & Wallace, D. J. (2004). Risk: benefit ratio of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in systemic lupus erythematosus. Expert opinion on drug safety, 3(4), 273–278. https://doi.org/10.1517/14740338.3.4.273
    8. Ruiz-Irastorza, G., Danza, A., & Khamashta, M. (2013). Tratamiento del lupus eritematoso sistémico: mitos, certezas y dudas [Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: myths, certainties and doubts]. Medicina clinica, 141(12), 533–542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2013.02.014
    9. Amissah-Arthur, M. B., & Gordon, C. (2010). Contemporary treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: an update for clinicians. Therapeutic advances in chronic disease, 1(4), 163–175. https://doi.org/10.1177/2040622310380100
    10. Johns Hopkins Lupus Center. (2019b). Treating Lupus with Immunosuppressive Medications. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinslupus.org/lupus-treatment/lupus-medications/immunosuppressive-medications/
    11. Q&A: medical marijuana (cannabis) and lupus. (2018, November 5). Lupus Foundation of America. https://www.lupus.org/resources/cannabis-and-lupus
    12. Russo S. Molecular Mimicry: The Role of Cannabis in Healing Autoimmune Disease. Retrieved from https://www.fundacion-canna.es/en/molecular-mimicry-role-cannabis-healing-autoimmune-disease.
    13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, October 17). Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/lupus/facts/detailed.html
    14. Lupus Foundation of America. (2017, March 10). Lupus symptoms. https://www.lupus.org/resources/common-symptoms-of-lupus
    15. Skaper, S. D., & Di Marzo, V. (2012). Endocannabinoids in nervous system health and disease: the big picture in a nutshell. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 367(1607), 3193–3200. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0313
    16. Zou, S., & Kumar, U. (2018). Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. International journal of molecular sciences, 19(3), 833. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030833
    17. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol, CID=5282280, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/2-Arachidonoylglycerol
    18. Navarini, L., op. cit.
    19. Russo. S., op. cit.
    20. Squance, M. L., Reeves, G. E. M., & Bridgman, H. (2014). The Lived Experience of Lupus Flares: Features, Triggers, and Management in an Australian Female Cohort. International Journal of Chronic Diseases, 2014, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/816729
    21. Nagarkatti, P., op. cit.
    22. Liang, Y., Leng, R. X., Pan, H. F., & Ye, D. Q. (2017). Associated Variables of Myositis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Cross-Sectional Study. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 23, 2543–2549. https://doi.org/10.12659/msm.902016
    23. Tóth, K. F., Ádám, D., Bíró, T., & Oláh, A. (2019). Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin: Therapeutic Potential of the “C(ut)annabinoid” System. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(5), 918. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050918
    24. Palmieri, B., Laurino, C., & Vadalà, M. (2019). A therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. La Clinica terapeutica, 170(2), e93–e99. https://doi.org/10.7417/CT.2019.2116
    25. Olesińska, M., & Saletra, A. (2018). Quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus and its measurement. Reumatologia, 56(1), 45–54. https://doi.org/10.5114/reum.2018.74750
    26. Quismorio, F. P., Jr MD. (2013, July 12). How lupus affects the muscles, tendons and joints. Retrieved from https://www.lupus.org/resources/how-lupus-affects-the-muscles-tendons-and-joints
    27. Vučković, S., Srebro, D., Vujović, K. S., Vučetić, Č., & Prostran, M. (2018). Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules. Frontiers in pharmacology, 9, 1259. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.01259
    28. Xiong, W., Cui, T., Cheng, K., Yang, F., Chen, S. R., Willenbring, D., Guan, Y., Pan, H. L., Ren, K., Xu, Y., & Zhang, L. (2012). Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors. The Journal of experimental medicine, 209(6), 1121–1134. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20120242
    29. Philpott, H. T., OʼBrien, M., & McDougall, J. J. (2017). Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain, 158(12), 2442–2451. https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001052
    30. Zeller, C. B., & Appenzeller, S. (2008). Cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: the role of traditional and lupus related risk factors. Current cardiology reviews, 4(2), 116–122. https://doi.org/10.2174/157340308784245775
    31. Stanley, C. P., Hind, W. H., Tufarelli, C., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2015). Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation. Cardiovascular research, 107(4), 568–578. https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvv179
    32. Figueiredo-Braga, M., Cornaby, C., Cortez, A., Bernardes, M., Terroso, G., Figueiredo, M., Mesquita, C., Costa, L., & Poole, B. D. (2018). Depression and anxiety in systemic lupus erythematosus: The crosstalk between immunological, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Medicine, 97(28), e11376. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000011376
    33. Blessing, E. M., Steenkamp, M. M., Manzanares, J., & Marmar, C. R. (2015). Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 12(4), 825–836. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1
    34. Lupus Foundation of America. (2016, May 6). Organizational statement on medical marijuana. Retrieved from https://www.lupus.org/resources/organizational-statement-on-medical-marijuana
    35. WHO. Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. (2017, Nov 6-10). Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.2_CBD.pdf.
    36. Food and Drug Administration. (2020, January 14). FDA and Cannabis: Research and Drug Approval Process. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-and-cannabis-research-and-drug-approval-process
    37. Nichols J., op. cit.
    38. Brown, J. D., & Winterstein, A. G. (2019). Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug-Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer Cannabidiol (CBD) Use. Journal of clinical medicine, 8(7), 989. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8070989
    39. Food and Drug Administration. (2020, March 5). What to Know About Products Containing Cannabis and CBD. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-need-know-and-what-were-working-find-out-about-products-containing-cannabis-or-cannabis
    40. Lupus Foundation of America. (2018, July 19). The Expert Series: Season 1, Episode 7 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/9ldR6n1ayFc
    41. ibid.
    42. Huestis MA. Human cannabinoid pharmacokinetics. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4(8):1770–1804. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200790152.
    43. Nagarkatti, P., op. cit. 
    44. Lopez, J. (2019, June 8). What is a CBD Certificate of Analysis (COA) (And How to Read It). Retrieved from https://citizentruth.org/what-is-a-cbd-certificate-of-analysis-coa-and-how-to-read-it/
    45. Palmieri, B., op. cit.
    46. American Academy of Dermatology. (2016, February 16). Public, researchers demonstrate growing interest in cannabis treatment. Retrieved from https://www.aad.org/news/topical-cannabis
    47. National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. (n.d.). Medical Marijuana. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from https://norml.org/legal/medical-marijuana-2
    48. Lupus Foundation of America. (2016, October 6). Lupus facts and statistics. Retrieved from https://www.lupus.org/resources/lupus-facts-and-statistics
CBD Clinicals is reader-supported. When you buy through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. Learn more

Featured Posts


Spruce CBD Review

Spruce is a family-owned business based out of Raleigh, North Carolina. The company was founded in 2018 in the belief that modern medicine is broken and that there is a need for alternatives to dangerous pharmaceuticals. Spruce’s lab-grade CBD oil is 100% natural and tested by a third-party lab in...

Read more

Best CBD Oil for High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Why People Are Taking CBD for High Blood Pressure? According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), high blood pressure can harden the arteries, which decreases the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart, leading to heart disease(5). In a 2015 study conducted by researchers from the...

Read more

CBDistillery Review 2020

CBDistillery is a U.S. Hemp Authority-, GMP-, GRAS-, and ISO-certified CBD brand in Colorado. It was created with the belief that everyone should have access to quality products and information on CBD.

Read more

Top 4 Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Cancer

Why Some People are Using CBD for Dogs with Cancer? An article posted by the American Kennel Club (AKC) says that there is no conclusive scientific data on using cannabidiol (CBD) to treat dogs specifically. However, there is anecdotal evidence from dog owners suggesting that CBD can help with neuropathic...

Read more

NuLeaf Naturals Review

Based in Colorado, USA, and founded in 2014, NuLeaf Naturals is one of America’s top pioneering hemp companies. NuLeaf Naturals wellness products are derived from specially bred therapeutic hemp (Cannabis Sativa) plants grown on licensed farms in Colorado. Their hemp CBD plants are 100% organic whole-plant extracts and grown with...

Read more

Best CBD for Neuropathy (Nerve Pain)

As medical cannabis products have become more popular, people are turning to them to treat everything from anxiety to depression to chronic pain. Individuals who are suffering from neuropathy may show interest in trying CBD oil. What Is CBD? CBD comes from a plant that is part of the Cannabaceae...

Read more

SabaiDee Review + Discount Coupon Code for 2020

SabaiDee CBD products are tested both in-house and by independent laboratories to verify the quality of every batch. Their products all come with SabaiDee’s Happiness Guarantee. 

Read more

CBDmd Review

cbdMD produces full-spectrum oils made from all-natural hemp using a CO2 extraction process. This process allows cbdMD to remove practically all traces of THC from its products without affecting the plants’ other beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes. This allows cbdMD to create high-quality products that are set apart from some offerings...

Read more