Overall CBDC Brand Rating:
Quicksilver Scientific has pioneered a complete solution to combat universal toxicity and restore a balanced system: testing that identifies toxicity levels, protocols that effectively detoxify the body, and a wide range of premium products to reach optimal health.
- Dr Christopher Shade, the creator of Quicksilver Scientific, is an industry thought-leader who has been collaborating with health practitioners for more than a decade to uncover the curative power of nature through the practice of modern science.
- Quicksilver Scientific’s philosophy is rooted in its desire to give people tools to maintain lifelong mind and body health.
- The Quicksilver Health System is derived from Dr. Shade’s extensive research in the field of detoxification. He has identified three fundamental distortions of natural health: toxicity, allergy, and infection.
- The Quicksilver Delivery Systems signature trademark on their liposomal products sets them apart from other companies and ensures a superior product. Their liposomal products have that certain clarity that can only be achieved with liposomes small enough to pass between cells and enter the bloodstream directly, guaranteeing optimal bioavailability.
Best Products from Quicksilver Scientific
CBD Synergies–AX: Zen in a Bottle, 50 mL for $78.50
CBD Synergies–AX is a CBD-centered relaxation blend combined with powerful botanicals.
This product is a relaxing blend of premium botanicals, essential oils, and amino acids offering unparalleled support to help individuals ease out of fight or flight mode.
The sophisticated centerpiece is a CBD-rich, clean, THC-free broad-spectrum hemp extract, which is boosted by beta-caryophyllene to further enhance CBD (cannabidiol) action.
CBD Synergies–AX helps calm the mind, soothe the immune system, and put the entire body back in balance.
CBD Synergies-PN: Fast-Acting Full-Body Relief, 60 softgels for $85.00
CBD Synergies-PNA is an exquisite formula that tempers physical irritations and offers rapid support for overall comfort. Relief is felt in minutes.
Quicksilver Scientific’s groundbreaking self-emulsifying delivery system (SEDS) bypasses absorption constraints posed by the intestine, swiftly transporting soothing nutrients into the bloodstream and offering rapid support for overall comfort.
CBD Synergies-PN is Quicksilver Scientific’s premier nutraceutical and botanical formula designed to balance the immune response to bodily stressors and support whole-body comfort.
Full-spectrum hemp extract, a premium blend of CBD and a Farm Bill-compliant level of THC, modulates signaling pathways throughout the body to ease joint, muscle, and nerve irritations.
β-caryophyllene, a hemp-based terpene, bolsters the soothing effects of CBD.
Quicksilver Scientific’s proprietary curcuminoid complex, a blend of curcumin and precious turmeric essential oils, works synergistically with Boswellia extract to support gut and joint health.
Piperine, an extract of black pepper, boosts the bioavailability of each element of our formula.
CBD Synergies-SP: Ease Into a Deep Restorative Sleep
CBD Synergies-SP is best for rapid nutrient uptake for timely sleep support.
CBD Synergies-SP is a soothing blend of nutraceuticals and botanicals, offering unparalleled bioavailability for timely support for deep, restorative sleep.
PharmaGABA® and Melatonin, the stars of this formula, soothe the mind and align the body with its natural rhythms, supporting a restorative sleep cycle.
Full-spectrum hemp extract activates neural pathways that initiate sleep, while 5-HTP supports feelings of relaxation and well-being.
Skullcap and passionflower fine-tune the soothing, sleep-inducing properties of our formula.
Broad Spectrum Hemp Extract, 16 mg CBD – THC-free natural hemp cannabinoids and terpenes for full-body health
- Enhanced with the potent dietary cannabinoid, beta-carophyllene
- Supports a healthy gut and a balanced immune system
- Supports overall comfort levels
- Helps balance brain function and mood
- Plasma levels more than 5 times that of other oral CBD liquids tested
- Rapid uptake allows the user to feel the effect in as little as 5 minutes
- Tests clean
Full-Spectrum Hemp Extract, 16mg CBD
- Offers the full spectrum of natural hemp cannabinoids and terpenes for full-body health
- Farm Bill-Complaint – contains a small amount of THC (<.3%)
- Supports a healthy gut and a balanced immune system
- Supports overall comfort levels
- Helps balance brain function and mood
- Plasma levels more than 5 times that of other oral CBD liquids tested
- Rapid uptake allows the user to feel the effect in as little as 5 minutes
Suggested Uses for QS CBD Oil Products:
Take 4 pumps and hold in mouth 30 seconds before swallowing. Increase dosage if needed or as directed by a healthcare professional. Take on an empty stomach at least 10 minutes before meals. May be stirred into a small amount of water.
Quicksilver Scientific Company Analysis
Quicksilver Scientific is a Boulder, Colorado-based company run by Dr. Christopher Shade, a Ph.D. biochemist who specializes in metal toxicity.
Quicksilver Scientific products are created on-site at their Lafayette, Colorado facility. The company also develops products for some top brands in the nutraceutical industry, using the same nanoparticle technologies that give QS products superior bioavailability.
QS products are manufactured in a CGMP facility. CGMP refers to the Current Good Manufacturing Practice regulations enforced by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (1).
Adherence to the CGMP regulations assures the identity, strength, quality, and purity of drug products by requiring that manufacturers of medications adequately control manufacturing operations.
Quicksilver Scientific’s liposomal delivery systems improve upon basic liposomal technology, by their smaller, more stable, single-layer spheres, made from the highest quality ingredients available.
|Recommended for||Optimizing health and balancing effects on the mind and body|
|Source of Hemp||Colorado hemp oil|
|Popular Products||QS CBD Synergies–AX, QS CBD Synergies-SP, QS CBD Synergies-SP, Full-Spectrum Hemp Extract, Broad-Spectrum Hemp Extract|
|Types Sold||Full-spectrum hemp extract and broad-spectrum hemp extract|
|Range of Products/Forms||Tinctures and softgels|
|Prices||QS Broad-Spectrum Hemp Extract: 30 ml for $50, 50 ml for $78.50|
QS Full-Spectrum Hemp Extract: 30 ml for $50, 50 ml for $78.50 (same as their broad-spectrum variety).
CBD Synergies-AX Calming Formula, $78.50 (50mL)
CBD Synergies-PN Relief Formula, $85.00 (50 mL)
CBD Synergies-SP Sleep Formula, $68.50 (50 mL)
|Extraction Method||CO2 Extraction|
|Lab Testing Transparency||The batches of products that Quicksilver Scientific produces undergo third-party testing to ensure that the safety, quality, and potency of their products uphold company standards.|
|CBD Concentration per serving range||QS 50mL full-spectrum CBD extract contains 25 servings per container where 1 serving size is equivalent to 2mL or 4 pumps. There is 16mg pure CBD per serving.|
|Potency||For 50mL full-spectrum CBD, the CBD concentration (potency) is 8.335 mg/g or 0.8335%.|
|THC Range of Products %||The THC content in Quicksilver Scientific full-spectrum CBD products is 0.33 mg/g or 0.033%, as indicated in the certificate of analysis.|
|Flavors||QS CBD products come in natural flavors.|
|Lab Testing Availability||Quicksilver Scientific’s CLIA-certified laboratory specializes in advanced mercury speciation testing, using the patented Mercury Tri-Test. |
The QS Blood Metals Panel screens for a broad range of potentially toxic and nutrient metals to show elevated exposure to toxic metals or imbalances of nutrient metals in whole blood.
|Tincture Carrier Oil||Quicksilver Scientific nanoemulsified Colorado hemp oil does not use a carrier oil at all, as they ‘carry’ their full-spectrum CBD blend in a base of water, glycerin, and ethanol.|
|Lab Results||Click here to view Quicksilver Scientific’s most recent independent test results, as indicated in the official certificates of analysis posted.|
|Price Range||QS CBD products prices range from $68.50 to $85.00.|
|Shipping / Delivery||Once an order is received, it may take up to 3 business days for orders to be processed and shipped, pending inventory availability. This condition applies to all shipping methods.|
|Guarantee||Damaged goods or incorrect shipments should be reported to [email protected] within 10 days of receipt of the package.|
|Contaminants||QS CBD products are free of contaminants.|
|Vegan and Gluten-free||QS CBD Products are gluten-free.|
|Refund Policy||Quicksilver Scientific refunds a purchase via the customer’s original payment method once the approved return has arrived at the Quicksilver Scientific facility at 1370 Miners Dr, Lafayette, CO 80026 Suite 108.|
|Customer Service||Contact QS Customer Experience team at [email protected] or via phone at 303-531-0861.|
|Countries served||QS ships to registered, licensed practitioners in Australia and Hong Kong. However, due to legal requirements, QS cannot ship certain products internationally.|
- USFDA. (2018, June 25). Facts About the Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/drugs/pharmaceutical-quality-resources/facts-about-current-good-manufacturing-practices-cgmps.
The following information has been extracted from our CHEMINFO database, which also contains hazard control and regulatory information. [More about…] [Sample Record]
Access the complete CHEMINFO database by contacting CCOHS Client Services.
SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION
CHEMINFO Record Number: 322
CCOHS Chemical Name: Mercury
Chemical Name French: Mercure
Chemical Name Spanish: Mercurio
CAS Registry Number: 7439-97-6
UN/NA Number(s): 2809
RTECS Number(s): OV4550000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 231-106-7
Chemical Family: Mercury and compounds / elemental mercury / mercury metal
Molecular Formula: Hg
Structural Formula: Hg
SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION
Appearance and Odour:
Silver-white, heavy, mobile, odourless liquid.(1,27,28)
Mercury is odourless.
POOR – mercury is odourless and nonirritating.
This review has addressed the hazards and control measures for elemental mercury only. Elemental mercury is a heavy liquid. Other inorganic mercury compounds are solids and have different absorption and distribution characteristics than elemental mercury. Although many of the target organs and toxic effects are similar for both elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds, there are some important differences which are relevant to human health hazard assessment. Mercury is available in a number of grades with a purity of 99.9% and above.(2,27)
Uses and Occurrences:
Mercury is used mainly for the electrolytic production of chlorine and caustic soda from brine (chlor-alkali industry). It is also used in household batteries, in several types of electric lamps, including fluorescent lamps and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, in electric light switches and thermostats, in mercury vapour diffusion pumps for producing a high vacuum, in industrial and medical equipment, such as thermometers, monometers, barometers and other pressure-sensing devices, gauges, valves, seals, and navigational devices, in dental amalgams, in pigments, as a catalyst in polymer-forming reactions, in explosives, in pharmaceuticals, and in chemical applications.(1,27,29)
The use of mercury as a seed disinfectant, on food crops, as a biocide in paints and in antifouling paint formulations, as a coating for mirrors, for the manufacture of certain types of glass, the treatment of felt and as a fungicide in paper has been discontinued or banned.(27)
Mercury metal is widely distributed in nature, usually in quite low concentrations. The most important mineral of mercury is cinnabar, found in rocks near recent volcanic activity, or hot spring areas and in mineral veins or fractures.(27)
SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
Silver-white, heavy, mobile, odourless liquid. Will not burn. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled and harmful if absorbed through the skin. May cause harmful effects on the nervous, digestive and respiratory systems, and the kidneys. May cause lung injury–effects may be delayed. CORROSIVE to some metals. SKIN SENSITIZER. May cause allergic skin reaction. REPRODUCTIVE HAZARD – may cause behaviourial effects, based on animal information.
Important New Information:
NOTE: The evaluation of this chemical as a skin sensitizer is under review. For additional information, contact the CHEMINFO team at [email protected]
POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS
Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure
Harmful effects due to short-term exposure to elemental mercury are rarely seen any more because of strict controls used in workplaces where mercury exposure might occur. Historically, short-term exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapour caused harmful effects on the nervous, digestive and respiratory systems, and the kidneys. In most cases, exposure occurred when mercury was heated.
Initial exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapour produces symptoms similar to “metal fume fever” including fatigue, fever, and chills.(1)
Respiratory system effects include cough, shortness of breath, tightness and burning pains in the chest and inflammation of the lungs. Occupational exposure to 1 to 44 mg/m3 of mercury vapour for 4 to 8 hours caused chest pain, cough, coughing up blood, impaired lung function and inflammation of the lungs. In some cases, a potentially life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) has occurred. Exposure to high, but unspecified, concentrations of mercury vapour has caused death due to respiratory failure. All of the reported deaths resulted from inhaling mercury vapours formed upon heating mercury.(1-4)
Several case reports have described harmful nervous system effects following inhalation of high concentrations of mercury vapour. The most prominent symptoms include tremors (initially affecting the hands and sometimes spreading to other parts of the body), emotional instability (including irritability, excessive shyness, a loss of confidence and nervousness), sleeplessness, memory loss, muscle weakness, headaches, slow reflexes and a loss of feeling or numbness.(1,3)
A classic sign of exposure to high concentrations of mercury is inflammation of inside of the mouth (stomatitis), sometimes with a metallic taste, excessive salivation and difficulty swallowing. Other digestive system effects include abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.(1)
Kidney injury is common following exposure to high concentrations of mercury. Reported effects range from increased protein in the urine to kidney failure. Exposure to high concentrations of mercury has also caused increased blood pressure and heart rate.(1)
Elemental mercury is not known to directly irritate the skin. However, an allergic skin reaction may develop following contact with mercury. For further information, refer to “Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure” below.
Elemental mercury liquid and vapour can be absorbed through the skin and may contribute to the overall absorption and toxicity.(1,4,5,6)
There is very little relevant information about the effects of getting liquid mercury in the eyes. It is probably not a direct eye irritant. In one case, droplets of mercury accumulated under the surface of the cornea in an person forcefully sprayed with mercury liquid. After two days, the cornea cleared and vision was normal.(7) High concentrations of mercury vapour can cause redness, burning and inflammation of the eyes.(1,7)
Elemental mercury is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is more toxic following inhalation. In one report, ingestion of 204 gm did not cause harmful effects.(4) In a second report, ingestion of 220 mL (approximately 3.0 kg) caused immediate effects such as tremor, irritability, forgetfulness and fatigue. It is uncertain whether liver effects observed several months later were related to the mercury exposure.(8) Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure. Although airborne droplets of elemental mercury are actually more likely to enter the gastrointestinal system rather than the lungs, resulting in lower absorption.(1)
Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure
The harmful effects of long-term exposure to elemental mercury are generally thought to be caused by inhalation exposure. However, mercury liquid and vapour are absorbed through the skin in small amounts and this route of exposure can contribute to the overall exposure. Effects following absorption through the skin are expected to be similar to those reported for long-term inhalation exposure.(4,5,6)
Mercury levels in urine are often used as a general indicator of how much exposure to mercury has occurred. As a result, urine mercury levels rather than airborne levels are provided in some of the reports which compare mercury exposures to specific health effects. Urine mercury levels are reported in micrograms/gram of creatinine (a component of the urine).
The relationship between airborne mercury levels and urine mercury levels is complicated and depends on many factors, including other sources of mercury exposure and individual physical differences. Several studies indicate that an airborne exposure of 0.025 mg/m3 mercury compares to approximately 37 micrograms/gram of creatinine in the urine.(6) Urine mercury levels in adults without occupational exposure are typically less than 3.0 micrograms/gram of creatinine. Sources of non-occupational exposure to inorganic mercury include new dental fillings.(6)
In this review, urinary mercury levels below 35 micrograms/gram of creatinine are considered to reflect relatively low mercury exposure; 35 to 50 micrograms/gram of creatinine reflects moderate exposure; 50 to 100 micrograms/gram of creatinine reflects moderately high exposure and above 100 micrograms/gram of creatinine reflects high exposure.
EFFECTS ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: Effects on muscle coordination, mood, behaviour, memory, feeling and nerve conduction have been reported following long-term occupational exposure to mercury. These effects are often observed in employees with moderately high or high exposure to mercury. At lower exposures, the results are inconclusive with no effects being reported in some studies and mild effects reported in other studies.(1,2,3,5) Although improvement has been observed upon removal of the person from the source of exposure, it is possible that some of the changes may be irreversible.(1) The nervous system effects of mercury toxicity are sometimes referred to as “Mad Hatter’s Disease”.
A classic sign of mercury toxicity is a fine tremor, usually of the fingers, hands or arms and occasionally the eyelids, lips, tongue, and whole body. Many occupational studies indicate that tremors become more pronounced with longer exposures to mercury. Tremors are thought to be a sensitive indicator for long-term low-level exposure to mercury vapour. One report described tremors in employees with average exposures as low as 0.026 mg/m3 for an average of 15 years.(1,4)
Behaviour and personality changes such as irritability, excitation and shyness, psychotic reactions such as delirium and hallucinations, loss of appetite, tiredness, sleeplessness, short-term memory loss and impaired nerve conduction have also been reported following long-term exposure. In one study, subtle behaviourial effects were detected in dentists with moderate mercury exposure.(1,9)
Damage to the nerves of the arms and legs (polyneuropathy) has been reported in employees with high exposures. Reduced sensation and strength in the arms and legs, muscle cramps and decreased nerve conduction have been observed. Employees with episodes of very high exposure appear to be more at risk of developing these effects. Studies of employees in a chlor-alkali plant showed mild polyneuropathy in employees exposed to high levels of mercury. Signs included abnormalities in nerve conduction tests with reduced sensation and increased tremor of the arm.(1,5)
EFFECTS ON THE KIDNEY: Many occupational studies indicate that moderate to high exposure to mercury can cause harmful effects on the kidneys. When urine mercury levels are low to moderate, the results are inconclusive with no effects being reported in some studies and mild effects reported in others.(1,2,3,5)
Early indicators of kidney injury include increased levels of protein in the urine (proteinuria) and increased levels of certain enzymes in the blood and urine. Proteinuria is commonly observed in studies reporting kidney effects. Less often, changes to the structure of the kidneys have been shown. An increase in deaths from kidney disease in people occupationally exposed to mercury was not observed in one study.(1,5)
SKIN SENSITIZATION: Allergic skin sensitization has been reported in people with occupational exposure to mercury liquid or vapour. Once a person is sensitized to a chemical, contact with even a small amount causes outbreaks of dermatitis with symptoms such as skin redness, itching, rash and swelling. This can spread from the hands or arms to other parts of the body.
Occupational skin sensitization to mercury has been observed in people exposed to mercury in dental amalgams, tattoos or breakage of medical instruments.(1) Positive patch tests were obtained in a dentist (10), five doctors (11), a nurse’s aid (12), a mercury recycling employee (13) and a pipeline repairman (14) who had developed of red, dry, itchy skin (contact dermatitis) following occupational exposure. Previous history of allergies was not discussed for any of these cases. Skin sensitization to mercury has also been reported in the general public.(2,3)
EFFECTS ON THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: Limited information suggests that long-term exposure to mercury vapour can cause inflammation and ulceration of the inside of the mouth, sore gums, drooling, diarrhea and other effects on the digestive system.(1) No exposure information is reported, but presumably the concentrations were high.
EFFECTS ON THE HEART: Mercury may affect the heart producing increased blood pressure and/or heart rate. Two studies of employees with long-term exposure to low levels of mercury showed no effects on blood pressure or heart rhythm, as measured by electrocardiogram (ECG). A few other studies have shown effects on the heart including increased blood pressure and heart rate and abnormal ECG results. More deaths due to cardiovascular problems were observed in employees exposed to mercury in the chlor-alkali industry.(1,5) These studies are limited by factors such as exposure to other potentially harmful chemicals at the same time and weak exposure information.
EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS: In most studies, effects on the immune and endocrine systems were not observed in employees exposed to mercury. However, altered immune response has been suggested in a few studies.(1,3)
EFFECTS ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Very little information is available regarding effects on the respiratory system from long-term exposure. Two studies reported persistent cough in employees exposed to mercury vapour for several weeks. Another study reported no respiratory symptoms, X-ray abnormalities or impaired pulmonary function in employees exposed to mercury vapour levels up to 0.27 mg/m3 for more than 6 years.(1)
EFFECTS ON THE EYE: Long-term occupational exposure to mercury has caused a grayish-brown or yellow discoloration in the eyes of some people. This haze is not thought to affect vision. A gray band through the cornea (band keratopathy) has also been reported in a few people.(1,7) In one study, poor colour vision was observed in 33 employees with moderately high to high urine mercury levels.(15)
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is inadequate evidence in humans and animals for the carcinogenicity of mercury and mercury compounds. The overall IARC evaluation for metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds is that they are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).(2)
In most studies, increased cancer rates were not observed in people with occupational exposure. Brain tumours were increased in dentists and dental nurses exposed to metallic mercury, but this outcome was not observed in other similar populations. In another study, prostate and lung cancers were associated with exposure to metallic mercury. Other studies could not be interpreted because of study design limitations such as multiple chemical exposures.(2)
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as not classifiable as a human carcinogen (A4).
The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.
Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
While it is not possible to draw firm conclusions based on the limited human information available, exposure to mercury has generally not caused harmful effects in the unborn child or more miscarriages. Two animal studies do indicate that mercury exposure during pregnancy can cause subtle behavioral changes in offspring, in the absence of harmful effects in the mothers.
Several human population studies have investigated pregnancy outcome in women routinely exposed to low levels of mercury in the workplace. Two large studies of dental assistants and dentists did not report an increase in birth defects. Two smaller studies, both with study design limitations, reported birth defects (such as spina bifida and dislocation of the hip).(2) One incompletely reported study suggested decreased birth weights.(1)
A small number of case reports have not described harmful effects on the unborn child following brief exposure of the mother to high levels of mercury during pregnancy.(2,5) Another case report describes a normal pregnancy outcome in a woman occupationally exposed to low levels of mercury vapour throughout pregnancy.(16) No conclusions can be drawn from one other case report where the infant was also deprived of oxygen during delivery.(17)
Most human population studies have not shown more miscarriages in women occupationally exposed to mercury. A few studies with significant design limitations have shown more miscarriages.(2,18)
Although it is not possible to draw firm conclusions based on the limited human information available, exposure to mercury may reduce fertility in females. Effects on male fertility have generally not been observed. There is no relevant animal information available.
In one study, fertility was decreased in female dental assistants who prepared 30 or more dental fillings per week and had poor work hygiene practices.(19) There was also some evidence of decreased fertility in a group of employees exposed to mercury at a lamp factory.(2) Both of these studies had design limitations. Complications during pregnancy and delivery and increased menstrual disorders have also been seen in some studies. However, all of the studies had design limitations including inadequate exposure assessment, inadequate controls and incomplete reporting of the data.(1,2,18)
Effects on fertility were not seen in three studies of men occupationally exposed to mercury. One study showed that the wives of men occupationally exposed to moderately high concentrations of mercury had more miscarriages, but another study did not show this effect.(1,2) Two studies showed no harmful effects on pregnancy when the father was exposed to mercury.(2)
No conclusions about the mutagenicity of elemental mercury compounds in humans can be drawn from the available studies. Several studies of people with occupational exposure to mercury compounds have shown no increases in genetic damage, while other studies have reported effects. However, the available studies have all had design limitations such as small sample size, inadequate controls, other hazardous exposures (e.g. X-rays) and incomplete reporting.(1,2,20) The mutagenicity of elemental mercury has not been studied in animals or other test systems.
Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
In one animal study, the offspring of pregnant rats exposed to both methylmercury and elemental mercury had more pronounced behaviourial effects than rats exposed to elemental mercury alone. Similar effects were not observed in the offspring of rats exposed to methylmercury alone.(21)
No conclusions can be drawn from one study which indicated that the mutagenic effects of elemental mercury are enhanced by smoking. This study was incompletely reported.(2)
Exposure to other metals at the same time, the use of penicillin-type antibiotics, and ingestion of ethanol in alcoholic beverages can the influence excretion of elemental mercury.(6)
Potential for Accumulation:
Elemental mercury is a heavy liquid. The vapour evaporates from the liquid and evaporation occurs more rapidly when the liquid is heated. The vapour is well absorbed following inhalation. It accumulates in the kidney and the brain. Elemental mercury is excreted from the body slowly. It has an elimination half-life of 40-60 days.(4) Most elemental mercury is excreted in exhaled air, and small amounts in the feces and urine. Very small amounts can be eliminated in sweat, saliva and milk. Following ingestion, elemental mercury is poorly absorbed and most of it is excreted in the feces. Elemental mercury liquid and vapour can be absorbed through the skin in small amounts. Elemental mercury is transferred to the developing child in a pregnant women.(18)
SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor’s advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Obtain medical attention immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush the eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice immediately.
NEVER give anything by mouth if the victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Obtain medical attention immediately.
First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). /Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace. Mercury can accumulate in the body and cause significant long-term health effects. Medical advice should be sought following any exposure.
Note to Physicians:
Many jurisdictions have specific regulations for mercury. These regulations may include requirements for medical surveillance programs, including pre- employment and pre-placement examinations, periodic medical examinations, clinical tests, health education and record keeping. Obtain detailed information from the appropriate government agency in relevant jurisdictions.
SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
Does not burn.(28,30)
Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable metal.
Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Mercury metal will not accumulate static charge since it has a very high electrical conductivity (1.04 X 10(18) pS/m at 20 deg C). It is considered one of the best electrical conductors among the metals.(27)
1.04 X 10(18) pS/m at 20 deg C (27); 1.O63 X 10(18) pS/m at 0 deg C (29); ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY: 95.8 microohms.cm at 20 deg C (27,31); 94.07 microohms.cm at 0 deg C (29) (calculated))
Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Mercury vapour and mercuric oxide.(30,31,32)
Fire Hazard Summary:
Mercury metal will not burn and does not support combustion. Under fire conditions, very toxic mercury vapour and mercuric oxide will be formed.
Mercury metal is not combustible and does not support combustion. Use extinguishing media appropriate to surrounding fire conditions.(30)
Fire Fighting Instructions:
Mercury metal is not combustible and does not support combustion. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, water spray or fog can be used to absorb heat, keep fire-exposed containers or tanks cool and protect exposed material.
Mercury and its decomposition products are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter’s normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical resistant suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.
NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
NFPA – Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.
SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Molecular Weight: 200.59
1 ppm = 8.19 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.122 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)
Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -38.9 deg C (-38 deg F) (1,27,29)
Boiling Point: 356.9 deg C (674.4 deg F) (27)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 13.55 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (27)
Solubility in Water: Insoluble (56 micrograms/L at 25 deg C) (1)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in dilute and concentrated nitric acid, aqua regia (mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids), warm concentrated hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid (reacts). It is sparingly soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid and cold sulfuric acid.(1,27,29)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 5.95 (1)
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Dynamic: 1.55 mPa.s (1.55 centipoise) at 20 deg C (27,32)
Surface Tension: 480.3 mN/m (480.3 dynes/cm) (water = 75.6 mN/m) at 0 deg C (27,29); 484 mN/m (484 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (31)
Vapour Density: 7.0 (air=1) (30)
Vapour Pressure: 1.70 X 10(-4) kPa (0.0013 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (29); 2.7 X 10(-4) kPa (0.002 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (1,31)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 1.7 ppm (14 mg/m3) (0.00017%) at 20 deg C; 2.6 ppm (21.5 mg/m3) (0.00026%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available
Critical Temperature: 1450 deg C (2642 deg F) (29); 1677 deg C (3051 deg F) (27)
Critical Pressure: 1.677 X 10(6) kPa (16604 atm.) (32)
Other Physical Properties:
TRIPLE POINT: -38.84 deg c (-37.9 deg F) (27)
SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
At ordinary temperatures, mercury is stable. Mercury reacts with hydrogen sulfide in the air to form mercuric sulfide.(27)
Does not occur
Incompatibility – Materials to Avoid:
NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.
AMMONIA – can react to form explosive compounds in the presence of traces of water.(33,34)
DRY BROMINE – react violently.(33)
CHLORINE – ignites at 200-300 deg C in a stream of chlorine.(33)
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. chlorine dioxide, peroxyformic acid, chlorates or nitrates) – can explode.(30,33)
ACETYLENIC COMPOUNDS (e.g. acetylene or 3-bromopropyne) – may explode due to formation of explosive acetylides.(33,34)
ETHYLENE OXIDE – may form unstable, explosive acetylide with traces of acetylene present in ethylene oxide.(33)
METHYL SILANE or TETRACARBONYLNICKEL (in the presence of oxygen), METHYL AZIDE or HOT SULFURIC ACID – can explode.(30,33,34)
SODIUM CARBIDE (ground) – can react vigorously.(34)
BORON DIIODOPHOSPHIDE – immediately ignites in mercury vapour.(33,34)
Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, flames, metal surfaces.
Corrosivity to Metals:
Many metals, such as copper and its alloys, brass, bronze and nickel- copper, zinc, lead, tin, aluminum, silver, gold and alkali metals, dissolve readily in mercury to form amalgams. Metals that have good or excellent resistance to corrosion by amalgamation include, iron, steel, stainless steel, nickel and molybdenum.(27,29,35)
SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
LC50 (rat): Approximately 19.1 mg/m3 (4-hour exposure); cited as approximately 27 mg/m3 (2-hour exposure) (20/32 animals died) (undefined vapour or liquid/vapour mixture) (22)
Inflammation was not observed in rabbits when mercury came into contact with the eyelids. The only reports of direct contact of mercury with the eye involve injection.(7) The results of these tests are not relevant for assessing irritancy.
Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:
Severe damage was observed in the kidneys, liver, brain, heart, lungs and colon of rabbits exposed to 29 mg/m3 for 1 to 30 hours. Death due to respiratory failure occurred in 1/2 rabbits exposed for 30 hours.(23) In another study, 20/32 rats exposed to 27 mg/m3 mercury vapour for 2 hours died.(22)
Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:
In a series of experiments, rats, rabbits and dogs were exposed to 0.1, 0.86 or 6.0 mg/m3 for 1 to 83 weeks. The central nervous system, kidneys, liver, heart and lungs were identified as target organs. The severity of effects was related to both the concentration and duration of exposure. The lowest concentration which produced harmful effects was 0.86 mg/m3 for up to 11 weeks. At this concentration, mild to moderate harmful changes were observed in rabbit kidneys and brain tissue. These effects were not fully reversible several weeks after exposure stopped. Effects were more pronounced at 6.0 mg/m3. No harmful effects were observed in rats, rabbits or dogs exposed to 0.1 mg/m3 for up to 83 weeks.(23)
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of metallic mercury in experimental animals.(2)
Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Two well-reported studies have shown that exposure to mercury vapour during pregnancy can cause behavioral changes in the offspring.(21,24) In both studies, the offspring of rats exposed to up to 1.8 mg/m3 mercury during pregnancy had altered responses in behavioral tests conducted at 3 to 14 months of age.(21,24) In another study, behavioral effects were observed 2 and 4 months after newborn rats were exposed to 0.05 mg/m3 of mercury vapour several days after birth.(25) In other studies, maternal toxicity was not evaluated or results were incompletely reported.(1,26) Therefore, these studies are not reviewed here.
No conclusions can be drawn from one study because it was incompletely reported. In this study female rats exposed to approximately 2.5 mg/m3 mercury for 6-8 weeks before pregnancy had longer fertility (estrous) cycles than unexposed animals.(26)
No studies on the mutagenicity of elemental mercury in animals or other test systems were located.
SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION
(1) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for mercury (update). Draft. US Department of Health and Human Services, Aug. 1997
(2) The International Agency for Research on Cancer. Mercury and mercury compounds. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 58. Beryllium, cadmium, mercury, and exposures in the glass manufacturing industry. World Health Organization, Feb. 1993. p. 239-345
(3) International Programme for Chemical Safety (IPCS). Inorganic Mercury. Environmental health criteria; 118. World Health Organization, 1991
(4) Beliles, R.P. The metals: mercury, Hg. In: Patty’s industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th ed. Edited by G.D. Clayton et al. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part C. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. p. 2124-2146
(5) Mercury, all forms except alkyl: Cas 7439-97-6 (elemental mercury). In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th Edition. Supplement. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1996
(6) Mercury, elemental and inorganic forms. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th Edition. Supplement. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1996
(7) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the Eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993
(8) Lin, J-L., et al. Massive oral ingestion of elemental mercury. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 31, no. 3 (1993). p. 487-492
(9) Echeverria, D., et al. Behavioral effects of low-level exposure to Hg(o) among dentists. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. Vol. 17, no. 2 (Mar. 1995). p. 161-168
(10) Ancona, A., et al. Mercury sensitivity in a dentist. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 8, no. 3 (1982). p. 218
(11) Rudzki, F. Occupational dermatitis among health service workers. Dermatosen. Vol. 27 , no. 4 (1979). p. 112-115
(12) Faria, A., et al. Systemic contact dermatitis due to mercury. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 27, no. 2 (Aug. 1992). p. 110-111
(13) Schrallhammer-Benkler, K., et al. Acute mercury intoxication with lichenoid drug eruption followed by mercury contact allergy and development of antinuclear bodies. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Vol. 72, no. 4 (Aug. 1992). p. 294-296
(14) Swinyer, L.J. Allergic contact dermatitis from metallic mercury. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 6, no. 3 (1980). p. 226-227
(15) Cavalleri, A., et al. Colour vision loss in workers exposed to elemental mercury vapour. Toxicology letters. Vol. 77, nos. 1-3 (May 1995). p. 351-356
(16) Warfvinge, K. Mercury exposure of a female dentist before pregnancy. British Dental Journal. Vol. 178, no. 4 (Feb. 25, 1995). p. 149-152
(17) Gelbier, S., et al. Possible foetotoxic effects of mercury vapour: a case report. Public Health. Vol. 103 (1989). p. 35-40
(18) Barlow, S.M., et al. Chapter 28. Mercury and its compounds (inorganic). In: Reproductive Hazards of Industrial Chemicals. Academic Press Inc., 1982. p. 386-406
(19) Rowland, A.S., et al. The effect of occupational exposure to mercury vapour on the fertility of female dental assistants. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 51, no. 1 (Jan. 1994). p. 28-34
(20) De Flora, S., et al. Genotoxicity of mercury compounds: a review. Mutation Research. Vol. 317, no. 1 (Feb. 1994). p. 57-79
(21) Fredriksson, A., et al. Prenatal coexposure to metallic mercury vapour and methylmercury produce interactive behaviourial changes in adult rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. Vol. 18, no. 2 (1996). p. 129-134
(22) Livardjani, F., et al. Lung and blood superoxide dismutase activity in mercury vapor exposed rats: effect of N-acetylcysteine treatment. Toxicology. Vol. 66, no. 3 (March 11, 1991). p. 289-295
(23) Ashe, W.F., et al. Behavior of mercury in the animal organism following inhalation. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 17 (1953). p. 19-43
(24) Danielsson, B.R.G., et al. Behaviourial effects of prenatal metallic mercury inhalation exposure in rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. Vol. 15, no. 6 (Nov. 1993). p. 391-396
(25) Fredriksson, A., et al. Behaviourial effects of neonatal metallic mercury exposure in rats. Toxicology. Vol. 74, no. 2,3 (Sept. 1992). p. 151-160
(26) Baranski, B., et al. Effects of mercury vapours upon reproductive function on white female rats. English summary. Medycyna Pracy. Vol. 24 (1973). p. 260
(27) DeVito, S.C. Mercury. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 16. John Wiley and Sons, 1995. p. 212-228
(28) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(29) Simon, M.,et al. Mercury, mercury alloys, and mercury compounds. In: Ullmann’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 16. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1990. p. 269-298
(30) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 2. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988
(31) Budavari, S, ed. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 12th ed. Merck and Co., Inc., 1996
(32) HSDB record for mercury. Last revision date: 97/08/13
(33) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick’s handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995
(34) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 491
(35) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985
(36) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(37) European Communities. Commission Directive 98/98/EC. Dec. 15, 1998
(38) Littner, M.M., et al. Occupational hazards in the dental office and their control. II Measures for controlling mercury intoxication. Quintessence International. Vol. 14, no. 2 (Feb. 1983). p. 221-224
(39) Anonymous. Recommendations on dental mercury hygiene: revision of FDI Technical Report No. 7 International Dental Journal. Vol. 38, no. 3 (Sept. 1988). p. 191-192
Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.
Review/Preparation Date: 1998-06-22
EU Class 2000-04-01
EU Risk 2000-04-01
EU Safety 2000-04-01
WHMIS health effects 2002-05-14
WHMIS detailed classification 2002-05-14
WHMIS classification comments 2003-05-13
Important New Information 2003-05-13
First aid skin 2003-05-16
Personal hygiene 2003-05-26
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-19
TLV basis 2004-01-04
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-06