How Does CBD Oil Help Dogs With Itchy Skin?
- CBD’s pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties (1) makes it a popular alternative for pet owners to use for soothing their dog’s itchy skin.
- A dog’s itchy skin is caused by external factors or underlying diseases, such as allergies, infections, or parasites(2).
When a dog experiences an allergic reaction or infection, its immune system sends antibodies to address the invading allergen or microorganism, resulting in inflammation(3).
- CBD works jointly with the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is responsible for activating CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties. All mammals, including dogs, possess the ECS(4).
- A study published in the American Journal of Veterinary Research showed how targeting a dog’s ECS might protect against the effects of allergic inflammatory diseases(5).
- However, studies have yet to verify the ability of CBD to alleviate skin itchiness in dogs.
Dog owners must seek the advice of a veterinarian before administering CBD oil to dogs with itchy skin.
Best CBD Oils for Dogs With Itchy Skin
Dog-Friendly CBD Oil
Overall Clinical Score99%
Spruce’s dog-friendly CBD has been specially formulated for dogs. Instead of hemp seed oil for the carrier oil, the product contains coconut oil, which is generally easier on the digestion for dogs. The taste is also milder with no flavorings, making it more likely that dogs will eat it with their food.
Using Spruce CBD for dogs is simple. All owners have to do is sprinkle the desired dose on the dog’s food at mealtime once or twice a day. Each dose should consist of about two to three drops per 20 pounds of dog weight.
-  Same as human lab grade, full spectrum CBD oil
-  Easier on Dog's digestion
-  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
-  No other flavors
Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS Source Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA Form Oil Ingredients Full Spectrum Organic CBD Oil, Organic Coconut MCT Oil Type Full Spectrum Extraction Moonshine extraction method How to take it Squirt 2 to 3 drops per 20lbs. of dog weight on the dog food one to two times per day. Picky eaters may need it stirred in, or covered with some food Up to 25lbs./11kg – 2 drops one to two times per day on the dog food 25-50lbs./11-23kg – 4 drops one to two times per day on the dog food 50-75lbs./23-34kg – 6 drops one to two times per day on the dog food Over 75lbs./34kg – 8+ drops one to two times per day on the dog food Potency 750 mg per bottle Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil Concentration 25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml) Drug Test Not applicable Flavours Natural Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price) $/mg CBD $0.11 ($0.10/mg with subscription) Shipping 2-4 business days (first class USPS) Lab Tests Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners Allergens Contains tree nuts (Coconut) Refund policy Within 30 days Recommended for All dog breeds Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
We believe that all pets also deserve only the best and the highest quality in healthy ingredients.
Overall Clinical Score99%
HolistaPet CBD Oil only use all-natural, non-GMO organic & vegan ingredients and never put any wheat, animal by-products, cornmeal, artificial flavors or colors in any of the products.
-  100% natural
-  Formulated specifically for Pets
-  Organic Superfoods +CBD
-  A little bit pricey compared to other brands
Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS Source Colorado, USA Form Oil Tincture Ingredients Hempseed Oil and CBD Oil (Cannabidiol) Type Full Spectrum Extraction CO2 Extraction How to take it Easily drop directly into mouth or in water/food Potency 150mg - 3000mg Carrier Oil Hempseed Oil Concentration 5mg - 50mg Drug Test Not Applicable Flavours None Price Range $25.95 – $144.95 $/mg CBD $0.04 - $0.17 Shipping Free Economy Shipping - 1 to 5 days; Priority Mail Shipping - 2 to 3 days Lab Tests Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website Contaminants Pesticide-free Allergens Non-dairy, Non GMO and gluten free Refund policy Within 30 days Recommended for All cats/dogs sizes and breeds Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Perfectly formulated CBD for Dogs, Cats, and other four-legged animals
Overall Clinical Score99%
CBD for dogs, cats and other four-legged friends! Our product is concentrated to approximately 60mg cannabinoids per milliliter of oil. While this product is designed for pets, it’s great for humans, too.
-  Pure CBD hemp
-  All natural
-  No other flavors
Discount pricing available? CBDCLINICALS20 Source Colorado, USA Form Oil Tincture Ingredients USDA Certified Organic Hemp Oil, Full Spectrum Hemp Extract Type Full Spectrum CBD Extraction CO2 Method How to take it 2-3 drops per 20lbs Potency 300mg - 900mg Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil Concentration 60ml per dropper full (1ml) Drug Test Not applicable Flavours Natural Price Range $38.50 - $179.50 $/mg CBD $0.12 - $0.19 Shipping 2-3 Days via USPS Lab Tests Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers Allergens Not specified Refund policy Within 30 days Recommended for All four-legged animals of any size and breed Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Powerful CBD oil for your canine friends
Overall Clinical Score99%
With nothing but MCT oil combined with CBD oil sourced from U.S. hemp that is grown using organic farming methods, these CBD Oil Tinctures for Dogs can be added to their favorite foods while still providing the same effects that you enjoy. We have two flavors to choose from: Natural and Peanut Butter.
-  Same CBD Oil benefits as for humans
-  No THC Animal-specific products (dogs, cats, horses)
-  Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp
-  Low terpene and cannabinoid profile
Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15 Source Kentucky, USA Form Oil Tincture Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD) and MCT Oil (from palm kernel oil) Type Broad Spectrum Extraction CO2 extraction method How to take it Every dog is unique, so you need to experiment a bit to work out the optimum measurement. Start by giving your pet a small amount every day and watch for improvement. If need be, gradually increase. Potency 150 mg - 3000 mg Carrier Oil MCT Oil (from palm kernel oil) Concentration 150 mg - 5 mg per dropper (1ml), 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml), 750 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 50 mg per dropper (1ml), 3000 mg - 100 mg per dropper (1ml) Drug Test Not applicable Flavours Natural and Peanut Butter Price Range $19.99 - $149.99 $/mg CBD $0.05 - $0.13 Shipping 2-5 Business days (via Fedex) Lab Tests Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified Allergens Vegan, Gluten free Refund policy Within 30 days Recommended for All dog breeds and sizes Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Pets can enjoy the same full CBD benefits as humans.
Overall Clinical Score99%
CBDistillery’s Full Spectrum CBD Oil Pet Tinctures were made with your pets in mind. Formulated with cold-pressed hemp seed oil, your pets can now enjoy all of the same benefits of CBD that you do.
-  60-Day Satisfaction Guarantee
-  Hemp seed oil is safe for pets and aids in easy digestion
-  Oil extracted from aerial plant parts of US grown industrial hemp
-  Sourced from non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the USA through natural farming practices
-  Dropper is a bit shaky
Discount pricing available? Save an extra 15% sitewide with code CBDCLINICALS15 Source Colorado, USA Form Oil Tincture Ingredients Hemp Seed Oil, CO2 Hemp Extract (Aerial Parts) Type Oil Tincture Extraction CO2 extraction How to take it Shake well. Give suggested dose at each meal at least twice per day. Suggested serving by weight: Under 25 lbs: 0.5 mL (10mg), 25-75 lbs: 0.5 – 1mL (10-20mg), Over 75 lbs: 1 – 2mL (20-40mg) Potency 150mg - 600mg Carrier Oil Hemp Seed Oil Concentration 5mg - 20mg per full serving (1ml) Drug Test Not applicable Flavours None Price Range $20 - $38 $/mg CBD $0.06 - $0.13 Shipping Standard UPS Shipping ships up to 5 business days Lab Tests Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website Contaminants Contaminant-free Allergens Allergen-free Refund policy Within 60 days Recommended for All dogs and cats breeds and sizes Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Why Dog Owners Are Turning to CBD Oil for Dogs With Itchy Skin
CBD oil’s documented pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties (6) have made it a popular remedy for pet owners to use on dogs experiencing itchy skin.
Like humans, dogs also experience skin problems, like itchy skin. The official medical term for the itchiness experienced by dogs is pruritus, and the MSD Veterinary Manual defines it as an irritable feeling that prompts dogs to scratch their skin(7).
Pooches with pruritus are observed to scratch, rub, bite, or lick the affected area, causing them discomfort.
The itchiness may not only be confined to one specific area, as dogs can experience itchiness all over their body.
Itchy skin afflicting pet dogs is only one sign of a possible underlying medical condition, the MSD Veterinary Manual warns.
Many factors can cause itchy skin in dogs. Common causes include parasites, infections, and dog allergies.
Dog allergies are also commonly observed in veterinary practice due to the myriad of external factors that can act as potential allergens(8).
Potential allergens can come from the environment, or parasites, like mites and fleas. These external factors can then trigger an allergic reaction.
Dust, pollen, mold, and dander (dead skin shed by animals), act as irritants to the furry animals, and may cause allergic dermatitis, or atopic dermatitis, a common type of dog allergy.
Dust and pollen, in particular, are most prevalent during springtime, and can also trigger seasonal allergies.
Other than itchy skin, dogs experiencing seasonal allergies can also have swollen eyes, a runny nose, and fits of sneezing.
Meanwhile, bites from parasites, like fleas and dust mites, can cause acute moist dermatitis or hot spots.
Hot spots usually appear as moist, red, inflamed, and itchy skin. They are usually self-inflicted by the pooches themselves as a reaction to the irritating dust mites and flea bites(9).
On the other hand, the MSD Veterinary Manual also cites fungal and bacterial infections as other possible causes of itchiness in dogs(10).
In addition to itching, dogs suffering from an infection may also experience hair loss, unpleasant odor, and fluid discharge.
A pooch with yeast or bacterial infection scratches, rubs, or licks its face and feet without control.
When dogs experience allergic reactions or infections, their immune system releases an inflammatory response to address the external entity, causing harm to its body(11).
The use of CBD oil may help alleviate the symptoms of allergies in dogs.
The dog’s immune system releases an abundant number of antibodies to attack the invader allergen or bacteria, triggering inflammation(12).
CBD’s documented anti-inflammatory properties (13) may be vital in alleviating itchy skin in dogs with skin allergies or infections.
The anti-inflammatory effects of CBD occur due to its interactions with the endocannabinoid system (ECS).
The ECS is a system that regulates various bodily processes and is present in all mammals, including dogs(14).
However, studies on the effects of CBD on dogs with itchy skin are lacking. To date, there is limited evidence to support that CBD’s anti-inflammatory effects may help alleviate itching sensations in the dog’s body.
However, one significant study published in the American Journal of veterinary research found ECS as a potential target in mitigating the effects of allergic inflammatory diseases in various animals(15).
In the study, researchers used skin samples from five dogs with atopic dermatitis and five dogs with healthy skin.
The researchers found that targeting the ECS can protect dogs’ bodies against the effects of inflammation caused by skin allergies.
Various dog owners have also reported positive feedback in using CBD as an alternative option in helping to relieve dogs of itchy skin.
Still, pet owners must consult with a veterinarian before administering CBD oil to their dogs.
Dog allergies and infections are worrying diseases that can become severe when left untreated.
How CBD Oil Works to Help Dogs With Itchy Skin
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is critical in understanding how CBD oil works for dogs that experience itchy skin.
The ECS is a biological system that plays an essential role in regulating the various bodily processes of all mammals, including dogs(16).
In particular, the ECS helps regulate pain, memory, mood, sleep, metabolism, and immune response(17).
It is composed of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors, and enzymes.
CB1 and CB2 receptors are the ECS’ two primary receptors.
CB1 receptors are commonly situated in the brain and nervous system. However, they also exist in tissues and the endocrine gland.
Meanwhile, CB2 receptors are most abundant in the immune system.
Endocannabinoids, on the other hand, are neurotransmitters that function as signals. When endocannabinoids bind with receptors, a specific action can be triggered.
One study linked CB2 receptors to various immune events, particularly inflammation(18).
CB2 receptors hindered bodily inflammation by limiting the number of signals that could trigger immune responses, including allergic reactions.
One study published in The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics found that using CBD to activate CB2 receptors suppressed the effects of allergic contact dermatitis(19).
Areas of the skin affected with allergic contact dermatitis can also turn red and itchy skin(20).
One study linked atopic dermatitis (itchy skin allergies in dogs) as the cause of long-term itching in dogs(21).
Researchers from Switzerland have also illustrated how CBD’s interaction with CB2 receptors may indirectly contribute to its anti-inflammatory actions(22).
However, research has yet to investigate whether CBD is effective in soothing dogs’ itchy skin.
CBD or cannabidiol is a phytocannabinoid, a type of cannabinoid found naturally occurring in the Cannabis sativa plant.
CBD is only one of the hundreds of phytocannabinoids found in the Cannabis plant.
Tetrahydrocannabinol or THC is another popular example.
However, unlike its famous counterpart, CBD is non-psychoactive. Hence, CBD does not possess the psychoactive properties that cause THC users to experience a euphoric ‘high’ effect.
CBD is an extract from the hemp plant, one of the varieties of the Cannabis sativa plant. Hemp plants contain less than 0.3% THC.
As a result, hemp extracts, like CBD, retain the cannabis plant’s medicinal properties without the disadvantageous psychoactive effects that worry dog owners.
The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Dogs With Itchy Skin
- CBD may provide relief to dogs with itchy skin because of its interactions with the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which all mammals have(23).
- Due to CBD’s relationship with the ECS, administering CBD to dogs can also boost the pooches’ skin health, as phytocannabinoids, including CBD, help promote homeostasis (processes that keep the body stable)(24).
- A study concluded that CBD has an excellent safety record for both animals and humans(25).
In particular, various human and animal research reviewed in the study suggests that CBD is non-toxic and does not affect appetite, heart rate, temperature, and blood pressure.
The study also states that controlled administration of CBD may be safe for both humans and animals.
- A report on the adverse effects of CBD administration on healthy canines found that healthy adult dogs tolerated CBD oil well(26).
- Another study investigating cannabinoid therapies on animals suggests that providing dogs omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids can be beneficial for the pooches since they cannot produce these fatty acids naturally(27).
The European Food Information Council cites the ability of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to regulate the body’s blood pressure and inflammatory responses(28).
Full-spectrum CBD oil’s ingredients include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
- CBD is gaining traction in the United States. As a result, a variety of CBD products are now readily available for dog owners.
CBD tincture, oil drops, and sprays allow for easy administration.
Meanwhile, topical balms, creams, and salves let dog owners apply CBD oil onto a targeted area of the pooch’s skin.
CBD dog treats are also a convenient way of administering CBD to pet dogs.
- There is yet to be a study on the effects of CBD administered to dogs suffering from itchy skin. Limited scientific evidence supports the ability of CBD to alleviate itchiness experienced by dogs.
- CBD is known to interact negatively with other drugs taken alongside it. A study on cannabinoid therapies for animals suggests that the same may happen for dogs(29).
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet approved CBD use for animals(30).
Dog owners should first seek advice from a veterinarian before administering CBD oil to dogs with itchy skin.
- The same report detailing the adverse effects of CBD administration on healthy pooches notes that while the canine subjects had no significant negative side effects, most of the dogs experienced diarrhea(31).
The American Kennel Club’s chief veterinary officer, Dr. Jerry Klein, also lists low blood pressure, dry mouth, and drowsiness as possible side effects of CBD(32).
How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Options for Dogs With Itchy Skin
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Karen Moriello states that in veterinary practice, itchiness in a dog’s skin is commonly treated with antihistamines(33).
However, antihistamines’ success rate in treating dogs’ itchy skin is highly inconsistent.
Dr. Moriello also states that current available veterinary research does not recommend using antihistamines to provide relief to itchiness experienced by dogs.
However, Moriello cites essential oils as an alternative treatment for dogs that experience itchy skin.
Lavender oil, peppermint, thyme, orange, and chamomile are among the most popular essential oils dog owners use to help alleviate the itchiness and discomfort experienced by their pet animals.
A 2017 study published in the International Journal of Molecular Science explains how skin diseases are accompanied by impaired skin barriers, resulting in dry and irritated skin(34).
A crippled skin barrier is more vulnerable to irritants, allergens, and microorganisms, like bacteria and fungi, which contribute to the development of inflammation.
Non-profit organization, Project CBD, explains that commercial skincare products contain chemicals that can further irritate the skin(35).
The non-profit organization then illustrates how plant-based oils have been used for centuries by many cultures and are a natural option for promoting skin health.
The program director of integrative medicine at Sibley Memorial Hospital, Harpreet Gujral, also explains that while essential oils may not work for everyone, there is no harm in trying the products as long as they are used safely(36).
CBD is also a plant extract, as it is derived from the hemp plant. Certain CBD products also contain essential oils, like lavender and orange oils.
Carrier oils, such as coconut oil, have also been used to help treat dogs’ skin conditions, like hot spots and itchy, dry skin(37).
One particular study detailed the effectiveness of topical formulations of argan oil (a carrier oil) and CBD in reducing the symptoms of various kinds of dermatitis (skin irritation), including dry skin and skin inflammations caused by insect bites(38).
However, pet owners should be aware that CBD is not a miracle cure for dogs’ allergies, infections, or skin problems.
How to Choose the Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Itchy Skin
Dog owners should know what to look for when choosing the best CBD product to alleviate the itchiness experienced by their pet dogs.
When picking CBD products for dogs with itchy skin, consider the following:
- Pet owners are recommended to choose full-spectrum CBD oil, as it contains the most active cannabinoid and natural extracts from the cannabis plant.
Full-spectrum CBD oil also contains omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that can be beneficial to dogs as these help regulate blood pressure and inflammatory responses(39).
- The 2018 Farm Bill authorized industrial hemp production, as well as the distribution of CBD products in different states. However, it is still crucial to check the legal provisions of the state where the CBD product is going to be bought from and used.
- Prioritize purchasing organic and non-GMO CBD products as these are suggestive of high quality.
- Buy only from legitimate CBD brands and sellers with excellent ethical standards, validated manufacturing processes (cGMP), and a COA (certificate of analysis). Certified CBD brands and sellers should also possess third-party lab certificates of analysis for every batch of CBD oil produced.
- High-quality CBD products are extracted using CO2 technology. This method is currently the safest and cleanest way to extract all ingredients from the hemp plant.
- For maximum safety and effectiveness, remember to check reviews and feedback on both the brand and the product. These reviews and feedback should serve as the basis of whether a product is of good quality or not.
CBD Dosage for Dogs
There is yet to be a standardized CBD dosage chart or guide for dogs experiencing itchy skin or allergies, as the FDA has not yet approved CBD use for animals(40).
The consensus among CBD users is to give pets a small initial dose and gradually increase until the desired effects are met.
However, the safest route is to simply follow the dosage instructions provided by the CBD company and manufacturer.
Legitimate CBD brands and companies have their specialized CBD dosage chart and guide.
They provide detailed dosage information for dog owners who wish to use CBD to alleviate the itchiness experienced by their pets.
Regular doses can help improve the pooch’s overall skin health. In contrast, “strong” doses are administered for dogs experiencing medical conditions like allergies.
Dog owners should seek the opinion of a veterinarian before administering CBD to their pet dogs.
How Dogs With Itchy Skin Can Take CBD Oil
A variety of CBD products that can help dogs with itchy skin now exist on the market.
Pet owners can administer CBD oil to their dogs either orally (taken by the mouth) or topically (applied on the skin).
Through the Mouth
CBD oil tinctures, oil drops, and sprays let dog owners apply CBD oil into the dog’s mouth, or mixed with their food.
CBD treats are also readily available for pets. CBD-infused dog treats are a convenient way of giving dogs CBD oil. Dog owners can simply feed the dog treats to their pooch and wait for the effects to take place.
On the Skin
It is also safe to apply CBD oil directly to the dog’s skin, which is affected by itchiness or hot spots.
Topical CBD products like creams, salves, balms, and sprays allow the dog owners to administer CBD onto the affected areas of the skin.
Most CBD brands recommend administering a low dose of CBD oil twice a day for maximum effectiveness.
Dog owners are using CBD oil as a natural, alternative option for soothing the itchy skin experienced by their pet animals.
Dogs’ itchy skin is often a sign of hidden diseases, such as dog allergies and infections.
CBD’s documented anti-inflammatory properties can help alleviate the itchiness experienced by dogs with allergies or infections.
However, limited scientific evidence supports the effectiveness of CBD in mitigating skin itchiness.
Dog owners must first seek advice from a veterinarian before administering CBD oil to their pet animals.
- Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European journal of pain (London, England), 20(6), 936–948. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.818
- Moriello, Karen. (2018). Itching (Pruritus) in Dogs. Retrieved from: https://www.msdvetmanual.com/dog-owners/skin-disorders-of-dogs/itching-pruritus-in-dogs
- Galli, S. J., Tsai, M., & Piliponsky, A. M. (2008). The development of allergic inflammation. Nature, 454(7203), 445–454. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07204
- McPartland, J. M., Matias, I., Di Marzo, V., & Glass, M. (2006). Evolutionary origins of the endocannabinoid system. Gene, 370, 64–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2005.11.004
- Campora, L., Miragliotta, V., Ricci, E., Cristino, L., Di Marzo, V., Albanese, F., Federica Della Valle, M., & Abramo, F. (2012). Cannabinoid receptor type 1 and 2 expression in the skin of healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis. American journal of veterinary research, 73(7), 988–995. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.73.7.988
- Hammell, D. C. et al. op. cit.
- Moriello, Karen. op. cit.
- Dopierała, Marta & Andraszek, Katarzyna. (2019). THE MOST COMMON ALLERGIC DISEASES IN DOGS. Folia Pomeranae Universitatis Technologiae Stetinensis Agricultura, Alimentaria, Piscaria et Zootechnica. 348(49)1. 47-56. 10.21005/AAPZ2019.49.1.05.
- The People’s Dispensary for Sick Animals. (2018, October). Hot spots (acute moist dermatitis) in dogs. Retrieved from: https://www.pdsa.org.uk/taking-care-of-your-pet/pet-health-hub/conditions/hot-spots-acute-moist-dermatitis-in-dogs
- Moriello, Karen. op. cit.
- Galli, S. J. et al. op. cit.
- Tizard, Ian. (2018). Immune System Responses in Dogs. Retrieved from: https://www.msdvetmanual.com/dog-owners/immune-disorders-of-dogs/immune-system-responses-in-dogs
- Bruni, N., Della Pepa, C., Oliaro-Bosso, S., Pessione, E., Gastaldi, D., & Dosio, F. (2018). Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(10), 2478. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102478
- UCLA Health. Human Endocannabinoid System. Retrieved from https://www.uclahealth.org/cannabis/human-endocannabinoid-system; McPartland JM, Matias I, Di Marzo V, Glass M. Evolutionary origins of the endocannabinoid system. Gene. 2006;370:64-74.doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2005.11.004
- Campora, L. et al. op. cit.
- UCLA Health. op. cit.
- Zou, S., & Kumar, U. (2018). Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. International journal of molecular sciences, 19(3), 833. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030833
- Cabral, G. A., & Griffin-Thomas, L. (2009). Emerging role of the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in immune regulation: therapeutic prospects for neuroinflammation. Expert reviews in molecular medicine, 11, e3. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1462399409000957
- Petrosino, S., Verde, R., Vaia, M., Allarà, M., Iuvone, T., & Di Marzo, V. (2018). Anti-inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoid, in Experimental Allergic Contact Dermatitis. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 365(3), 652–663. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.117.244368
- Oakley, Amanda. (2016). Allergic contact dermatitis. Retrieved from: https://dermnetnz.org/topics/allergic-contact-dermatitis/
- Harvey, N. D., Craigon, P. J., Shaw, S. C., Blott, S. C., & England, G. (2019). Behavioural Differences in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis Suggest Stress Could Be a Significant Problem Associated with Chronic Pruritus. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(10), 813. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100813
- Atalay, S., Jarocka-Karpowicz, I., & Skrzydlewska, E. (2019). Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 9(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010021
- McPartland, J. M. et al. op. cit.
- Kunos, G., Osei-Hyiaman, D., Liu, J., Godlewski, G., & Bátkai, S. (2008). Endocannabinoids and the control of energy homeostasis. The Journal of biological chemistry, 283(48), 33021–33025. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.R800012200
- Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Zuardi, A. W., & Crippa, J. A. (2011). Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Current drug safety, 6(4), 237–249. https://doi.org/10.2174/157488611798280924
- McGrath S, Bartner L, Rao S, et al (2018) A report of adverse effects associated with the administration of cannabidiol in healthy dogs. J Am Holistic Vet Med Assoc. Fall 2018
- Hartsel, Joshua & Boyar, Kyle & Pham, Andrew & Silver, Robert & Makriyannis, Alexandros. (2019). Cannabis in Veterinary Medicine: Cannabinoid Therapies for Animals. 10.1007/978-3-030-04624-8_10
- The European Food Information Council. (2019). The importance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Retrieved from: https://www.eufic.org/en/whats-in-food/article/the-importance-of-omega-3-and-omega-6-fatty-acids
- Hartsel, Joshua et al. op. cit.
- US FDA. (2020, March 11). FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd.
- McGrath S. et al. op. cit.
- Kriss R. (2019, Oct 27). The American Kennel Club. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
- Moriello, Karen. op. cit.
- Lin, T. K., Zhong, L., & Santiago, J. L. (2017). Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils. International journal of molecular sciences, 19(1), 70. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010070
- Misuraca, Melinda. (2019). HOW TO MAKE A CBD TOPICAL FOR HEALTHY SKIN. Retrieved from: https://www.projectcbd.org/make-cbd-topical
- Gujral, Harpreet. (n.d.) Aromatherapy: Do Essential Oils Really Work?. Retrieved from: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/aromatherapy-do-essential-oils-really-work
- Reisan, Jan. (2017). Coconut Oil for Dogs: Is it Really Good for Them?. Retrieved from: https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/is-coconut-oil-good-for-dogs/
- Shemanski M.E. Formulations of Argan Oil and Cannabidiol for Treating Inflammatory Disorders Including Arthritis. WO2017160923A1. 2017 Sep 21;
- The European Food Information Council. op. cit.
- 40. US FDA. op. cit.