Can CBD Help With Cerebral Palsy?

  • A study posted on the Journal of Child Neurology found that CBD treatments significantly reduced cerebral palsy symptoms, such as dystonia, spasticity, sleep disturbances, and pain (1).
  • Prescribed muscle relaxant and anti-convulsant agents have been shown to produce side effects among patients with spasticity (2). Studies demonstrated CBD’s efficacy in reducing spasms led to a decrease in prescription medicine usage (3).
  • A 2019 study found that adults with CP have higher risks of anxiety, insomnia, and depression (4). CBD has been found to possess anxiolytic, sleep-promoting (5), and antidepressant properties (6)
  • Due to inactivity, adults with CP are at risk for hypertension and arthritis (7). Studies have shown that CBD has therapeutic potentials in alleviating high blood pressure (8) and joint pain (9)
  • Studies have shown that children with CP have a high risk of developing seizure disorders (10). Researchers confirmed CBD’s efficacy in treating epileptic seizures, especially in pediatric age (11).

Best CBD Oil for Cerebral Palsy

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for New CBD users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
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Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Score breakdown
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  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
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Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Customer Service
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
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Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Various delicious flavors to choose from
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Free shipping for this particular product within USA
    •  World-class customer service team
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1500mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    Flavours Natural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range $99.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Daily CBD oil users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
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Can CBD Really Help With Cerebral Palsy?

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a congenital condition affecting movements, muscle tone, and body posture. This lifelong condition is diagnosed during infancy or early childhood. 

The primary cause of CP is a brain injury or malformation during neonatal development (12).

Symptoms of cerebral palsy include muscle contractions, spasticity, lack of muscle coordination and balance, involuntary movements, speech delay, learning difficulties, lack of motor skills, and tremors

The types of cerebral palsy depends on the symptoms presented by the individual. 

Spastic cerebral palsy presents with spasms. Axatic cerebral palsy causes trouble with muscle coordination and balance. Dyskinetic cerebral palsy causes involuntary movements.

CP treatment options include surgical procedures, physiotherapy, botox injections, or oral muscle relaxants, such as diazepam, dantrolene, and baclofen (13).

However, muscle relaxants have several side effects, including lightheadedness, lack of muscle control (ataxia), blurred vision, and depression (14)

Moreover, individuals taking muscle relaxants are also at risk of dependency and withdrawal symptoms (15).

Meanwhile, CBD has potential health benefits that may be useful for people with CP. 

CBD vs. Spasticity

Currently, there is only one direct study on cannabidiol’s (CBD) therapeutic effects on cerebral palsy symptoms.

The Wolfson Medical Center conducted a clinical trial using CBD and THC (with ratios 20 to 1 and 6 to 1) on children with cerebral palsy (CP)

The study, led by child neurologist, Dr. Luba Blumkin, found that the CBD treatment significantly reduced dystonia, spasticity, sleep difficulties, and pain among CP patients (16).

The clinical trial’s result was supported by other studies on CBD’s efficacy in treating motor disorders

A 2018 study posted in Neurological Disorders mentioned that CBD, with the combination of THC, reduced spasticity in human subjects (17). The authors attributed this hypothesis to CBD’s neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxant properties (18)

CP and multiple sclerosis have often been studied together due to similarities in muscle spasms and stiffness symptoms exhibited by the conditions (19). Researchers mention that both conditions cause upper neuron motor dysfunction (20)

A 2015 review indicated that the first-line treatment for both conditions involved muscle relaxant and anti-convulsant agents (21)

However, the authors noted that young children and the elderly displayed adverse effects from the treatments (22)

A study posted by Frontiers in Neurology has noted that CBD treatments improved mobility and reduced spasticity among multiple sclerosis patients. Moreover, CBD’s efficacy significantly reduced the usage of prescription medicines (23)

CBD vs. Cerebral Palsy-Associated Conditions

CBD might also potentially treat other conditions associated with CP.

Studies mention that 23-46% of children with CP experience sleep disturbances. These are usually caused by the child’s immobility and pain (24)

Due to inactivity, adults with CP have higher risks of anxiety, depression (25), cardiovascular disorders, and rheumatoid arthritis (26)

Lastly, studies have shown that children with CP have a high risk of developing seizure disorders. The authors indicated that spastic tetraplegia, a form of cerebral palsy, might be associated with seizures (27)

A study found that CBD reduced depression in human subjects (28). Moreover, studies found that CBD has therapeutic potential in treating high blood pressure (29) and arthritis (30).

A study posted by the Permanente Journal also demonstrated CBD’s efficacy in reducing anxiety scores and improving insomnia among human subjects. The authors observed that among the 72 adults who participated, 79.2% had reduced anxiety, while 66.7% improved their sleep scores (31).

Lastly, researchers confirmed CBD’s efficacy in treating epileptic seizures, especially in pediatric age (32). The epileptic drug, Epidiolex, is the first FDA-approved CBD drug used to treat rare forms of epilepsy (33)

How CBD Oil Works to Help With Cerebral Palsy

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is studied for its role in maintaining homeostasis in the human body. Studies have acknowledged that activation of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, plays a role in modulating functions in the central nervous system (34)

Researchers indicated the high density of cannabinoid receptors in the cerebellum and basal ganglia (areas that control motor function) (35)

Studies showed that CB1 expression plays a role in motor function and spasticity among patients with neurodegenerative disorders (36).  

A study released by Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders has shown that CB1 receptors in the CNS pathways are targets that can deliver antispastic effects. The author added that treatments using cannabinoids might potentially stimulate these targets (37)

Moreover, CB2 expression has been observed to block inflammatory cytokines (proteins released by cells) in the central nervous system (CNS). Studies explained that inflammation in the CNS might be the cause of various symptoms, such as tremors and spasms (38).  

Still, more studies are needed to learn how cannabinoids might influence the ECS and CNS of cerebral palsy patients.

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Cerebral Palsy

The Pros

  • CBD treatments significantly reduced cerebral palsy symptoms, such as dystonia, spasticity, sleep difficulties, and pain (39).
  • CBD’s efficacy in reducing spasms led to decreased usage of muscle relaxant and anti-convulsant agents (40).
  • CBD might reduce anxiety, insomnia (41), and depression in adults with CP (42).  
  • CBD has therapeutic potentials in lowering blood pressure (43) and alleviating joint pain (44)
  • CBD’s efficacy in treating seizures has been proven by studies (45).
  • CBD has been acknowledged to have an excellent safety profile for human consumption (46).  

The Cons

  • CBD may cause side effects, such as drowsiness, loss of appetite, and dry mouth (47).
  • A recent study discovered that high CBD dosage caused hepatotoxicity (liver damage) in rat models (48)

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Cerebral Palsy

The echinacea plant has been traditionally used as an alternative or complementary medicine for CP(49)

Some of the herb’s medicinal claims include improved blood circulation, neural connections, and reduced spasticity. However, until studies prove otherwise, echinacea’s clinical value remains to be seen . 

B12 and omega-3 fatty acid vitamins have been recognized to improve cognitive function. A 2017 study mentioned that early intervention using B12 and omega 3 supplements might improve cognitive functions (50)

CT scans demonstrated this hypothesis following B12 and omega-3 treatments. Children who have hypertonia (muscle stiffness), brain atrophy, and delayed milestones and speech displayed improvements in neuroimaging results (51).

Zingiber officinale (ginger) had been studied for its potential to improve brain functions. A study indicated that ginger root extracts enhanced both attentive and cognitive processing in human subjects (52)

Although CBD has not been shown to improve children’s learning capabilities, it has been acknowledged for its neuroprotective properties (53)

A study posted by the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology indicated that CBD reduced hypoxia-ischemia (brain damage) and improved brain function in animal models (54)

Moreover, CBD has been observed to possess muscle relaxant properties that might be useful in alleviating hypertonia (55).

How to Choose the Best CBD Oil for Cerebral Palsy

The recommended CBD oil for individuals with CP is the full-spectrum.

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all the major cannabinoids in hemp, such as CBD, cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). 

Together, these compounds create a cannabinoid synergy known as the “entourage effect.”

A review published in Frontiers in Plant Science indicated that the entourage effect increased the activity of ECS receptors (56).

The author also explained how CBD, combined with other cannabinoids, displayed high efficacy compared to isolated compounds (57).

Another study demonstrated the entourage effect through a controlled trial on patients with chronic pain (58)

The authors found that THC treatment failed to reduce pain scores significantly. However, treatments containing THC and CBD showed better results (59).

Individuals who want to experience the entourage effect without THC may opt for broad-spectrum CBD. Broad-spectrum contains all the same compounds from full-spectrum except THC

Cannabis products, such as medical marijuana and cannabis oil, are high in THC. Depending on the dispensary, some cannabis products may contain 28% THC (60).

In the United States, CBD products are prohibited from carrying more than 0.3% THC (61)

Individuals who want to take CBD as monotherapy may opt for CBD isolates (99% pure CBD). 

Additional tips to consider before buying CBD:

  • Look for the product’s certificate of analysis (COA) to determine cannabinoid content and safety profile.
  • Do thorough research and check testimonials and reviews of CBD brands.
  • Send inquiries to the customer service department for more information.

CBD Dosage for Cerebral Palsy

More studies are needed to find the appropriate CBD dosage for CP symptoms. However, for any medical condition, experts recommend that first-time CBD users start with a low dose and gradually increase when the body gets used to CBD.

A study posted by the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology collected thousands of clinical CBD dosing data on various health conditions (62)

The authors indicated that appropriate dosing might range from 1 to 50 milligrams per kilogram a day (63).

Moreover, Pharmacology and Pharmacy shared a study explaining that CBD has a bell-shaped dose-response. The authors observed that a limited CBD dose was enough to produce significant results (64)

A study from Frontiers of Pharmacology supported the bell-shaped dose-response. The authors observed that the 300mg dose reduced anxiety scores better than 150mg and 600mg dosings (65)

However, individuals with CP must practice caution when experimenting with CBD dosage. 

A study released by Molecules found that extremely high CBD doses can cause liver damage in rat models (66)

How to Take CBD Oil for Cerebral Palsy

The most straightforward administration for individuals with CP is through oral or sublingual delivery. 

Oral CBD products include capsules, softgels, and gummies. Individuals may take oral CBD with or without a meal. 

Sublingual delivery methods are available through CBD tinctures. CBD may be taken by using an applicator to put a few drops under the tongue.

Studies have shown that sublingual and oral administration allows plasma concentration to last three to four hours after intake (67).

Moreover, taking CBD through oral and sublingual administration was observed to provide high plasma concentrations when taken with a meal. However, CBD intake during an empty stomach produced faster results (68)

CBD smoke or vapor inhalation is another way of taking CBD. While it is not recommended for children with CP, it may be an option for adults who have the approval of their licensed physicians. 

The lungs are very efficient in absorbing CBD into the body. There is evidence that vaping or smoking delivered plasma concentrations into the bloodstream in less than 10 minutes (69)

Vaping or smoking CBD may be useful for quick relief from pain, severe spasms, or tremors. However, vaping may present some side effects, such as shortness of breath, chest pain, chemical irritation, and allergic reactions (70)

Conclusion

Cerebral palsy is a lifelong condition. Recommended treatments, alternative, and complementary medicine are only utilized to improve the quality of life

Studies have shown that CBD significantly reduced cerebral palsy symptoms, such as dystonia, spastic movements, sleep difficulties, and pain (71).

CBD’s efficacy in reducing spasms led to a decreased use of muscle relaxant and anti-convulsant agents (72)

Moreover, studies have shown that CBD might be useful in treating medical conditions that may arise due to CP, such as high blood pressure (73), arthritis (74), and seizures (75)

Researchers have shown that CBD might improve mental health due to its sleep-promoting, anxiolytic (76), and antidepressant properties (77).  

Whatever medication is being used, individuals with CP must take the necessary measures to improve mobility and function. Participating in physical therapy, rehabilitation (78), and speech therapy (79) may positively impact their quality of life. 

Individuals with CP must consult with a licensed physician before taking CBD into their daily regimen.


  1. Libzon, S., Schleider, L. B.-L., Saban, N., Levit, L., Tamari, Y., Linder, I., … Blumkin, L. (2018). Medical Cannabis for Pediatric Moderate to Severe Complex Motor Disorders. Journal of Child Neurology, 33(9), 565–571. https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073818773028
  2. Chang, E., Ghosh, N., Yanni, D., Lee, S., Alexandru, D., & Mozaffar, T. (2013). A Review of Spasticity Treatments: Pharmacological and Interventional Approaches. Critical reviews in physical and rehabilitation medicine, 25(1-2), 11–22. https://doi.org/10.1615/CritRevPhysRehabilMed.2013007945
  3. Rudroff, T., & Sosnoff, J. (2018). Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis. Frontiers in neurology, 9, 183. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00183
  4. Smith, K. J., Peterson, M. D., O’Connell, N. E., Victor, C., Liverani, S., Anokye, N., & Ryan, J. M. (2019). Risk of Depression and Anxiety in Adults With Cerebral Palsy. JAMA neurology, 76(3), 294–300. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.4147
  5. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. The Permanente journal, 23, 18–041. https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/18-041
  6. de Mello Schier AR, de Oliveira Ribeiro NP, Coutinho DS, et al. Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2014;13(6):953-960. doi:10.2174/1871527313666140612114838
  7. Nicole Cremer, BS, Edward A. Hurvitz, MD, Mark D. Peterson, PhD, MS. (2017) .University of Michigan, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor; Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Multimorbidity in Middle-Aged Adults with Cerebral Palsy. The American Journal of Medicine. 130, 744.e9-744.e15. Retrieved from https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(16)31304-3/pdf
  8. Jadoon, K. A., Tan, G. D., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2017). A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study. JCI insight, 2(12), e93760. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.93760
  9. Hendricks, O., Andersen, T. E., Christiansen, A. A., Primdahl, J., Hauge, E. M., Ellingsen, T., Horsted, T. I., Bachmann, A. G., Loft, A. G., Bojesen, A. B., Østergaard, M., Lund Hetland, M., Krogh, N. S., Roessler, K. K., & Petersen, K. H. (2019). Efficacy and safety of cannabidiol followed by an open label add-on of tetrahydrocannabinol for the treatment of chronic pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis: protocol for a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study. BMJ open, 9(6), e028197. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028197
  10. A.K. Gururaj, L. Sztriha, A. Bener, A. Dawodu, V. Eapen. (2003). Open Archive. Epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1059131102002558.
  11. Silvestro, S., Mammana, S., Cavalli, E., Bramanti, P., & Mazzon, E. (2019). Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(8), 1459. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081459
  12. The Mayo Clinic. Cerebral Palsy Overview. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cerebral-palsy/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354005
  13. Ibid
  14. The Mayo Clinic. Diazepam overview. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/diazepam-oral-route/side-effects/drg-20072333?p=1
  15. Jones, J. D., Mogali, S., & Comer, S. D. (2012). Polydrug abuse: a review of opioid and benzodiazepine combination use. Drug and alcohol dependence, 125(1-2), 8–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.07.004
  16. Libzon, S., Schleider, L. B.-L., Saban, N., Levit, L., Tamari, Y., Linder, I., … Blumkin, L. (2018). Medical Cannabis for Pediatric Moderate to Severe Complex Motor Disorders. Journal of Child Neurology, 33(9), 565–571. https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073818773028
  17. Zettl, U. K., Rommer, P., Hipp, P., & Patejdl, R. (2016). Evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of THC-CBD oromucosal spray in symptom management of patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. Therapeutic advances in neurological disorders, 9(1), 9–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1756285615612659
  18. Russo E, Guy GW. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(2):234-246. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2005.08.026
  19. Yamaguchi, T., Hvass Petersen, T., Kirk, H., Forman, C., Svane, C., Kofoed-Hansen, M., Boesen, F., & Lorentzen, J. (2018). Spasticity in adults with cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis measured by objective clinically applicable technique. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 129(9), 2010–2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2018.07.004
  20. Chang, E., Ghosh, N., Yanni, D., Lee, S., Alexandru, D., & Mozaffar, T. (2013). A Review of Spasticity Treatments: Pharmacological and Interventional Approaches. Critical reviews in physical and rehabilitation medicine, 25(1-2), 11–22. https://doi.org/10.1615/CritRevPhysRehabilMed.2013007945
  21. Ibid
  22. Ibid
  23. Rudroff, T., & Sosnoff, J. (2018). Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis. Frontiers in neurology, 9, 183. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00183
  24. Dutt, R., Roduta-Roberts, M., & Brown, C. A. (2015). Sleep and Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Review of Current Evidence and Environmental Non-Pharmacological Interventions. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 2(1), 78–88. https://doi.org/10.3390/children2010078
  25. Smith, K. J., Peterson, (2019). Op cit.
  26. Nicole Cremer, (2017). Op cit.
  27. A.K. Gururaj, L. (2003). Op cit.
  28. de Mello Schier AR, de Oliveira Ribeiro NP, Coutinho DS, et al. Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2014;13(6):953-960. doi:10.2174/1871527313666140612114838
  29. Jadoon, K. A., (2017). Op cit.
  30. Hendricks, O., (2019). Op cit.
  31. Shannon, S., (2019). Op cit.
  32. Silvestro, S., Mammana, S., Cavalli, E., Bramanti, P., & Mazzon, E. (2019). Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(8), 1459. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081459
  33. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves First Drug comprised of Cannabidiol. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-drug-comprised-active-ingredient-derived-marijuana-treat-rare-severe-forms
  34. Skaper, S. D., & Di Marzo, V. (2012). Endocannabinoids in nervous system health and disease: the big picture in a nutshell. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 367(1607), 3193–3200. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0313
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