Does CBD Work For Menstrual Cramps?

  • Menstrual cramps or dysmenorrhea is common in women, with 80% of the women’s population experiencing it at a point in their lives(1).
  • According to a study, CBD’s pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory characteristics might help with specific menstrual discomforts, like low back pain and lower abdominal cramps(2).
  • CBD may also help inhibit prostaglandin production(3). Prostaglandin is the hormone that is responsible for uterine contractions that cause menstrual pain.
  • Furthermore, CBD may be a natural and alternative treatment for dysmenorrhea and other premenstrual symptoms (PMS), such as mood swings and headache(4).

Best CBD Oils for Menstrual Cramps

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
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  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for New CBD users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
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Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic
  • Score breakdown
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  • Summary

    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
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Best Value

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Value
  • Score breakdown
    Value
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    Lab Testing Transparency
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  • Summary

    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
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Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
    Value
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    Lab Testing Transparency
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  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Various delicious flavors to choose from
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Free shipping for this particular product within USA
    •  World-class customer service team
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1500mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    Flavours Natural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range $99.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Daily CBD oil users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
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Best CBD Suppositories for Menstrual Cramps

Editor's Pick

Endoca CBD Suppositories 500mg

Increases the uptake of CBD entering the bloodstream by almost 10 times.
Endoca CBD Suppositories 500mg
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
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    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Endoca suppositories offer a targeted and effective dose. Endoca CBD suppositories can help facilitate cannabinoids reaching the blood in much higher concentrations.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  100% Natural
    •  High absorption rate
    •  Less than 0.2% THC
    •  Fixed potency
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Denmark
    Form Suppository
    Ingredients Hemp extract containing phytocannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD 500mg), low concentrations of the natural forms of (CBC, CBG, CBN) Terpenes Myrcene, Limonene, Alpha & Beta-pinene, Linalool, B-caryophyllene, Caryophyllene oxide, Terpinolene and Humulene. Other natural molecules Cannabis plant waxes, alkanes, nitrogenous compounds, amino acids, ketones, flavonoids, glycosides, vitamins, pigments, water, cofactors and co-nutrients, organic coconut oil.
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Supercritical CO2 extraction
    How to take it Rectal administration: Insert the CBD suppository past the sphincter muscle. For maximum results, wait between 15 to 20 minutes before another bowel movement Vaginal administration: Insert CBD suppository high into the vagina. This is best achieved in a reclined position.
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    500mg per box
    Carrier Oil Not specified on website
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per suppository
    Drug Test May contain trace amounts of hemp derived THC <0.2%
    Flavours Not applicable
    Price Range €45.87
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    €0.09
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    Standard shipping - 3 to 5 days, Expedited shipping option - 2 to 3 days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% natural food-grade ingredients
    Allergens No preservatives, artificial colors, vegan, gluten-free, non-GMO.
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Menstrual Cramps
    Countries served USA, Europe, Australia, Canada, Greenland, New Zealand, Thailand, Russia and more
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Most Bioavailable

Palmetto Harmony Spectrum Suppositories

Created from the premium parts of the Cannabis Sativa L Pant, this product is sure to improve your quality of life.
Palmetto Harmony Spectrum Suppositories
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Most Bioavailable
  • Score breakdown
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    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
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  • Summary

    Palmetto Harmony Spectrum Suppositories are for fast absorption and helps healthy inflammatory responses. This unique delivery method of all natural, full-spectrum hemp oil has proven to be the most bioavailable on the market.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Fast absorption
    •  More affordable
    •  Multiple shipping options
    •  Low potency
  • Features
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    South Carolina, USA
    Form Suppository
    Ingredients From premium parts of the Cannabis Sativa L Pant
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Full Spectrum Extraction
    How to take it Vaginal and Rectal
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    70mg per box
    Carrier Oil MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    10mg per suppository
    Drug Test May contain trace amounts of hemp derived THC <0.3%
    Flavours Not applicable
    Price Range $19.99
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.28
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    USPS First Class: 1-3 business days, USPS Priority Mail: 1-3 business days, FedEx Express: 2 business days, Overnight FedEx: Next day delivery
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Not specified on website
    Refund policy Within 7 days
    Recommended for Menstrual Cramps
    Countries served USA (All 50 states)
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Best Pain Relief

Foria Wellness Relief Suppositories with CBD

Formulated for relief during your period.
Foria Wellness Relief Suppositories with CBD
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Pain Relief
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
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  • Summary

    Relief CBD Suppositories are formulated for relief during your period, or for local muscular relaxation and inflammation relief, and can be used vaginally or rectally. Each suppository delivers 100mg of broad-spectrum CBD right where you need it.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  All Foria Wellness products are formulated for women
    •  Higher potency compared to other CBD suppositories
    •  Fast-acting
    •  Eco-conscious
    •  No lower potency for CBD starters
  • Features
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Oregon, USA
    Form Suppository
    Ingredients Organic Fair Trade Cocoa Butter, Organically-Grown Hemp Extract
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad-spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Not specified on website
    How to take it Elevate your hips and insert the suppository as deeply as possible, and allow some time for the CBD to absorb into the local tissues.
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    800mg per box
    Carrier Oil Not specified on website
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    100mg per suppository
    Drug Test THC-free. Not applicable
    Flavours Not applicable
    Price Range $72
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.09
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    Standard Shipping: 3-6 business days, Expedited Shipping: 2-5 business days, Express Shipping: 2 business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third-Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Not specified on website
    Refund policy Within 14 days
    Recommended for Menstrual Cramps
    Countries served USA (All 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why Women Are Using CBD for Menstrual Cramps

Menstrual cramps or dysmenorrhea is a common problem that women experience, especially during the menstrual cycle. Some women may feel severe discomfort and throbbing pain in the lower abdomen before or during their menstrual period(5).

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed to women experiencing period cramps. These drugs are used to treat fever, relieve pain, and reduce inflammation. 

Aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen are typical examples of NSAIDs. These medications reduce the production of prostaglandins made by enzymes called cyclooxygenase. 

Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that help in the female reproductive system regulation. These substances primarily control ovulation and trigger muscle contractions that cause menstrual pain(6)

Meanwhile, CBD is a natural alternative that may help with menstrual cramps(7). Studies show that CBD may hamper prostaglandin production without gastrointestinal side effects(8)

Prostaglandins are produced by two types of cyclooxygenase enzymes, namely COX-1 and COX-2. 

Though both enzymes make prostaglandins, COX-1 has an added function to protect the stomach and intestine lining. 

NSAIDs are COX-2 inhibitors that can ease period pain. However, common drug examples previously mentioned may also stop COX-1 from functioning. 

Blocking COX-1 can cause serious side effects, such as nephrotoxicity (acute kidney failure) and gastrointestinal disorders(9).

These pain medications are also known for their multiple side effects, such as heart attack, heart failure, and other cardiovascular problems(10)

CBD is a natural plant extract derived from Cannabis sativa. Under this strain are hemp plants that have lower concentrations of THC, making it non-psychoactive. 

THC is the compound found in the marijuana plant that makes people high. People who opt for non-psychoactive alternatives can look for CBD products.

How CBD Oil Works to Help Alleviate Symptoms of Menstrual Cramps

Common symptoms of menstrual cramps include frequent and mild to severe throbbing or cramping pain in the lower abdomen, hips, and lower back. 

Abdominal cramps are premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms experienced by women before their period. Other PMS symptoms include mood swings, food cravings, and bloating.

Though often associated with the menstrual cycle, the symptoms present can also be caused by secondary dysmenorrhea or other medical conditions in the female reproductive system, like endometriosis.

Endometriosis is a condition wherein endometrial tissue, or the uterine lining grows outside the uterus, possibly in the ovaries. This condition can cause severe pain and inflammation in the affected area.

There are currently no studies about the direct effects of CBD on menstrual cramps. However, studies suggest that CBD has anti-inflammatory and pain relief activities that may help with menstrual pain management(11)

CBD works with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS is responsible for regulating inflammation and pain. It is recently known to impact female reproduction and fertility(12)

Cannabinoid receptors are located in different parts of the body. Endocannabinoids activate these receptors, bind with them to work with inflammation and pain reduction, and maintain the body’s homeostasis (equilibrium).

Cannabinoids, such as CBD and THC, can also trigger the receptors’ movements and functions, especially in managing pain and inflammation(13)

According to research, when cannabinoids activate the receptors, killer cells (called macrophages) inhibit the release of cytokines. 

Cytokines are proteins that enable inflammation. Cannabinoids then function as an anti-inflammatory agent.

Cannabinoids can also reduce painful period cramps. In a study, administered cannabinoids respond to pain by desensitizing the nerves and decrease the sensation of pain(14)

Uterine contractions can also be eased with cannabinoids. A study about reproduction and fertility showed that both CBD and THC could help relax muscle tissues and uterus contractions during pregnancy(15)

Uterine contraction is a common characteristic of menstrual cramps and pregnancy. The contractions during pregnancy are often described as intense menstrual cramps. They occur when the uterine muscles tighten as the woman’s body adjusts to the fetus’ growth. 

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Menstrual Cramps

The Pros

  • Supporting studies mentioned show the inflammation, pain, and muscle contraction reduction of CBD that may help alleviate menstrual pain, one of the PMS symptoms(16). 
  • Unlike THC, CBD is non-addictive and non-psychotic(17), making it safe to use, even daily.
  • Based on a 2018 report from the World Health Organization (WHO), CBD is a controlled substance that is generally safe. It has not been fully proven to have any severe side effects(18).
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) supports further scientific studies and clinical researches about the use of medical marijuana.

The Cons

  • There are no published studies about CBD’s direct effect on period cramps.
  • External cannabinoids, such as CBD and THC, may have adverse effects on the female reproductive system, like reduced estrogen and progesterone production, which may lead to reduced fertility(19).
  • A research conducted on rats showed that manipulation of the ECS might have adverse effects on their reproductive system(20)

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Menstrual Cramps

Aside from over-the-counter and prescribed medications for period cramps, there are natural remedies that may help relieve the pain experienced by women.

Heating pads are tried and tested remedies that serve as alternatives for NSAIDs. According to research, the effectivity of applied heat is the same with medications and is much quicker(21)

Applying heat on the lower abdomen while having menstrual pains can desensitize the pain receptors while increasing blood flow through the blood vessels.

Oral supplements that contain certain minerals and acids are also treated as supplementary treatments for period cramps.

Studies show that the daily intake of fish oil supplements can decrease abdominal pain felt during menstrual periods(22)

Fish oil is known for its omega fatty acids. A diet with high levels of this acid may stop the production of prostaglandins.

Like fish oil, taking magnesium supplements can reduce prostaglandin levels and pain brought by menstrual cramps(23)

Women can also eat high magnesium content foods, such as avocado and chocolates, as a substitute for supplements.

Vaginal suppositories are also emerging solutions for dysmenorrhea. These medical treatments are taken intravaginally using an oval-shaped applicator, which targets rapid cramp relief and muscular relaxation. 

Although CBD oil may also be considered as an alternative medicine for menstrual cramps, it targets several symptoms with little to no side effects.

Hemp oil from cannabis seeds contains omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a 3:1 ratio(24).

No clinical researchers are stating that CBD oil is a treatment for menstrual cramps. Nevertheless, using it may help manage symptoms, such as inflammation and lower abdominal pain.

How to Choose the Right CBD Oil for Menstrual Cramps

When choosing a CBD oil product, consider which product works best for menstrual cramps.

Isolate is the pure form of CBD oil and is usually extracted from the hemp plant. There is little to non-existent THC content in the product, making it an excellent pick for those who do not want to get high.

Broad-spectrum CBD oil offers the full benefits of the cannabis plant without the risk of getting high because this oil does not contain THC. This kind of oil is ideal for those who are allergic or sensitive to THC or those who are hesitant about using it. 

Meanwhile, full-spectrum CBD oil contains all the compounds and components found in the cannabis plant, including trace amounts of THC. 

Before purchasing any CBD oil product, it is best to talk to a doctor experienced in cannabis use for advice.

CBD Dosage for Menstrual Cramps

CBD dosage may vary from one person to another. However, there is still no recommended CBD dosage for menstrual cramps.

Still, the initial dosage for CBD oil should start low. It should be increased gradually until the right amount and effectiveness are achieved. 

Careful monitoring of symptoms and reactions is also helpful. Dosages should be logged in a journal to keep track of the effects of the product. The journal can be presented to a doctor that specializes in cannabis for expert advice and guidance.

How to Take CBD Oil for Menstrual Cramps

There are several forms of cannabis products available on the market. 

CBD oils and tinctures can be mixed with food and beverages or be taken in a sublingual administration. Some pills and capsules can be ingested, but it takes longer for them to take effect.  

Topical CBD products are also available for localized body pain and skin infections. These products come in creams, lotions, and salves. 

Another way to take CBD is through vaping. Using a vape pen, CBD is inhaled into the lungs and quickly absorbed into the bloodstream.

Some suppositories are infused with CBD. These medical treatments can be inserted vaginally and rectally, similar to how a tampon is inserted. 

Some CBD suppositories are made with hemp oil, cocoa butter, and coconut oil. They are soft, and they melt instantly inside the body. These products come in either 100mg broad- or full-spectrum CBD, but dosages per brand may vary.

Though suppositories work like tampons, it is not advisable to apply CBD oil on tampons. Doing so may result in bacterial vaginosis, an infection of the vagina caused by acidity imbalance. 

Vaginal irritation may occur since the female reproductive area is a delicate and sensitive part of the body.

For first time users, CBD can also be taken in the form of gummies and brownies for easy and worry-free intake.

Note that results may differ from one person to another. CBD products can also react negatively to other medications, such as antibiotics and anti-anxiety medications, so it is best to ask a doctor first before trying CBD.

Conclusion

Dysmenorrhea is caused by the release of prostaglandins and can be impacted by external factors, like stress. However, dysmenorrhea symptoms can improve as women age(25). Numerous medications can help alleviate symptoms and pain. 

CBD has yet to be proven as a treatment for period cramps. Various forms of the product can help manage symptoms, like pain, inflammation, and severe muscle contractions.

Women’s health and well-being should not be compromised in any circumstance. Consult an obstetrics and gynecology physician first before using CBD to help with menstrual cramps.


  1. Women’s Health Concern. (2020, April 6). Period pain. Retrieved from https://www.womens-health-concern.org/help-and-advice/factsheets/period-pain
  2. P Cavner, J. (2019). Is CBD A Viable Option for Menstrual Symptoms? Online Journal of Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 2(5), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.33552/ojcam.2019.02.000548
  3. Zuardi, A. W. (2008). Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 30(3), 271–280. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1516-44462008000300015
  4. P Cavner, J. op. cit.
  5. InformedHealth.org [Internet]. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. Period pain: Overview. 2008 Feb 22 [Updated 2019 Aug 1]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279324/
  6. Sugimoto, Y., Inazumi, T., & Tsuchiya, S. (2014). Roles of prostaglandin receptors in female reproduction. Journal of Biochemistry, 157(2), 73–80. https://doi.org/10.1093/jb/mvu081
  7. P Cavner, J. op. cit.
  8. Takeda, S., Misawa, K., Yamamoto, I., & Watanabe, K. (2008). Cannabidiolic acid as a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory component in cannabis. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals, 36(9), 1917–1921. https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.108.020909
  9. Zarghi, A., & Arfaei, S. (2011). Selective COX-2 Inhibitors: A Review of Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research : IJPR, 10(4), 655–683.
  10. Hospital for Special Surgery. (n.d.). Guidelines to Reduce NSAID Side Effects | Anti-inflammatory. Retrieved from https://www.hss.edu/conditions_guidelines-reduce-side-effects-nsaids.asp
  11. P Cavner, J., op. cit.
  12. Walker, O. S., Holloway, A. C., & Raha, S. (2019). The role of the endocannabinoid system in female reproductive tissues. Journal of Ovarian Research, 12(1), 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13048-018-0478-9
  13. Takeda, S., op. cit.
  14. Barrie, N., & Manolios, N. (2017). The endocannabinoid system in pain and inflammation: Its relevance to rheumatic disease. European journal of rheumatology, 4(3), 210–218. https://doi.org/10.5152/eurjrheum.2017.17025
  15. Houlihan, D. D., Dennedy, M. C., & Morrison, J. J. (2010). Effects of abnormal cannabidiol on oxytocin-induced myometrial contractility. REPRODUCTION, 139(4), 783–788. https://doi.org/10.1530/rep-09-0496
  16. P Cavner, J. op. cit.
  17. Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Zuardi, A. W., & Crippa, J. A. (2011). Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Current drug safety, 6(4), 237–249. https://doi.org/10.2174/157488611798280924
  18. World Health Organization (2018, June). Cannabidiol (CBD) Critical Review Report. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/WHOCBDReportMay2018-2.pdf
  19. Brents L. K. (2016). Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System. The Yale journal of biology and medicine, 89(2), 175–191.
  20. Caligioni C. S. (2009). Assessing reproductive status/stages in mice. Current protocols in neuroscience, Appendix 4, Appendix–4I. https://doi.org/10.1002/0471142301.nsa04is48
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