• Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is usually derived from hemp flowers and stalks(1), while hemp oil (sometimes called hempseed oil) is derived from hemp seeds(2).
  • The term hemp oil may refer to CBD oil, which is high in cannabinoid content. Hemp oil may also refer or hempseed oil, which is low in cannabinoid content. Some hemp oil products may also be a combination of CBD oil and hempseed oil.
  • Studies have shown how hemp seeds may help relieve menopause symptoms in rat models(3) and improve inflammatory skin conditions in humans(4). Hemp seeds contain amino acids that may be beneficial in modulating blood pressure(5).
  • Consuming CBD oil may provide anticonvulsant, anti-anxiety(6), sleep-promoting(7), anti-inflammatory, and pain-relieving properties(8).

Hemp Oil or CBD Oil?

Since the legalization of hemp-derived products, consumers may legally take advantage of the benefits of CBD oil. Meanwhile, hempseed oil is also marketed for its potential therapeutic benefits.

Consumers may encounter three types of hemp-derived oil products in the market.

CBD oil is derived from hemp stalks and flowers. The cannabinoids are extracted and suspended in a carrier oil, such as hempseed oil and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil.

Meanwhile, hempseed oil is derived from hemp seeds, which contain very low to no cannabinoids.

Hemp oil is a general term for both hempseed oil and CBD oil. Some hemp oil products may be derived from hemp seeds only, while some may be derived from hemp seeds and other parts of the plant, which contain cannabinoids, like CBD.

CBD oil comes in different delivery forms, such as tinctures, capsules, edibles, vape, and topicals. 

Hempseed oil comes in refined and unrefined forms. This product may be used as an essential oil, cooking, or drizzling oil. 

Hempseed extracts may also be encapsulated into a softgel (dietary supplement) or infused in skincare products.

Knowing about the concentration and source may help one make the right decision when purchasing hemp-derived products. 

Hempseed Oil and CBD Oil: A Comparison

CBD oil and hempseed oil products are derived from hemp plants. Hemp is a classification of Cannabis sativa plant, a flowering species known for containing cannabinoids

In the United States (US), industrial hemp may be grown, harvested, and cultivated to create various hemp products.

Here is a breakdown of the main differences between hempseed oil and CBD oil:

Oil Type Hempseed oil CBD oil or hemp oil from flower and stalks
Source Hemp seeds Hemp flower and stalk
Types Refined and unrefined Full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, CBD isolate
Cannabinoids Untraceable amount High in cannabinoids
Extraction Method cold-pressing Cold-pressing, decarboxylation, CO2 extraction, or solvent extraction 
Potential Benefits Modulating blood pressure(9), anti-inflammatory (skin conditions)(10), anti-anxiety(11), and a

good source of nutrients(12)

Antiepileptic, anticonvulsant(13), anti-anxiety, sleep-promoting(14), anti-inflammatory, and analgesic(15) 
Side Effects No known side effects Dry mouth, drowsiness, fatigue, diarrhea, reduced appetite, possible liver toxicity
Legalization Legal Must contain less than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation May be marketed as a food product or a dietary supplement(16)

May not be marketed as a drug without FDA approval(17)

May not be marketed as a food product or a dietary supplement(18).

May not be marketed as a drug without FDA approval(19)

Hempseed Oil

Hemp oil or hempseed oil is derived from hemp seeds. The seeds may contain very low traces or undetectable amounts of cannabinoids. 

Many individuals consume Cannabis sativa seed oil (hempseed oil) for its nutritional value. 

Hemp seeds are known for having essential fatty acids, such as omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids(20). 

Hemp seeds also contain vitamin E, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, protein, and amino acids(21).

Phytocannabinoid-rich hemp oil (CBD hemp oil) must not be mistaken for hempseed oil. Some manufacturers use the term CBD hemp oil to refer to CBD oil extracted from hemp.

Extraction Method of Hempseed Oil

Commercial hemp seeds go through a cold-press extraction method. Cold-pressing is done using a machine that applies pressure on the seeds. 

This method is also used on other food products, such as grape seeds, soybeans, sunflower seeds, corn, and rice.

Cold-press extraction is considered safe for consumers due to the absence of solvents(22). 

Potential Health Benefits of Hempseed Oil

Hemp seeds have been shown to contain amino acids, including arginine. Arginine is considered a metabolic precursor, which promotes nitric oxide (NO) production(23).  

According to a study from Nutrition & Metabolism, NO has been recognized for its role in the cardiovascular system and blood pressure homeostasis(24).

Individuals who want to obtain their protein from plant products may also find that hempseed oil contains as much protein as soybeans(25).

According to a study posted by Food Science and Food Safety, hemp seeds may contain 25% to 30% protein(26).

The same study shared that hemp seeds also contain 30% to 40% dietary fiber, which may aid digestion(27)

Due to omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids content, hemp seeds may have therapeutic value in reducing the heart’s susceptibility to arrhythmias, decreasing blood clots, lowering triglyceride levels, and lowering blood pressure(28).

Hempseed oil is also currently marketed as a dietary supplement or an essential ingredient in skincare products. 

The presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, has been shown to provide some benefits for specific skin conditions(29).

The Journal of Dermatological Treatment posted a study on how hempseed oil administration improved atopic dermatitis symptoms(30).  

The authors compared olive oil with hempseed oil in a 20-week single-blind, randomized study involving atopic dermatitis patients(31)

The study assessed skin dryness, itchiness, and frequency of dermal medication use.

The authors indicated that hempseed oil improved the clinical symptoms of atopic dermatitis due to the supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids(32).

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as omega-3 and omega-6, have potential benefits in managing inflammatory skin conditions, such as eczema, acne, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis(33). 

The International Journal of Molecular Sciences shared a review discussing how PUFAs, acting as gene modulators, regulate the pro-inflammatory proteins and lipid metabolism(34)

The authors noted that PUFAs, combined with other supplements (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid), have a role in preventing and managing several skin diseases.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are types of omega-3 fatty acids found in plant oil, like flaxseed and soybean.

Hempseed extracts have been shown to improve menopause symptoms in rat models.  

According to a study shared by Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, hempseed extract-treated mice showed less anxiety during a forced-swimming test than untreated mice(35)

A study posted by the Journal of Ethnopharmacology discussed how hempseed oil contributes to the mechanism of reducing arthritis symptoms(36). 

However, more studies are needed to verify if hempseed oil can relieve pain.

Side Effects of Hempseed Oil

There is a lack of scientific studies on the side effects of hempseed consumption. 

The FDA released a report indicating that hemp seeds do not naturally contain THC. Thus, hemp seeds are non-psychoactive. The FDA also recognized hempseed products as safe and permitted its use as a food ingredient(37).

In addition, the FDA also recognized hempseeds for its nutritional value, such as containing protein, carbohydrates, and other nutrients(38).

How to Take Hempseed Oil

Hempseed oil may be used as cooking oil or drizzled into food. The oil may also be ingested by using a dropper or a spoon.

Hempseed extracts may also be contained in a softgel or a capsule for easy delivery. Hempseed oil capsules or softgels may be taken with a glass of water. 

Moreover, hempseed extracts may be infused into skincare and beauty products, such as serums, moisturizers, lotions, and creams. Hempseed oil may also be used as a massage oil.

CBD Oil

Cannabidiol or CBD is a major phytocannabinoid found in hemp plants and marijuana plants. Other phytocannabinoids found in hemp include tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabigerol (CBG). 

In the US, CBD oil products cannot more than 0.3% THC, the compound responsible for causing psychoactive effects.

CBD oil may contain one or more active cannabinoids. These compounds may be suspended in a carrier oil, such as olive oil, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT oil), or hempseed oil

Cannabinoids may also be infused into skincare products and vape oils.

Types of CBD Oil

There are three different types of CBD oil currently sold on the market. 

Full-spectrum CBD oil’s high CBD content synergizes with all the other cannabinoids found in hemp, including trace amounts of THC. 

Consuming all the cannabinoids together provides the “entourage effect.” This term implies that the benefits of cannabinoids are greater when consumed together rather than individually.

Meanwhile, broad-spectrum CBD oil contains some cannabinoids found in hemp except for THC

Some individuals prefer not to consume THC, even in minimal amounts, due to health or lifestyle reasons. 

Lastly, CBD isolate contains pure CBD. Individuals who want to take CBD as monotherapy may opt for this product. 

Pure CBD can be bought in powder form or infused in a carrier oil.

Extraction Methods of CBD Oil

To create CBD oil, manufacturers use hemp flowers and stalks(39). These components go through an extraction process that may use solvents, decarboxylation (applying heat), pressurization, or cold-pressing

The extraction process separates the compounds. Since THC content must not exceed 0.3%, efficiency in extraction while keeping the other compounds pure is crucial. 

Chemical solvents, such as ethanol (alcohol) and hydrocarbons (hexane), may be used to extract compounds. However, residual solvents in the product may cause adverse effects or toxicity on consumers. 

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has promulgated the Current Good Manufacturing Process (GMP) regulation to ensure that manufacturers declare the residual solvents before products are sent into the market(40). 

Many CBD brands prefer the CO2 extraction method due to the absence of solvents

A study from Scientific Reports demonstrated how a supercritical CO2 extraction method efficiently extracts CBD and THC from cannabis plants without a solvent(41).

Potential Health Benefits of CBD Oil and CBD Hemp Oil

Phytocannabinoids are plant-based compounds (cannabinoids) that may influence the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in humans and animals. 

The ECS, composed of CB1 and CB2 receptors, may be stimulated by cannabinoids, such as CBD and THC

Studies have shown that the cannabinoids’ stimulation of the ECS using cannabinoids may have therapeutic values on several medical conditions(42).

A clinical study from the Permanente Journal demonstrated how consuming CBD may help reduce anxiety and insomnia symptoms(43)

The study engaged 103 adults who mostly received 25 to 75 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of CBD. 

Within the first month of the experiment, 79.2% of the participants reported reduced anxiety, while 66.7% reported improved sleep scores(44).

The Neurotherapeutics journal shared a review discussing how CBD may be beneficial for anxiety-related disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder(45).

These benefits are attributed to CBD’s anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) actions. The authors noted that the results were from preclinical trials(46).

CBD is currently the active ingredient in an FDA-approved antiepileptic drug, called Epidiolex. This pharmaceutical drug is used to treat rare forms of child epilepsy, such as Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

According to an article published by Molecules, CBD may be useful in treating epileptic seizures, especially in the pediatric age group(47).

CBD’s potential therapeutic value is not only limited to anxiety, insomnia, and epilepsy. CBD has also been studied for its potential to reduce inflammation.

Free Radical Biology & Medicine posted a review suggesting that CBD may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties(48). 

The review mentioned that CBD’s potential ability to reduce oxidative stress during animal and human studies may help alleviate neuropathic pain, diabetes, depression, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases(49).

Moreover, the transdermal administration of CBD has shown promising results in providing pain relief in arthritis rat models. The European Journal of Pain published a study that demonstrated how topical CBD application may help reduce inflammation and improve limb posture of mice with induced arthritis(50).

Although the study was done on rats, the results may be useful in further studies to be conducted on human subjects.

Topical CBD administration has been studied on various skin conditions. The Journal of Clinical Investigation noted that during in vitro studies, CBD may be useful in repressing pro-acne actions(51).

Still, more studies are essential in determining CBD’s effects on acne and acne-prone skin.

CBD may also possess therapeutic potential in relieving withdrawal symptoms of substance abuse.

Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research posted a study that suggested CBD’s potential in relieving withdrawal symptoms from cannabis use(52). The authors noted that prolonged CBD treatment may help improve cognition and psychological symptoms among regular cannabis users. 

Furthermore, the American Journal of Psychiatry posted a recent study discussing how CBD may positively affect individuals with heroin-use disorders(53)

The researchers organized a double-blind controlled trial using placebo and CBD. Results showed that the CBD-treated group demonstrated a significant reduction in craving and anxiety. 

The researchers also observed a decrease in drug-induced heart rate and salivary cortisol levels(54).

More studies are needed to verify CBD’s efficacy in alleviating symptoms of the mentioned conditions. 

The FDA recently released a warning to CBD companies for making claims in treating several health conditions and opioid addiction(55).

Although CBD has been shown to provide potential health benefits, brands are prohibited from using these findings to market their products. 

Side Effects of CBD Oil

CBD oil has been known to cause several side effects, such as reduced appetite, dry mouth, diarrhea, drowsiness, or fatigue(56).

Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved drug that contains CBD as its primary active ingredient. During clinical trials, researchers observed several side effects caused by CBD consumption.

According to the prescription manual of Epidiolex, CBD may cause undesired weight loss, somnolence(drowsiness), and fatigue(57).  

The manual also expounded how CBD caused adverse reactions when combined with other pharmaceutical drugs. 

These reactions may include increased risks of side effects and elevated liver enzymes(58). The increase in liver enzymes is often linked to liver inflammation.

A study from Molecules has shown how high doses of CBD may cause hepatotoxicity (liver injury) in rat models(59). The study also reported how CBD administration may cause elevated liver enzymes in monkeys, dogs, and humans.

Individuals must consult with a licensed-physician before including CBD oil in their daily regimen. 

How to Take CBD Oil

CBD oil delivery methods can be sublingual (under the tongue), oral, topical, and through inhalation.

The most common delivery is the sublingual method. CBD tincture oils are the ideal product for administering CBD under the tongue. 

Tinctures may come in different flavors. Unflavored tinctures may have an earthy taste due to terpenes found in hemp extracts

Individuals who prefer consuming CBD orally may opt for CBD capsules. Individuals may swallow the CBD capsule as they would a regular capsule. 

CBD users who prefer smoking may opt for CBD vape pens. CBD vape pen products usually come in a variety of flavors and strains. 

However, smoking CBD may come with some risks, such as chemical irritation, chest pains, and allergic reaction(60).

CBD may also be applied topically by using CBD topical lotions, balms, gels, and salves.

FAQs

The 2018 United States Farm bill allows the cultivation of industrial hemp. The bill also legalized the production of industrial hemp products, such as CBD oil and hempseed oil. 

The Farm Bill removed hemp-derived CBD with less than 0.3% THC from the list of controlled substances. Thus, CBD oil products may be legally sold in retail stores and online.

Individuals shopping for CBD must always look for the certificate of analysis (COA). The COA is a third-party laboratory result that indicates the cannabinoid content. 

The COA determines if the product’s label is consistent with its true concentration, as examined by an independent laboratory.

The COA also informs consumers if the product contains undesired substances, such as heavy metals, herbicides, pesticides, and other harmful chemicals.

The FDA allows hempseed products to be marketed as food, dietary supplements, and drugs. However, manufacturers must use FDA-approved cannabis seeds for regular farming(61). 

The FDA requires hempseed products to be produced in facilities with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP)(62)

Current Good Manufacturing Practice is a system of regulations imposed by the US Food and Drug Administration to ensure manufacturers consistently produce good quality products and equipment is well-maintained. 

Hempseeds are often consumed orally. Hempseed oil products from cGMP-accredited facilities are safe and of good quality.

What Is the Difference Between Hemp and Marijuana?

Hemp and marijuana are varieties of Cannabis sativa plants.

Industrial hemp differs from marijuana in terms of THC content. Industrial hemp from regulation-compliant farms use strains with very low THC levels. 

Meanwhile, marijuana has been reported to have 17 to 28% THC(63).

Conclusion

The main difference between hempseed oil and CBD oil is the hemp component. Hempseed oil uses seeds containing very little to no cannabinoids, while CBD oil uses hemp flowers and stalks, which are rich in cannabinoids. 

Individuals deciding between hempseed oil and CBD oil must evaluate their needs according to each product’s benefits and side effects. Having this information is crucial when choosing between the products.

Hempseed oil may be found in grocery stores, health food stores, and supplement stores. Meanwhile, CBD oil may be found in dispensaries, wellness stores, and supplement stores. 

Both hempseed oil and CBD oil can be found on official websites or online stores.

Individuals must first consult with their doctors before buying CBD oil to help improve their well-being.


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  2. Hemp Ingredients, Dietary Supplements, Conventional Food. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/media/128487/download
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  4. Balić, A., Vlašić, D., Žužul, K., Marinović, B., & Bukvić Mokos, Z. (2020). Omega-3 Versus Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Diseases. International journal of molecular sciences, 21(3), 741. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030741
  5. Rodriguez-Leyva, D., & Pierce, G. N. (2010). The cardiac and haemostatic effects of dietary hempseed. Nutrition & metabolism, 7, 32. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-7-32
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514832/
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  8. Oláh, A., Tóth, B. I., Borbíró, I., Sugawara, K., Szöllõsi, A. G., Czifra, G., Pál, B., Ambrus, L., Kloepper, J., Camera, E., Ludovici, M., Picardo, M., Voets, T., Zouboulis, C. C., Paus, R., & Bíró, T. (2014). Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. The Journal of clinical investigation, 124(9), 3713–3724. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI64628
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  10. Callaway, J., Schwab, U., Harvima, I., Halonen, P., Mykkänen, O., Hyvönen, P., & Järvinen, T. (2005). Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis. The Journal of dermatological treatment, 16(2), 87–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546630510035832
  11. Saberivand A, Karimi I, Becker LA, Moghaddam A, Azizi-Mahmoodjigh S, Yousefi M, Zavareh S. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hempseed) in the ovariectomized rat model of menopause. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Sep;32(7):467-73. doi: 10.1358/mf.2010.32.7.1487085. PMID: 21069097.
  12. Leonard, W, Zhang, P, Ying, D, Fang, Z. Hempseed in food industry: Nutritional value, health benefits, and industrial applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2020; 19: 282– 308. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12517
  13. Silvestro, S., Mammana, S., Cavalli, E., Bramanti, P., & Mazzon, E. (2019). Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(8), 1459. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081459
  14. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Op cit.
  15. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European journal of pain (London, England), 20(6), 936–948. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.818
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  17. Ibid
  18. FDA Regulation of Dietary Supplement & Conventional Food Products Containing Cannabis and Cannabis Derived Compounds. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/media/131878/download
  19.  FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd#othercbdapproved
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  22. Cold-press in Oil Extraction: A Review. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329993761_Cold_press_in_oil_extraction_A_review
  23. Rodriguez-Leyva, D., & Pierce, G. N. (2010). The cardiac and haemostatic effects of dietary hempseed. Nutrition & metabolism, 7, 32. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-7-32
  24. Ibid
  25. Ibid
  26. Leonard, W, Zhang, P, Ying, D, Fang, Z. Hempseed in food industry: Nutritional value, health benefits, and industrial applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2020; 19: 282– 308. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12517
  27. Ibid
  28. National Institute of Health. Omega-3 Fatty Acids – Health Professional fact Sheet. Retrieved from https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-HealthProfessional/
  29. Callaway, J., Schwab, U., Harvima, I., Halonen, P., Mykkänen, O., Hyvönen, P., & Järvinen, T. (2005).
  30. Ibid
  31. Ibid
  32. Ibid
  33. Balić, A., Vlašić, D., Žužul, K., Marinović, B., & Bukvić Mokos, Z. (2020). Omega-3 Versus Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Diseases. International journal of molecular sciences, 21(3), 741. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030741
  34. Ibid
  35. Saberivand A, Karimi I, Becker LA, Moghaddam A, Azizi-Mahmoodjigh S, Yousefi M, Zavareh S. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hempseed) in the ovariectomized rat model of menopause. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Sep;32(7):467-73. doi: 10.1358/mf.2010.32.7.1487085. PMID: 21069097.
  36. Jeong, M., Cho, J., Shin, J. I., Jeon, Y. J., Kim, J. H., Lee, S. J., Kim, E. S., & Lee, K. (2014). Hempseed oil induces reactive oxygen species- and C/EBP homologous protein-mediated apoptosis in MH7A human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synovial cells. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 154(3), 745–752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.04.052
  37. The US Food and Drug Administration. Three Gras Notice for Hempseed-Derived Ingredients. Op cit.
  38. Ibid
  39. Ellison, S., Sandler L., (2019). CBD Harvest and Processing. Op cit.
  40. Rochfort, S., Isbel, A., Ezernieks, V., Elkins, A., Vincent, D., Deseo, M. A., & Spangenberg, G. C. (2020). Utilisation of Design of Experiments Approach to Optimise Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Medicinal Cannabis. Scientific reports, 10(1), 9124. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66119-1
  41. Rochfort, S., Isbel, A., Ezernieks, V., Elkins, A., Vincent, D., Deseo, M. A., & Spangenberg, G. C. (2020). Utilisation of Design of Experiments Approach to Optimise Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Medicinal Cannabis. Scientific reports, 10(1), 9124. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66119-1
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  43. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Op cit.
  44. Ibid
  45. Blessing, E. M., Steenkamp, M. M., Manzanares, J., & Marmar, C. R. (2015). Op cit.
  46. Ibid
  47. Silvestro, S., Mammana, S., Cavalli, E., Bramanti, P., & Mazzon, E. (2019). Op cit.
  48. Booz G. W. (2011). Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free radical biology & medicine, 51(5), 1054–1061. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.01.007
  49. Ibid
  50. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Op cit.
  51. Oláh, A., Tóth, B. I., Borbíró, I., Sugawara, K., Szöllõsi, A. G., Czifra, G., Pál, B., Ambrus, L., Kloepper, J., Camera, E., Ludovici, M., Picardo, M., Voets, T., Zouboulis, C. C., Paus, R., & Bíró, T. (2014). Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. The Journal of clinical investigation, 124(9), 3713–3724. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI64628
  52. Solowij, N., Broyd, S. J., Beale, C., Prick, J. A., Greenwood, L. M., van Hell, H., Suo, C., Galettis, P., Pai, N., Fu, S., Croft, R. J., Martin, J. H., & Yücel, M. (2018). Therapeutic Effects of Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment on Psychological Symptoms and Cognitive Function in Regular Cannabis Users: A Pragmatic Open-Label Clinical Trial. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 3(1), 21–34. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2017.0043
  53. Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
  54. Yasmin L. Hurd, Sharron Spriggs, Julia Alishayev, Gary Winkel, Kristina Gurgov, Chris Kudrich, Anna M. Oprescu, and Edwin Salsitz. American Journal of Psychiatry 2019 176:11, 911-922
  55. The US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Warns Companies Illegally Selling CBD Products to Treat Opioid Addiction and Medical conditions. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-warns-companies-illegally-selling-cbd-products-treat-medical-conditions-opioid-addiction
  56. The Mayo Clinic. CBD Oil Side Effects. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700#:~:text=Though%20it’s%20often%20well%2Dtolerated,dosage%20of%20CBD%20in%20products.
  57. Epidiolex Prescribing information. Retrieved from https://www.epidiolex.com/sites/default/files/pdfs/0820/EPX-03645-0820_EPIDIOLEX_%28cannabidiol%29_USPI.pdf
  58. Ibid
  59. Ewing, L. E., Skinner, C. M., Quick, C. M., Kennon-McGill, S., McGill, M. R., Walker, L. A., ElSohly, M. A., Gurley, B. J., & Koturbash, I. (2019). Hepatotoxicity of a Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extract in the Mouse Model. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(9), 1694. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091694
  60. Shmerling, R.H., Can Vaping Damage Your Lungs? (2019)., Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/can-vaping-damage-your-lungs-what-we-do-and-dont-know-2019090417734
  61. Hemp Ingredients, Dietary Supplements, Conventional Food. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/media/128487/download
  62. Ibid
  63. Stuyt E. (2018). The Problem with the Current High Potency THC Marijuana from the Perspective of an Addiction Psychiatrist. Missouri medicine, 115(6), 482–486.
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