In summary

Can CBD Help With Seizures and Epilepsy in Cats?

  • Seizures are among the common nervous system disorders in cats, affecting 1% to 3% of the general feline population(1)
  • Information on seizures in cats is lacking in the literature of veterinary medicine. Thus, recommendations for the diagnosis and management of feline seizure disorders have been based on scientific data on canines and humans(2)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has approved Epidiolex, a CBD medication, for the treatment of seizures linked to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome in humans(3).The FDA has not placed restrictions on the extra-label use of Epidiolex in animals. However, cat owners should always seek the advice of a veterinarian before giving Epidiolex or any drugs to their cat.
  • Researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine showed that CBD might alleviate seizures and normalize brain rhythms in Angelman syndrome, a rare neurodevelopmental condition(4).
  • Given that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in mammals work in similar ways(5), CBD’s therapeutic effects, shown in human and animal studies, may also work in cats. Still, consult with a veterinarian before using CBD for cats with seizures.
The full article

Best CBD Oil for Cats

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  • Overall Clinical Score
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    Best Organic CBD Pet Oil
  • Clinical Scores
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
    Perfect for...All four-legged animals of any size and breed
  • Summary

    CBD for dogs, cats and other four-legged friends! Our product is concentrated to approximately 60mg cannabinoids per milliliter of oil. While this product is designed for pets, it’s great for humans, too.

    Pro's
    Cons's
     Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
     All natural
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients USDA Certified Organic Hemp Oil, Full Spectrum Hemp Extract
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it 2-3 drops per 20lbs
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    300mg - 900mg
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60ml per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Not applicable
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $38.50 - $179.50
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12 - $0.19
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for All four-legged animals of any size and breed
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
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Fur Favorite
cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Cats
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Fur Favorite
  • Clinical Scores
    Value
    Quality
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    Perfect for...All cat breeds and sizes
  • Summary

    CBD Oil Tinctures for Cats is 100% organic, non-GMO, vegan, and gluten-free. It comes in natural and catnip flavor.

    Pro's
    Cons's
     Same CBD Oil benefits as for humans  Low terpene and cannabinoid profile
     No THC Animal-specific products (dogs, cats, horses)
     Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD) and MCT Oil (from palm kernel oil)
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Every cat is a little bit different, so measurements will depend on weight, age, and a variety of other factors. A good way to start is to give your cat the lowest measurement indicated on the bottle every day, and see what happens. If your cat doesn’t show as much improvement as you’d like, gradually increase the amount.
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    150 mg - 300 mg / 30 ml bottle
    Carrier Oil MCT Oil (from palm kernel oil)
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    150 mg - 5 mg per dropper (1ml), 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Not applicable
    Flavours Natural and Catnip
    Price Range $19.99 for 150 mg, $29.99 for 300 mg
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.10 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for All cat breeds and sizes
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture Bottles

The pet tincture, called Pedigree, was formulated specifically for pets. They are incredibly similar to the blue label oral tincture but do not include limonene. It is safe for cattle, horses, dogs, and cats. People can add it to pet food or directly into their pet’s mouth.

Check Latest Price
Read our review

Why Cat Owners Are Turning to CBD Oil for Seizures in Cats

Studies have shown that CBD’s potential health benefits may be useful in treating a range of medical conditions. These conditions include chronic pain, anxiety, inflammatory bowel disease (IBS), and cancer(6). 

In 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approved Epidiolex, a CBD medication, for treating seizures linked to Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes. 

Epidiolex was the first drug to be approved by the FDA for the condition(7)

The Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994 (AMDUCA) allows the extra-label (off-label) use of human drugs in animals(8).

Meanwhile, the FDA has not restricted the use of Epidiolex in veterinary medicine. 

Still, before giving Epidiolex or any drugs to cats, owners must always consult with a veterinarian for advice first.

In a 2019 study, researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine showed that CBD might alleviate seizures and normalize brain rhythms in Angelman syndrome(9). 

Angelman syndrome is a rare condition affecting the development of the nervous system.

The study was done on mice. However, given that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in all mammals work in similar ways(10), CBD’s purported therapeutic effects may also work in cats with seizures.

The ECS, a system of cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors in the body, regulates body functions to maintain homeostasis (balance).

Seizures are among the common neurologic problems (nervous system disorders) in cats, affecting 1% to 3% of the general feline population(11)

 Seizures and epilepsy are not the same medical problems. 

Epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures(12).  An epilepsy diagnosis needs at least two unprovoked seizures(13)

An epileptic seizure in itself is not a disease but a sign of an abnormal brain function(14).

Seizure characteristics in cats may be different than what is observed in dogs. However, the underlying causes of seizure activity are similar(15)

Unfortunately, information on the causes and options for the treatment of seizures in cats is limited in the veterinary medical literature.

Thus, recommendations for the diagnosis and management of feline seizure disorders have been based on scientific data on canines and humans(16)

CBD for Seizures: What the Research Says

CBD has shown its anticonvulsant properties in animal models and reduced seizure frequency in limited human studies

In one study, for example, the researchers noted the antiepileptic and antiseizure potential of CBD in generalized seizures(17). 

Generalized seizures impact both sides of the brain and often lead to a loss of consciousness.

Another study had similar results. In the study, CBD reduced the percentage of animal subjects that were experiencing severe tonic-clonic seizures(18).  

Tonic-clonic (also called grand mal) seizures have two stages. First, there is a loss of consciousness, which can last for 10 to 20 seconds. Then, muscle convulsions that usually last for one to two minutes follow(19).

The results of the study also demonstrate the anticonvulsant characteristics of CBD. The evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic prospect for different types of human epilepsies(20). 

Researchers of a 2017 study believe that, compared with THC, CBD shows a more defined anticonvulsant profile in animal models(21). 

The results indicate that CBD may be effective against focal and generalized seizures.

There are no studies that specifically examine the effects of CBD use in cats with seizures. The limited studies on seizures and epilepsy were mostly conducted using human subjects and animal models.

Still, the potential therapeutic benefits of CBD use in cats may also be comparable due to the similar ways the ECS works in all mammals.

How CBD Works to Help With Seizures in Cats

CBD interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) through the cannabinoid receptors. The two primary types of receptors are CB1 and CB2. 

In cats, CB1 receptors are prevalent in the brain and nervous system. Meanwhile, the CB2 receptors are dominant in the peripheral organs (including the endocrine system organs) and immune cells. 

CB1 receptors are involved in motor regulation, pain sensation, memory processing, sleep, appetite, and mood(22).  

When activated by cannabinoids, CB2 receptors trigger a response that fights inflammation, which decreases pain and damage to tissues(23)

The antiseizure activities of CBD and cannabidivarin (CBDV), both antiepileptic cannabinoids, may be influenced by their effects on TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), a pain receptor.

TRPV1 is present in epileptic brain areas. Studies show that the inhibition of TRPV1 in the hippocampus may be a new target for the prevention of epileptic seizures(24)

The Pros and Cons of CBD for Cats

Pros

  • Epidiolex, a CBD medication for the treatment of seizures linked to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, is FDA-approved in humans. However, before using human drugs in cats, owners should consult with a veterinarian first for advice.
  • CBD is not addictive(25), making it safe for cats when given in veterinarian-approved doses. 
  • Hemp-derived CBD products are readily available without a prescription in many countries. CBD cat products may come in different forms, such as tinctures or drops, CBD treats (soft chews or bites), capsules, and salves.
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has not received reports of adverse events associated with animals given cannabis products(26). The only reports received were of accidental ingestion of cannabis by pets.

Cons

  • No extensive studies have been conducted explicitly on CBD’s health benefits or therapeutic use in cats with seizures. Neither are there reports of CBD’s effects of long-term use on cats.
  • The FDA has not approved any cannabis products for use in animals. Before using CBD in pets, like cats and dogs, consult with a veterinarian to explore different treatment options(27). 
  • The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) still categorizes CBD under Schedule I(28)Substances belonging to this group have no accepted medicinal use but a high potential for abuse(29)
  • Except in California, veterinarians do not have the legal authority to discuss cannabis use with clients (30). Cat owners need to take the initiative during consultations and ask questions.
  • CBD may cause adverse drug interactions with other prescription medicines concurrently taken by a cat. The side effects of CBD include fatigue, diarrhea, dry mouth, and reduced appetite(31)

How CBD Compares to Alternative Treatments for Seizures in Cats

A study published in the British Journal of Nutrition showed how a ketogenic diet rich in medium-chain triacylglycerols (TAG) achieved levels of ketosis that were useful in preventing seizures in dogs with epilepsy(32)

The keto diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. The MC TAG are fatty acids that help with ketosis, where the body burns stored fat for energy instead of blood sugar.

The dogs were fed with either MC TAG diet or placebo for three months, after which a respective switch of diet was done for another three months.

Results showed that seizure frequency and monthly seizure days were significantly lower in the 21 dogs that finished the 12 weeks compared to those on the placebo diet(33).

Natural remedies, like a change in diet, are preferable to cat owners who want to avoid the adverse side effects of conventional prescription drugs for seizures. 

Some herbal remedies, like passion flower, skullcap, and ginger, may also help reduce the occurrence of seizures.

Passion flower is used to treat insomnia, anxiety, and seizures(34). It is known to calm overactive nervous systems that often result in seizures.

The flavonoids that are naturally present in skullcap may be the active ingredients contributing to the anticonvulsant effects(35)

Like skullcap, ginger also has anticonvulsant properties, according to researchers of a study conducted on mice(36)

The studies mentioned above were not done on cats. However, given that the ECS in mammals works in similar ways, the herbal remedies mentioned might also work in cats with seizures.

Meanwhile, CBD in itself is a hemp plant extract that may also help with seizures. 

A study lists cannabis as one of the most common herbal medicines used in epilepsy(37). The antiepileptic ingredients of cannabis include CBD(38).

Recent studies have confirmed CBD that it possesses antiepileptic and anticonvulsant effects(39).

There are CBD products infused with passion flowers, skullcap, or ginger that are meant to help calm pets. 

The powerful combination of CBD benefits and the therapeutic characteristics of these herbs would be beneficial for seizures in cats.

How to Choose the Best CBD Oil Products for Cats

CBD oil is a potent Cannabis Sativa extract which may be derived from either hemp or marijuana (also called cannabis). 

CBD extracts come in different forms or types of oil. Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all of the cannabinoids, essential vitamins, fatty acids (like omega-3 and omega-6), terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds naturally present in cannabis.

Terpenes are the compounds naturally found in cannabis plants that give the plants their unique aromas and flavors. Flavonoids give plants their vivid colors.

Broad-spectrum CBD oils are full-spectrum oils without the THC content. 

Broad-spectrum oils contain only trace amounts of THC (less than 0.3%), making them ideal for those who do not want THC’s psychoactive effects.

Meanwhile, CBD isolates contain only pure CBD. It is the purest and most potent form of CBD.

Whatever type of oil pet owners prefer to use, they should choose only high-quality CBD products for their feline friends to ensure potency and reliability.

Below are useful tips for cat owners looking to buy and try CBD for their cat.

  • Choose hemp-derived pet CBD oil that is guaranteed all-natural, organic, and non-GMO.
    Note that most reputable CBD brands grow their hemp from their farms or source their hemp only from licensed producers.
  • Check state laws in the area where CBD is going to be bought and used. While medical cannabis (medical marijuana) is legal in many states, it remains illegal at the federal level.
    Meanwhile, CBD is legally available in most states in the USA as long as it contains less than 0.3% THC.
  • Look for CBD cat products produced by brands that use the CO2 extraction technique.
    The CO2 method uses pressurized carbon dioxide to effectively and safely extract all the essential compounds from hemp plants.
  • Ensure that the CBD hemp oil brand uses all-natural carrier oils. Hemp seed oil, MCT oil (medium-chain triglycerides from coconut oil), and extra-virgin olive oil are natural carrier oils that also have their therapeutic properties.
  • Ask for third-party lab results, or the certificate of analysis (COA), of each CBD product.
    The COA lists all the other active cannabinoids present in a product. The certificate also indicates whether or not the product contains other additives, preservatives, or contaminants, like fungicides and herbicides.
  • Follow the manufacturer’s dosing instructions, as printed on each product label. More importantly, before administering CBD to cats, consult with a veterinarian for guidance and advice.

Best CBD Oil for Cats

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NuLeaf Naturals Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Pet Oil

Perfectly formulated CBD for Dogs, Cats, and other four-legged animals
NuLeaf Naturals Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Pet Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Best Organic CBD Pet Oil
  • Clinical Scores
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
    Perfect for...All four-legged animals of any size and breed
  • Summary

    CBD for dogs, cats and other four-legged friends! Our product is concentrated to approximately 60mg cannabinoids per milliliter of oil. While this product is designed for pets, it’s great for humans, too.

    Pro's
    Cons's
     Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
     All natural
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients USDA Certified Organic Hemp Oil, Full Spectrum Hemp Extract
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it 2-3 drops per 20lbs
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    300mg - 900mg
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60ml per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Not applicable
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $38.50 - $179.50
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12 - $0.19
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for All four-legged animals of any size and breed
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
Check Latest Prices
Fur Favorite
cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Cats
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Fur Favorite
  • Clinical Scores
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
    Perfect for...All cat breeds and sizes
  • Summary

    CBD Oil Tinctures for Cats is 100% organic, non-GMO, vegan, and gluten-free. It comes in natural and catnip flavor.

    Pro's
    Cons's
     Same CBD Oil benefits as for humans  Low terpene and cannabinoid profile
     No THC Animal-specific products (dogs, cats, horses)
     Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD) and MCT Oil (from palm kernel oil)
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Every cat is a little bit different, so measurements will depend on weight, age, and a variety of other factors. A good way to start is to give your cat the lowest measurement indicated on the bottle every day, and see what happens. If your cat doesn’t show as much improvement as you’d like, gradually increase the amount.
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    150 mg - 300 mg / 30 ml bottle
    Carrier Oil MCT Oil (from palm kernel oil)
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    150 mg - 5 mg per dropper (1ml), 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Not applicable
    Flavours Natural and Catnip
    Price Range $19.99 for 150 mg, $29.99 for 300 mg
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.10 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for All cat breeds and sizes
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture Bottles

The pet tincture, called Pedigree, was formulated specifically for pets. They are incredibly similar to the blue label oral tincture but do not include limonene. It is safe for cattle, horses, dogs, and cats. People can add it to pet food or directly into their pet’s mouth.

Check Latest Price
Read our review

CBD Oil Dosage for Seizures in Cats

CBD dosing largely depends on the cat’s body weight, diet, health condition, and age. Unfortunately, there has not been any standard dose recommended for any medical conditions in both humans and animals.

Also, different cat CBD oil brands recommend different dosing guidelines. Meanwhile, most manufacturers of CBD pet products give dose values in ranges.

Holistapet, for example, has its vet-approved CBD dosing guidelines for cats and dogs. The company recommends between 0.25 mg of CBD (a regular dose) to 0.5 mg of CBD (a strong dose) for each pound of pet body weight(40). 

The regular dose is recommended for maintaining health and wellness and boosting immune system function. This dose is supposed to help with skin conditions and appetite and provide pain relief.

The regular dose is also ideal for minor stress and anxiety, digestive issues and nausea, moderate arthritis and joint inflammation, and allergies. 

On the other hand, the strong dose is useful in chronic pain, severe arthritis and joint inflammation, mobility issues, and epileptic seizures

The strong dose is also recommended for extreme nausea, vomiting, severe anxiety, tumors, and cancer-related symptoms. 

Other manufacturers recommend 1 to 5 mg of CBD for every 10 lbs of a cat’s body weight. 

However, when introducing CBD oils into a cat’s diet, being conservative by underdosing may be a wise approach. 

From a low dose, gradually increase the amount of CBD until the desired effects are achieved. 

In the case of seizures in cats, increase the amount of CBD oil in gradual increments until it shows a positive reaction to the dose.

A positive reaction could mean that the next seizures may be not as severe or as frequent as the previous ones.

A journal or a record of the cat’s seizures and their characteristics is a useful tool for veterinarians in assessing the cat’s progress.

How CBD Oil Can Be Given to Cats

CBD oil tinctures or drops come in a bottle with a dropper, allowing for accurate dosing. Cat owners can slowly introduce CBD, drop by drop, into their cat’s diet with tinctures. 

Tinctures can also be administered under the cat’s tongue (sublingually), or by applying it onto its gums with a fingertip.

Aside from giving CBD cat treats, sprinkling the CBD capsules’ contents onto the cat’s food and drink is another way of giving CBD to cats orally.

Meanwhile, there are CBD topicals, like balms, salves, and tinctures may also help. CBD topicals may be applied transdermally to the cat’s bare skin inside its ears, or on its paws to lick. 

Cats can reap the benefits of CBD oil through massage. Massaging these CBD-infused products onto a cat’s body provides calming effects and promotes optimal body function.

Conclusion

An article by the American Veterinary Medical Association says there is a lack of consistency in epilepsy research on classifications, definitions, and therapeutic outcomes(41). 

Thus, a task force was organized, made up of 26 veterinary and human neurologists and neuroscientists, and other specialists from around the world. 

It was the first time that many veterinary clinicians and neuroscientists have formally agreed on the salient aspects of epilepsy in dogs and cats.

Any breed of dog or cat can have seizures and develop epilepsy. According to Ned Patterson, DVM, Ph.D., DACVIM (SAIM), the task force would work on consensus statements on the emergency treatment of seizures(42). 

Dr. Patterson of the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine focuses on seizure disorders, genetics, and molecular medicine.

CBD has demonstrated its therapeutic potential in several human and animal studies. However, there are still not enough scientific studies on CBD and seizures in cats.

Until more research has been done showing that the use of CBD is effective in managing seizures in cats, cat owners should use CBD with caution.

Whether using CBD for pain management or reduction of severity and frequency of seizures, any action towards CBD administration and dosing should be under the supervision of a veterinarian experienced in cannabis or CBD use. 


  1. Hazenfratz, M., & Taylor, S. M. (2018). Recurrent seizures in cats: Diagnostic approach – when is it idiopathic epilepsy?. Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 20(9), 811–823. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098612X18791873
  2. ibid.
  3. USFDA. (2018, June 25). FDA Approves First Drug Comprised of an Active Ingredient Derived from Marijuana to Treat Rare, Severe Forms of Epilepsy. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-drug-comprised-active-ingredient-derived-marijuana-treat-rare-severe-forms
  4. UNC Neuroscience Center. (2019, Sept 30). CBD May Alleviate Seizures, Benefit People With Neurodevelopmental Conditions. Retrieved from https://www.med.unc.edu/neuroscience/cbd-may-alleviate-seizures-benefit-people-with-neurodevelopmental-conditions/
  5. Silver R. J. (2019). The Endocannabinoid System of Animals. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(9), 686. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090686
  6. Xiong, W., Cui, T., Cheng, K., Yang, F., Chen, S. R., Willenbring, D., Guan, Y., Pan, H. L., Ren, K., Xu, Y., & Zhang, L. (2012). Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors. The Journal of experimental medicine, 209(6), 1121–1134. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20120242; Linares, I. M., Zuardi, A. W., Pereira, L. C., Queiroz, R. H., Mechoulam, R., Guimarães, F. S., & Crippa, J. A. (2019). Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test. Revista brasileira de psiquiatria (Sao Paulo, Brazil : 1999), 41(1), 9–14. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2017-0015; De Filippis, D., Esposito, G., Cirillo, C., Cipriano, M., De Winter, B. Y., Scuderi, C., Sarnelli, G., Cuomo, R., Steardo, L., De Man, J. G., & Iuvone, T. (2011). Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis. PloS one, 6(12), e28159. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028159; Ivanov, V. N., Wu, J., Wang, T., & Hei, T. K. (2019). Inhibition of ATM kinase upregulates levels of cell death induced by cannabidiol and γ-irradiation in human glioblastoma cells. Oncotarget, 10(8), 825–846. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26582
  7. USFDA. op. cit.
  8. USFDA. (2020, May 8). Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994 (AMDUCA). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/animal-veterinary/acts-rules-regulations/animal-medicinal-drug-use-clarification-act-1994-amduca 
  9. UNC Neuroscience Center. op. cit.
  10. Silver R. J. op. cit.
  11. Hazenfratz, M., & Taylor, S. M. op. cit.
  12. International Cat Care. (2018, Aug 20). Seizures/epilepsy in cats. Retrieved from https://icatcare.org/advice/seizures-epilepsy-in-cats/
  13. Mayo Clinic.(2020, May 5).  Epilepsy. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/epilepsy/symptoms-causes/syc-20350093 
  14. International Cat Care. op. cit.
  15. Moore S. Seizures and epilepsy in cats. Vet Med (Auckl). 2014;5:41-47. https://doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S62077
  16. Hazenfratz, M., & Taylor, S. M. op. cit.
  17. Jones, N. A., Hill, A. J., Smith, I., Bevan, S. A., Williams, C. M., Whalley, B. J., & Stephens, G. J. (2010). Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 332(2), 569–577. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.109.159145
  18. Jones, N. A et al. op. cit.
  19. Mayo Clinic. (2019, June 18). Grand mal seizure. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/grand-mal-seizure/symptoms-causes/syc-20363458?utm_source=Google&utm_medium=abstract&utm_content=Tonic-clonic-seizure&utm_campaign=Knowledge-panel
  20. Jones, N. A et al. op. cit.
  21. Perucca E. (2017). Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Hard Evidence at Last?. Journal of epilepsy research, 7(2), 61–76. https://doi.org/10.14581/jer.17012
  22. ECHO. (2017, April 18). Retrieved from https://echoconnection.org/look-endocannabinoid-systems-cb1-cb2-receptors/
  23. Turcotte C, Blanchet MR, Laviolette M, Flamand N. The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016;73(23):4449–4470. DOI:10.1007/s00018-016-2300-4
  24. Nazıroğlu M. (2015). TRPV1 Channel: A Potential Drug Target for Treating Epilepsy. Current neuropharmacology, 13(2), 239–247. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159×13666150216222543
  25. Nora Volkow. NIDA. Researching Marijuana for Therapeutic Purposes: The Potential Promise of Cannabidiol (CBD). National Institute on Drug Abuse website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/noras-blog/2015/07/researching-marijuana-therapeutic-purposes-potential-promise-cannabidiol-cbd. July 20, 2015. Accessed January 31, 2020.
  26. US FDA. (2020, March 11). FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  27. ibid.
  28. ibid.
  29. DEA. Drug Scheduling. Retrieved from https://www.dea.gov/drug-scheduling#:~:text=Schedule%20I%20drugs%2C%20substances%2C%20or,Schedule%20II
  30. Peachman, RR. (2019, April 11). Should You Try CBD for Your Pet? Retrieved from https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/should-you-try-cbd-for-your-pet/.
  31. Mayo Clinic. Bauer, B. (2018, Dec. 20). What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use? Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  32. Law, T. H., Davies, E. S., Pan, Y., Zanghi, B., Want, E., & Volk, H. A. (2015). A randomised trial of a medium-chain TAG diet as treatment for dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. The British journal of nutrition, 114(9), 1438–1447. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000711451500313X
  33. Law, T. H et al. op. cit.
  34. Nassiri-Asl, M., Shariati-Rad, S., & Zamansoltani, F. (2007). Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 7, 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-7-26
  35. Liu, W., Ge, T., Pan, Z., Leng, Y., Lv, J., & Li, B. (2017). The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. Oncotarget, 8(29), 48385–48397. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.16801
  36. Hosseini, A., & Mirazi, N. (2014). Acute administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizomes) extract on timed intravenous pentylenetetrazol infusion seizure model in mice. Epilepsy research, 108(3), 411–419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2014.01.008 
  37. Liu, W et al. op. cit.
  38. Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, Fernandez-Ruiz J, French J, Hill C, Katz R, Di Marzo V, Jutras-Aswad D, Notcutt WG, Martinez-Orgado J, Robson PJ, Rohrback BG, et al. Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia. 2014;55:791–802 
  39. Colasanti BK, Lindamood C, 3rd, Craig CR. Effects of marihuana cannabinoids on seizure activity in cobalt-epileptic rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1982;16:573–78; Jones NA, Hill AJ, Smith I, Bevan SA, Williams CM, Whalley BJ, Stephens GJ. Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;332:569–77; Jones NA, Glyn SE, Akiyama S, Hill TD, Hill AJ, Weston SE, Burnett MD, Yamasaki Y, Stephens GJ, Whalley BJ, Williams CM. Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures. Seizure. 2012;21:344–52 
  40. Holistapet CBD Oil Dosage Chart For Dogs & Cats. Retrieved from https://www.holistapet.com/cbd-dosing-chart-for-pets/
  41. Larkin M. (2015, Nov. 17). Neurology experts put heads together on epilepsy: 26-member task force developed seven consensus papers. Retrieved from https://www.avma.org/javma-news/2015-12-01/neurology-experts-put-heads-together-epilepsy
  42. Larkin M. op. cit.
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