• Researchers suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) may have analgesic (pain-relieving), anti-inflammatory, and anxiolytic (antianxiety) benefits(1). Anxiety and pain may be associated with cat aggression(2).
  • Studies on CBD’s safety and efficacy in helping manage aggression in cats are lacking or inconclusive. However, pet owners claim CBD may help reduce anxiety and pain in pets(3).
  • Individuals should consult a veterinarian regarding the cat’s condition leading to aggression before considering giving CBD to the feline friend.

Benefits of CBD for Cat Aggression

Pain and anxiety are some reasons cats become aggressive(4)

CBD is a cannabis plant compound purported to have anti-inflammatory, antianxiety, or pain-relieving benefits(5).

These properties suggest that the compound may help alleviate pain, anxiety, and inflammation that may cause aggression in pets.

Aggression Due to Pain

Pet owners claim that CBD products may help alleviate pain and anxiety in pets(6). This benefit suggests a potential for CBD to help manage cat aggression caused by pain.

However, studies have not conclusively determined CBD’s effectiveness in helping manage pain-induced aggression in cats.

Aggression may be a feline response to avoid certain activities, such as moving or getting touched. These activities may worsen the pain cats experience.

Pain is among the potential causes of aggression in cats(7)

Some of the painful medical conditions cats may experience include feline dental disease, arthritis, and urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Feline Dental Disease

Researchers have not analyzed CBD’s therapeutic potential to help manage pain associated with feline dental disease.

Studies showed that 50% to 90% of cats older than four years suffer from certain forms of dental issues. The three most prevalent dental diseases cats experience include gingivitis, tooth resorption, and periodontitis(8).

  • Gingivitis: This disease, also called gingivostomatitis in cats, is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gums (gingiva) and oral cavity tissues (mucosa)(9). Symptoms of this condition include pain due to swollen and bleeding gums.
  • Tooth resorption: A dental condition wherein the dentin, which is the bony substance making up most of the cat’s tooth, erodes and becomes damaged beyond repair(10).

One symptom of this disease is pain in the affected tooth when biting or being touched by a veterinarian’s examining tool or finger.

  • Periodontitis: An advanced form of gum disease common in older cats. Its symptoms are similar to gingivitis, and extraction may be the only method to treat tooth damage caused by this disease(11).


No definitive studies determine whether CBD’s purported analgesic properties may help alleviate osteoarthritis pain in cats.

Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that creates walking difficulties and joint stiffness or soreness in cats(12). Symptoms include pain and inflammation in the affected joints.

Cats with osteoarthritis may react aggressively by hissing, scratching, or biting when an individual touches the cat’s joints(13). Alleviating pain may help decrease the likelihood of cat aggression.

In some cases, cats may continue acting aggressively even when the pain or its cause has disappeared. One explanation is that cats still associate the affected area with pain they previously experienced(14).

Urinary Tract Infections

Veterinarians may prescribe pain medications to cats with UTIs(15). This prescription indicates that UTIs can cause pain.

However, researchers have not performed any formal study determining whether CBD may help reduce pain caused by UTIs.

UTIs are uncommon cat diseases wherein bacteria infect and reproduce in the bladder, causing cats to have difficulty urinating.

Some adverse conditions of UTI include passing small amounts of urine, urinating outside the litter box, straining to urinate, crying while trying to urinate, or bleeding during urination(16).

Cat owners must work with a veterinarian to develop a pain control therapy to resolve pain-induced aggression. Aside from medication, veterinarians can recommend behavioral or environmental modification to help manage aggression in cats(17).

Neuropathic Pain

In an article published in the European Journal of Pharmacology, researchers conducted a study using a rat model to determine CBD’s therapeutic potential for inflammatory and neuropathic (nerve) pain(18).

The results showed CBD’s therapeutic potential for chronic painful states.

Another study analyzed cannabis-based medicines’ efficacy, safety, and tolerability to help manage chronic pain in humans(19).

The researchers mentioned that cannabis-based drugs may be more effective in achieving significantly greater relief for chronic neuropathic pain than placebo.

Cannabis-based medicines used in the study included tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD.

THC is a psychoactive cannabinoid often linked to marijuana use and is known to cause a feeling of “high” among users(20).

Despite CBD’s promising benefits, the researchers acknowledged that the evidence and sample sizes have low quality(21). This factor makes the authors consider the possibility that the potential risks of the compound may outweigh the benefits.

Additionally, the study only involved human subjects. Thus, CBD’s effects on cats suffering from neuropathic pain may still need further research.

Still, the study on CBD’s purported benefits for chronic pain in humans may provide a potential reference point for related future studies on cats and other animals when using CBD oil to help with pain and aggression.

Individuals intending to try CBD oil to help with their cat’s aggression due to pain must first consult with a veterinarian before giving CBD to their pets.

Inflammation in Cats

Many feline diseases are linked to or may result from inflammation in a specific organ or body part. However, there are limited studies on CBD’s anti-inflammatory effects on cats.

One research paper by the International Association for the Study of Pain examined the effects of CBD in reducing inflammation to help prevent nerve damage and pain in osteoarthritic rats(22).

Results showed that CBD may help alleviate joint inflammation and may prevent the development of joint pain induced by sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA).

MIA is often used in osteoarthritis animal models to mimic the degenerative changes in osteoarthritis subjects(23).

Furthermore, the study showed that prophylactic (disease-preventing) use of CBD may help prevent the future development of nerve damage and pain in osteoarthritic joints.

A study in the European Journal of Neuroscience showed that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and its cannabinoid receptors may support the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to help regulate inflammation, pain, and joint function(24).

The ECS is a regulatory system that plays an essential function in modulating the animals’ anxiety, pain, and inflammatory conditions(25).

Another rat model study supported by the American Cancer Society mentioned that transdermal application of CBD may decrease inflammation and pain-related behavior(26).

Transdermal administration is a delivery method wherein a drug is applied on top of the skin and absorbed into the bloodstream.

Aggression Due to Anxiety or Fear

Another benefit of CBD is its anxiolytic potential, meaning it may help calm anxious pets(27).

Fear and anxiety, such as those brought about by physical punishment, can cause cats to become aggressive(28). Therefore, CBD may have the potential to help with anxiety that can lead to cat aggression.

One study on the pharmacokinetics and safety assessment of CBD-rich hemp products suggested that CBD may potentially benefit dog and cat disorders related to anxiety, seizures, and pain(29).

The study’s authors acknowledged that CBD-rich hemp nutraceuticals may be safe for healthy adult dogs. However, the authors recommended further examination to fully understand CBD’s utility and absorption in cats.

CBD Dosage for Cat Aggression

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not endorsed a standard CBD dosage guide for cat aggression or any animal-related health conditions.

Pet owners prioritizing the safety of their pets should consider dosage a significant factor when administering CBD oil to avoid the risk of toxicity or overdose.

When giving CBD oil to pets, individuals should consider other factors such as the cat’s health issues, age, diet, and body weight.

Some manufacturers selling CBD oil for dogs and cats provide dosing guidelines on the product label or packaging.

For example, CBD brands may recommend 1 to 5 milligrams (mg) of CBD for every 10 pounds (lbs) of a cat’s body weight.

Other CBD products for pets are formulated for specific needs, such as pain, aggression, or sleep. These products may contain additives such as essential oils, fatty acids, and other natural ingredients and may have varying dosage suggestions.

CBD brands may also claim that such dosage guidelines are veterinarian-approved to provide more credibility.

One study showed that 2 mg of CBD in a single oral dose for every kilogram (kg) of body weight in cats and dogs may be safe(30).

The study also analyzed the time of CBD’s maximum concentration, the drug’s half-life, and the mean residence time.

The time to maximum concentration determines the onset time for a drug to start working or reach its highest concentration in the body after administration.

Meanwhile, half-life is the time a drug takes for its concentration to be reduced by 50%. Residence time is the duration a substance spends within the system.

Results showed that a 2mg dose of CBD per kg of a cat’s body weight has a time to maximum concentration of 2.0 ± 0.6 hours. The drug’s half-life is 1.5 ± 0.1 hours, and the mean residence time is 3.5 ± 1.4 hours(31).

Researchers conducted the study over 12 weeks and observed consistent food consumption and body weight in the cat subjects. Physical examination also revealed no changes or abnormalities in the cats’ behavior.

Despite the study’s promising results on CBD’s pharmacology and safety, the researchers acknowledged that they only used a small group of dogs and cats from a research facility and may not reflect living conditions in a household.

Thus, researchers need to conduct more extensive studies on CBD for cats, especially concerning potential drug interactions.

In addition, pet owners should consult a veterinarian before deciding on a specific dose to give to the pet. This way, owners are provided with expert dosing advice tailored to the cat’s needs and health condition.

In some cases, cats may need higher doses depending on their condition.

One study analyzed the tolerability and safety of giving increasing cannabinoid doses to cats(32). This study involved gradually administering increasing amounts of CBD and THC to 20 healthy adult cats.

The results showed that cats may safely tolerate high doses of up to 30.5mg/kg of CBD. Observed side effects, such as gastrointestinal problems, lethargy (lack of energy), and ataxia (unsteady movement), were mild and resolved without medical mediation.

Results of the study may help veterinarians be more informed of cannabinoids’ safety profile when considering using CBD for cats.

Additionally, the results suggest that giving escalating doses of CBD at reasonable intervals may be a viable strategy for administering CBD oil to cats.

How to Give CBD Oil to Cats

Individuals may administer CBD oil to their pets in several ways depending on the cat’s needs or the pet owner’s preference.

For pets that are picky eaters, one convenient method is to orally administer the CBD product to them by feeding cat treats, chews, or biscuits(33).

CBD tinctures are another method to give CBD oil to the pet. Tinctures are usually given sublingually, meaning pet owners may administer these products under the pet’s tongue or inside their cheeks. 

The blood vessels beneath the tongue absorb the CBD, allowing the drug to enter the bloodstream and bypass the cat’s digestive tract.

CBD tinctures are usually formulated with a carrier oil such as coconut oil, hemp seed oil, or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil to help dilute the CBD concentrate.

Tinctures also come with a dropper to allow pet owners to administer accurate CBD dosing to their pets(34).

For pet owners who prefer oral administration, one method to give CBD oil to pets is by mixing the product in treats or pet food. This strategy may be practical if the CBD’s flavor is unpleasant to the pet(35).

Lastly, individuals may apply CBD oil to their pets topically or to the skin. Topical application may provide relief from itchiness or joint pains(36). Examples of topical products are creams, salves, lotions, balms, and ointments.

CBD Side Effects, Risks, and Considerations

Pet owners should be aware that the side effects of CBD may include vomiting, lethargy, diarrhea, and appetite loss in their furry friends(37).

There are limited studies on the effects and safety of high CBD doses in animals. Researchers have not conclusively established a CBD dosage limit that may cause an overdose in cats.

However, high doses of cannabis, which typically include THC and CBD, may cause intoxication in pets. Symptoms of cannabis intoxication include hyperactivity, disorientation, and excessive drooling or vomiting(38).

Additionally, consuming large amounts of hemp-based CBD oil may cause mild THC toxicity(39). Symptoms of this overdose include urinary incontinence, mild sedation, ataxia, and hyperesthesia or hypersensitivity.

Thus, cat owners should avoid giving their pets CBD oil products containing high levels of THC, especially products that exceed the legal THC limit.

Since pets are generally smaller than humans, these animals may require smaller doses of CBD oil than the ones humans use(40)

This dosage difference suggests that human-grade CBD oil is formulated differently from pet CBD oil, and pet owners should not give human CBD oil to cats.

Thus, individuals should consult a veterinarian before deciding on a specific CBD quantity to give to pets.

Furthermore, CBD may potentially interact with other medications given to pets by inhibiting the cytochrome P450 enzymes(41). This liver enzyme plays a role in metabolizing or processing drugs in the system.

This interaction may affect the dosage of other medications given to pets. For example, the dosage for anticonvulsants, typically used for seizure control, may need to be adjusted, especially when CBD starts influencing the pet’s seizures(42).

Pet owners may ask veterinarians for advice on possible drug-drug interactions, especially when the pet is currently taking medications.

How to Safely Buy CBD Oil for Cats

Individuals looking for the safest and best CBD oil for dogs and cats should consider factors like the extraction method, product category, lab test results, and personal preferences.

Extraction Methods

CBD manufacturers extract CBD from the hemp plant using various methods based on the brand’s expertise or technology in extracting CBD and other cannabis derivatives. These methods include carbon dioxide (CO2), ethanol, and hydrocarbon extraction.

  • Carbon dioxide extraction: Carbon dioxide is an odorless and non-combustible compound, which the FDA classifies as generally recognized as safe (GRAS), especially for use in food(43).

CBD manufacturers with medium- and large-scale facilities typically use highly pressurized CO2 to extract CBD because this naturally occurring substance leaves no residues(44).

  • Ethanol extraction: Manufacturers may consider ethanol or ethyl alcohol more efficient to work with than CO2 and a safer solvent than butane when extracting CBD from the cannabis plant(45).

Food-grade alcohol is a widely-used solvent for producing high-quality CBD oil suitable for oral administration(46).

  • Hydrocarbon extraction: Manufacturers may use hydrocarbons such as butane to separate CBD from the cannabis plant as this method is relatively inexpensive.

However, hydrocarbons are flammable and neurotoxic, and extraction facilities should implement sufficient safety procedures to handle hydrocarbons properly.

Therefore, if manufacturers do not entirely separate such chemicals from the extracted CBD, these solvents may cause safety and health issues.

Product Category

Most CBD products are categorized as full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, or isolate products.

Full-spectrum CBD oil, sometimes labeled as full-spectrum CBD hemp oil, contains all the cannabis plant compounds and cannabinoids, such as THC, terpenes, and flavonoids. 

Terpenes are plant substances that give cannabis plants their unique scent(47). Meanwhile, flavonoids may have potential antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties(48).

Broad-spectrum CBD oil contains mostly similar cannabis compounds found in full-spectrum CBD oil. However, broad-spectrum CBD oil contains only trace amounts of THC or is completely THC-free(49).

Lastly, CBD isolates are made of pure CBD only. They do not contain any other cannabis compounds.

According to the American Kennel Club (AKC), pet owners should consider avoiding full-spectrum CBD oil products that contain THC and opt for broad-spectrum CBD oil products instead(50).

Third-Party Lab Testing

Reputable brands selling legitimate CBD products should conduct product testing through third-party laboratories.

One purpose of testing such products is to determine the CBD product’s actual cannabinoid content, including CBD and THC.

Lab results are shown in a certificate of analysis or COA. These documents indicate technical information about the product, including the CBD content per serving. COAs also help individuals determine if the product’s THC level is below the legal limit of 0.3%.

Moreover, some COAs contain information on the presence of pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals that may be detrimental to the pet.

COAs should be publicly and readily accessible on the CBD brand’s website. Pet owners who want to ensure if the CBD product is safe and the contents are consistent with the information on the label should check the product’s COA before buying.

Personal Preferences

Individuals who prefer to have more control over the CBD dosing should consider purchasing CBD tinctures for pets. These products have calibrated droppers that show the user the amount of CBD to administer.

Cats may vary in weight, and pet owners may consider buying CBD products with a weight-based dosing range on the label or packaging. Furthermore, the individual may consult a veterinarian for more accurate dosing.

Pet owners may also prefer oral CBD products like pet treats or chews for ease of administration in giving CBD to pets.

Cat owners may consider choosing products that are non-GMO, gluten-free, or made from organic, U.S.-grown hemp.

Other considerations include buying CBD products for pets based on personal objectives, such as maintaining an ideal weight or improving the pet’s quality of life and wellness.

Effectiveness of CBD vs. Alternative Treatments for Cat Aggression

Individuals claim that CBD may be effective in helping with anxiety and pain in pets(51). Several studies may support this claim by suggesting CBD has anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, or analgesic effects(52).

However, animal studies on CBD’s effects specific to cats are limited, and researchers have not thoroughly investigated the compound’s efficacy on cat aggression.

Thus, a comprehensive comparison between CBD and alternative treatments for aggression in cats may not be conclusively established.

What Is CBD?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is an exogenous cannabinoid extracted from the cannabis plant. Most CBD oil products for pets are derived from hemp, a variety of cannabis, and contain little or no THC(53).

Aside from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antianxiety properties, other purported health benefits of CBD that may help pets include the following(54):

  • Reducing convulsions and seizures
  • Supporting the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems
  • Maintaining the gastrointestinal tract

The FDA has not endorsed CBD oil as a medication to help treat medical conditions in humans and animals.

However, the agency has approved Epidiolex, an oral medication containing pure CBD, for treating seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex and two forms of epilepsy, Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome(55).

Although Epidiolex is meant for use in humans, CBD’s purported anticonvulsant properties may be a potential research area for developing remedies for seizures in animals.

Legality of CBD

U.S. federal laws prohibit most veterinarians from prescribing, administering, or recommending CBD products for animals(56).

However, pet owners may initiate a conversation with veterinarians regarding the use of CBD for pets(57).

In 2018, the Farm Bill was enacted which removed hemp-based products containing less than 0.3% THC from the controlled substances list(58).

Thus, CBD oil products whose THC levels exceed 0.3% are effectively illegal under U.S. federal law(59).

The Farm Bill also mandates the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to establish a regulatory framework for producing hemp in the United States(60).

Additionally, there are CBD-related laws implemented with varying restriction levels in all 50 U.S. states(61). As of February 2022, states like Colorado, Arizona, California, and New York have regulated cannabis programs(62).

In 2021, Nevada enacted a law that allows veterinarians to recommend and administer CBD products to pets as long as the THC level is less than 0.3%(63)

This bill makes Nevada the first state to legalize cannabinoid use for veterinary purposes.

Individuals must check their state laws regarding CBD use before purchasing CBD products and giving those products to pets to avoid legal issues.

How Does the Endocannabinoid System Work in Cats?

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a structure commonly found in most animals, except insects. Experts suggest that the ECS provides homeostasis in the body, especially in the immune and nervous systems(64).

Homeostasis is the state of self-regulation to maintain a stable environment necessary for survival.

The ECS’s influence on environmental and internal stimuli processing makes cannabinoid-based remedies a potential option to help manage various psychiatric conditions, such as depression or anxiety(65).

The ECS contains the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. CB1 receptors are primarily found in the brain and peripheral nervous system, while CB2 receptors are present in the immune system(66).

CB1 and CB2 receptors participate in various biological processes, including pain, anxiety, immune function, inflammation, bone growth, and metabolic regulation(67).

These processes, especially those associated with anxiety, pain, and inflammation, may influence a cat’s response to aggressive behavior and contribute to the pet’s overall well-being and health condition.

CBD may potentially bind with the CB1 and CB2 receptors and contribute to the compound’s capacity to help manage inflammatory responses(68).

What Is Aggressive Cat Behavior?

Aggression among cats is a harmful or threatening behavior directed at humans, animals, or other cats. Almost all animals display aggressive behavior, especially when defending their territory, protecting themselves, or guarding their offspring(69).

Among cats, aggressive behavior can range from hissing, avoiding the cause of their aggression, or physically attacking that cause.

Aggressive cats may assume specific postures, such as the following(70):

  • Direct stare
  • Upright ears
  • A straight-legged, stiff, and upright position
  • Raised rear end, with the back sloping down to the head
  • A stiff and lowered tail
  • Piloerection (standing hair or fur)

What Causes Aggression in Cats

Various factors can cause aggressiveness in cats depending on the type of aggression the cat is experiencing. These causes include the following(71):

  • Loud noises or unfamiliar sounds
  • An altercation with other cats or animals in the house
  • Overstimulation due to petting
  • Pain, such as that caused by osteoarthritis
  • Attempt to establish social dominance
  • Protecting the cat’s territory or offspring

Types of Aggression in Cats

There are several reasons cats can become aggressive. These reasons are categorized into the following aggression types(72):

  • Fear aggression: This type of aggression happens when the cat encounters an unfamiliar stimulus, such as an unknown person, animal, noise, or places associated with unpleasant experiences, such as a veterinarian’s clinic.Fear in cats can also be associated with anxiety and depression(73).One type of anxiety in cats is separation anxiety, which can happen to pets left alone for extended periods. Symptoms of separation anxiety include not eating or drinking, vomiting, or destructive behavior(74).
  • Play aggression: Some pet owners may consider this aggression as normal socializing behavior among kittens and young cats. Play aggression allows pets to learn whether they bite or scratch their feline friends too hard.
  • Petting-induced aggression: Felines can become aggressive when petted, and the reasons for this aggression are still unknown to researchers. However, one explanation is that the aggressive behavior may be the cat’s attempt to control the stimulation.Other causes of this aggression include bathing, nail clipping, or grooming.
  • Status-induced aggression: Cats may exhibit aggressive behavior to establish dominance over other pets or humans. Behaviors may include blocking doors or swatting other cats.
  • Pain-induced aggression: Cats experiencing pain may act aggressively toward other animals or humans to avoid movement or touch that may cause the pain to worsen.For example, a cat with osteoarthritis may become aggressive toward humans attempting to touch the pet’s joints.
  • Territorial aggression: Feline pets can establish and guard their territories, which can manifest as aggression toward strangers or other animals that encroach into the cats’ domain.In some cases, a cat can show aggression and attack resident humans or previously-accepted cats, especially if they have been away from home for an extended period.
  • Maternal aggression: Mother cats that have recently given birth may become protective of their offspring and aggressive toward other humans or animals approaching them.This aggressive maternal instinct may subside once the kittens become older and independent.
  • Inter-cat aggression: Male cats, and even female cats in rare cases, may become aggressive toward other male cats as they approach social maturity.This aggression may be associated with the cats’ sex hormones. Pet owners may consider this period appropriate to spay and neuter these pets.
  • Redirected aggression: Some cats cannot respond directly to a stimulus and thus, may redirect their aggression toward a human or animal.Examples of stimuli that can lead to this behavior include hearing loud noises or seeing another cat outside the window.

What Are the Aggressive Cat Breeds?

Studies suggest that some feline breeds are more aggressive than others.

One report analyzed the behaviors of 5,726 cats belonging to 40 breeds. These behaviors included human contact, aggression, shyness, and owner-evaluated behavior issues(75).

Results showed that the Turkish van and Korat cats may be highly likely to be aggressive toward family members, strangers, and other cats.

Other breeds analyzed for aggressive behavior include Bengal, Burmese, Siberian, and Russian blue cats.

Another study conducted in 2021 showed that the cat breeds with high aggression toward humans include the Turkish van, Landrace, Maine coon, Bengal, and Turkish Angora cats(76).

How to Calm an Aggressive Cat

The following are some ways to help manage cat aggression(77):

  • Contact a veterinarian: Pet owners should consult their veterinarian for a diagnosis when the cat’s behavior becomes aggressive. Felines may be hiding symptoms of a disease, and behavioral changes may indicate a health problem.
  • Spay and neuter the pet: Having intact (unneutered) cats can affect the behavior of other pets in the house. Pet owners concerned with inter-cat aggression may consider this option.
  • Slowly reintroduce the cats: Pets may display aggressive behavior toward a new pet being introduced into the house. Using a slow introduction process with the help of an animal behaviorist may help the cats get along.
  • Administer veterinarian-prescribed medications: Veterinarians can prescribe medicines for cats, especially if pain or an underlying disease causes the pet’s aggressive behavior.For example, veterinarians can prescribe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline for cats’ anxiety, aggression, and compulsive disorders(78).Pet owners should note that human-grade medicines are formulated differently from pet medications, and cats may respond to drugs differently from humans.Thus, pet owners should not attempt to give their cats human-grade medications or any over-the-counter and prescription drugs without consulting a licensed veterinarian.

  1. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
  2. Feline Behavior Problems: Aggression
  3. information/feline-health-topics/feline-behavior-problems-aggression
    Cannabis for Cats and Dogs
  4. Feline Behavior Problems: Aggression
  5. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
  6. Cannabis for Cats and Dogs
  7. Feline Behavior Problems: Aggression
  8. Feline Dental Disease
  9. Gingivostomatitis
  10. Tooth Resorption
  11. Dental Disease in Cats
  12. Arthritis in Cats
  13. Feline Behavior Problems: Aggression
  14. Ibid.
  15. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Cats
  16. Ibid.
  17. Feline Behavior Problems: Aggression
  18. The Non-psychoactive Cannabis Constituent Cannabidiol Is an Orally Effective Therapeutic Agent in Rat Chronic Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain
  19. Cannabis-Based Medicines for Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Adults
  20. Tetrahydrocannabinol
  21. Cannabis-Based Medicines for Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Adults
  22. Attenuation of Early Phase Inflammation by Cannabidiol Prevents Pain and Nerve Damage in Rat Osteoarthritis
  23. Sodium Monoiodoacetate Dose-Dependent Changes in Matrix Metalloproteinases and Inflammatory Components as Prognostic Factors for the Progression of Osteoarthritis
  24. Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in Osteoarthritis Pain
  25. The Endocannabinoid System of Animals
  26. Transdermal Cannabidiol Reduces Inflammation and Pain-Related Behaviours in a Rat Model of Arthritis
  27. FAQs About CBD Use in Pets
  28. Feline Behavior Problems: Aggression
  29. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats
  30. Ibid.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Safety and Tolerability of Escalating Cannabinoid Doses in Healthy Cats
  33. Page 182 of Healing With CBD
  34. Hemp Oil for Pets: Everything You Need to Know
  35. Ibid.
  36. Page 210 of Healing With CBD
  37. FAQs About CBD Use in Pets
  38. Cannabis (Marijuana) Intoxication in Cats and Dogs
  39. FAQs About CBD Use in Pets
  40. Page 179 of Healing With CBD
  41. FAQs About CBD Use in Pets
  42. Ibid.
  43. CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21
  44. Page 243 of Healing With CBD
  45. Ibid.
  46. CBD Oil: An Introduction
  47. The Cannabis Terpenes
  48. Flavonoids: An Overview
  49. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
  50. Does CBD Work for Dogs?
  51. Cannabis for Cats and Dogs
  52. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
  53. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
  54. Hemp Oil for Pets: Everything You Need to Know
  55. FDA Approves New Indication for Drug Containing an Active Ingredient Derived From Cannabis to Treat Seizures in Rare Genetic Disease
  56. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs
  57. Ibid.
  58. Hemp Production and the 2018 Farm Bill
  59. CBD & THC: Myths and Misconceptions
  60. Hemp Production
  61. Cannabidiol (CBD)-What We Know and What We Don’t
  62. State Medical Cannabis Laws
  63. Nevada Veterinarians Can Treat Patients With Certain Cannabis Products
  64. The Endocannabinoid System of Animals
  65. Exploiting the Multifaceted Effects of Cannabinoids on Mood to Boost Their Therapeutic Use Against Anxiety and Depression
  66. The Endocannabinoid System of Animals
  67. Ibid.
  68. Immune Responses Regulated by Cannabidiol
  69. Aggression in Cats
  70. Ibid.
  71. Feline Behavior Problems: Aggression
  72. Ibid.
  73. What to Know About Mental Health Care and Cats
  74. Separation Anxiety
  75. Breed Differences of Heritable Behaviour Traits in Cats
  76. Reliability and Validity of Seven Feline Behavior and Personality Traits
  77. Aggression Between Family Cats and Feline Social Behavior
  78. Treatment of Behavior Problems in Cats
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