How Does CBD Oil Help With Brain Health?

  • A 2018 study published in Surgical Neurology International discussed how the human endocannabinoid system (ECS) might influence the brain cells’ ability to form new neural connections (1)
  • Sleep and anxiety disorders can cause poor memory and a decline in cognitive functions.  A study published in Permanente Journal acknowledged the positive effects cannabidiol (CBD) might have on human test subjects with anxiety and sleep disorders (2)
  • A 2017 review noted how CBD treatments were able to reverse cognitive deficits in animal test subjects induced with Alzheimer’s disease, a neurodegenerative condition (3).
  • The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health suggested that cannabinoids might be useful in treating neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with dementia (4).

Why People Are Turning to CBD for Brain Health

A 2018 review posted in the Surgical Neurology International mentioned how CBD is of particular interest due to its many potential therapeutic benefits and lack of side effects in a variety of neurological diseases and conditions (5)

The review also mentioned how CBD might possess therapeutic properties for brain function. 

The authors further discussed more significant benefits of CBD among test subjects with PTSD, depression, and post-concussion syndrome. 

In addition to its potential to improve mental health, CBD has been observed to have neuroprotective properties. 

This characteristic might benefit patients with neurodegenerative disorders and motor function disorders like Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s Disease (PD) (6)

Many of these neurodegenerative disorders are progressive. The lack of cure may have contributed to some people’s decision to turn to alternative treatments. 

CBD Oil for Improved Memory

A 2018 review posted in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Journal shared that CBD treatments might confer benefits to mental health and cognitive function. 

Furthermore, the beneficial outcomes were observed from test subjects with ongoing cannabis use (7)

A 2015 study posted in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease mentioned how a combination of CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) had reduced learning impairments among animal test subjects (8)

The study continued with the observation that CBD showed promising results in reducing hypertrophy of glial cells and inflammatory-related molecules in the brain(9). This resulted in improvements in preserving the memory of the animal subjects.

Improved memory has also been observed among CBD users. Using hair analysis, a study examined individuals who have been naturally exposed to CBD

They found that CBD has the potential to improve memory and other cognitive performances (10).

CBD Oil for Pain Relief and Improved Sleep 

Some individuals suffering from chronic pain in various parts of the body may also develop insomnia (11)

Lack of sleep often results in cognitive impairments, such as memory loss and poor motor functions. 

A study posted in Therapeutics and Clinical Management reported that CBD demonstrated analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects (12)

This potential to treat and manage pain might improve sleep among individuals with chronic pain

A 2017 review in Current Psychiatry Reports summarized the effects of CBD and its therapeutic potential for treating insomnia

The study explained that CBD might be a promising remedy for REM sleep behavior disorders and daytime sleepiness (13)

Additional studies have supported the hypothesis founded by the previous review. One study in particular conducted tests on how healthy adults reacted to daily doses of CBD

A 2019 large case series published in The Permanente Journal shared outcomes of sleep and anxiety scores of 72 healthy human subjects. 

The study came to a result that demonstrated several improvements among subjects who took CBD. 

During the first week, 57 out of 72 individuals have improved their anxiety scores, while 48 out of 72 have improved sleep scores (14)

CBD Oil for Headaches

Migraine is a common disabling disorder in the brain that can lead to other problems that aggravate their tendency to headaches, such as anxiety and depression (15).

According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), migraine is a condition that affects 37 million people in the U.S. and 10% of the worldwide population (16). They also added that migraine affects women three times more than men. 

Since the middle ages, physicians have used cannabis plants, such as hemp (cannabis sativa), to treat migraine and headaches (17).

A 2018 review in Frontiers in Pharmacology mentioned that CBD must be explored as a possible migraine treatment (18)

CBD’s affinity in binding to cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors in the brain may influence stabilization in the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This binding activity may result in counteracting migraines and blocking neuroinflammation (19).

CBD Oil for Mental Health

In 2015, Neurotherapeutics published a study that discussed how CBD might have anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory properties (20)

The study further expounded on how CBD might block reconsolidation and adverse memories in animal test subjects, making it a potential contender in treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and panic disorder (PD). 

In the same study, the authors discussed how clinical trials on healthy human test subjects demonstrated CBD’s efficacy in reducing anxiety and other relevant disorders, including PTSD, PD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder (21)

The findings are later supported by another study in 2018 published in Frontiers of Immunology. 

The authors of the study hypothesized that CBD might have a pharmacological effect comparable to mood stabilizers (22)

CBD’s anti-anxiety, antidepressant, anticonvulsive, and antipsychotic actions make it a valuable subject for further research (23)

A study posted in Translational Psychiatry discussed how CBD moderately inhibits the degradation of anandamide, an essential omega-6 fatty-acid neurotransmitter. 

The study tested the potential antipsychotic effects of CBD by administering it to patients with psychotic symptoms for 28 days (24).

Results showed that the improvement in patients treated with CBD is comparable to that of patients treated with amisulpride, a standard antipsychotic drug (25).

CBD Oil for Neurodegenerative and Neurological Disorders

A review posted in the British Pharmacological Society has attributed the neuroprotective, neurotransmission, and neurogenesis (forming of new neurons) properties of CBD

These properties have been observed in numerous chronic neurodegenerative disorders (26)

The review added that CBD, as a monotherapy or in combination with other phytocannabinoids, has demonstrated significant effects among test subjects with neonatal ischemia, Hungtington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease (27)

CBD’s significant neuroprotective effects have been attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. 

The review ended with the hypothesis that CBD has shown valuable influences on many conditions involving brain functions (28).

In June 2018, the FDA approved a drug (Epidiolex) that contains CBD as an active ingredient. This drug is used for two rare and severe forms of childhood epilepsy, Dravet syndrome, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. 

Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved drug that contains purified extracts from marijuana plants (29)

A 2019 study posted in Molecules discussed how CBD’s anticonvulsant properties may help with epileptic seizures among children. 

Clinical trials have compared CBD to other antiepileptic drugs. Most assessed that CBD is safe among infants, children, and teenagers (30).

Still, it is strongly advised that individuals must first consult with a pediatric epileptologist before considering CBD for their children for any reason.  

How CBD Oil Works to Help With Brain Health

The endocannabinoid system is made of G-protein receptors located throughout the human body, such as cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). 

These receptors are present mostly in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (31).

The ECS has been studied for its regulatory function on several health and mood conditions.

It has been discussed in a study published in Pharmacological Reviews that modulating the ECS might result in many therapeutic promises in a wide range of pathological conditions and diseases (32)

The ECS has been observed to hold influence over depression, neurogenesis, cognition, learning, and memory (33)

Moreover, the ECS is believed to have receptors present in the immune system. It is speculated that Immune cells secrete endocannabinoids and express both CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors (34)

A study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology explained how cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD, bind to CB1 and CB2 receptors (35)

Using animal test subjects, the study came upon CBD’s therapeutic potential to treat many symptoms. 

A 2015 review posted in Neurotherapeutics explained how CBD’s interactions with several receptors like CB1 and serotonin receptors (5-HT1A) have the potential to regulate fear and anxiety behaviors (36)

Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Brain Health

The Pros

  • CBD might have the potential to improve memory and other cognitive performances (37).
  • In a study, CBD showed potential in reducing learning impairments among animal subjects presenting with Alzheimer’s disease (38)
  • CBD might be a promising remedy for REM sleep behavior disorders and daytime sleepiness (39).
  • In a study, CBD demonstrated analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, which may promote good sleep among individuals with chronic pain (40).
  • CBD may help in reducing migraines by blocking neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation (41).
  • CBD might have a wide range of therapeutic properties, including anxiolytic (42), antipsychotic (43), and antidepressant effects (44)
  • CBD is safe and well-tolerated among human and animal subjects.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledged CBD is non-addictive and safe for daily intake (45).
  • One does not need prescriptions to buy CBD oil
  • CBD is legal in most of the United States, (46) as long as THC (the cannabinoid that produces psychoactive effects) content does not exceed 0.3%. CBD is also legal in some countries in Europe and Canada, but prescriptions may be needed. 

The Cons

  • CBD may have a few side effects, such as diarrhea, fatigue, loss of appetite, and sleepiness (47)
  • CBD can be expensive. Some brands sell high-quality CBD oil up to 400% per few thousand milligrams.
  • CBD may interact with other medications. It is not advisable to use CBD in conjunction with other medicines without conducting research first.
  • In the United States, CBD is currently unregulated. Individuals are advised to research before buying CBD.
  • CBD is not a cure-all. More studies are needed to verify it’s potential health benefits.

How Does CBD Compare to Other Alternative Treatments?

Alternative treatments for boosting brain health may vary. Individuals who use the natural approach may often opt for particular herbs and spices, such as sage, turmeric, ginseng, and ginkgo biloba. 

Ginkgo biloba is believed to have properties that improve memory among individuals with Alzheimer’s disease.

Ginkgo biloba supplements do not need a prescription. However, there are reported cases of side effects of this herb, like stomach problems and headaches (48).

Salvia or sage has shown evidence for its ability to enhance cognitive function and neuroprotection. 

Many cultures have used sage for thousands of years. Scientists acknowledge that this inherited tradition has merit (49).  

Like sage, hemp (cannabis sativa) has a rich history dating back to the 18th century. The Arabic physicians from the medieval Islamic world used hemp extracts for pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, fever-reducing, and antiepileptic properties (50).

A popular food supplement for the brain is omega-3 fatty acid. Commonly found in food, such as fish, soybeans, and flaxseed, omega-3 fatty acid is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). 

A 2015 study published in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience acknowledged the potential benefits these fatty acids may have on improving cognitive functions and enhancing neuroprotection (51)

Like omega-3 fatty acid, CBD oil is natural because it is derived from industrial hemp plants. The oil pressed from hemp seed, in particular, is a rich source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, which are essential for human health (52)

Many manufacturers use only non-GMO organic hemp to cater to vegan and vegetarian communities. Many CBD oil products use hemp seed oil as the carrier oil to take advantage of its rich fatty acid.

How to Choose the Right CBD Oil for Brain Health

CBD oil comes in three types of concentrations. The best type varies per individual’s needs. 

For individuals suffering from symptoms associated with neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and dementia, the best CBD oil is the full-spectrum. 

CBD, combined with THC and other cannabinoids, may provide therapeutic benefits (53).

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all the cannabinoids present in the hemp plant, including THC (0.3% or lower), the psychoactive compound.

Taking in all the benefits from the cannabinoids in one dosing produces the entourage effect. This means that an individual gets a supposed boost in health by taking all the compounds present in hemp. 

For individuals who want to achieve the entourage effect without the presence of THC, the best CBD oil to use is the broad-spectrum type. Broad-spectrum CBD oil contains all the cannabinoids without THC

Some individuals cannot have any trace amounts of THC in their system due to work or other personal reasons. 

For people who cannot tolerate other cannabinoids, they can benefit from CBD isolates. This formulation contains >99% purified CBD

The CBD industry remains unregulated. This is why individuals are advised to research before buying. When shopping for CBD oil, one must always look for the product’s certificate of analysis (COA). 

The COA is a third-party laboratory test result that indicates the concentration of the cannabinoids contained in the product. 

The COA also confirms that the CBD product is free from harmful chemicals, like heavy metals and pesticides. 

One can find the COA on the brand’s company website. There should be a COA for every batch produced by the manufacturer. 

Knowing the extraction method is also essential. The CO2-extraction is a process that does not involve adding heat or solvents. 

This method keeps the CBD oil concentration pure and free from harmful chemicals. 

Additional tips on shopping for the best CBD oil

  • One must always choose non-GMO, organic industrial hemp oil from legitimate brands.
  • Read testimonials and brand reviews from other customers. Check the rating of each product. 
  • When buying CBD vape cartridges, make sure the concentration does not contain fillers and toxic substances, like propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol.

CBD Dosage for Brain Health

There is no medically accepted dosage for CBD oil. Although CBD oil has been reported to be well-tolerated and safe (54), caution is still advised, especially to first-time CBD users.

CBD beginners must always start with a low dose. One can gradually increase the dose as the body gets used to CBD oil

When taking CBD oil for a brain- or central nervous system-related condition, researchers suggest a dose of less than 1 milligram to 50 milligrams of CBD per kilogram per day (<1 and 50 mg/kg/d) (55)

The authors of the review recommended the amount by organizing a clinical trial involving patients with schizophrenia, epilepsy, social anxiety disorder, and dystonic movement disorder. 

How to Take CBD Oil for Brain Health

The same group of doctors who conducted the clinical trial (previously mentioned) used the oral delivery method, such as capsules, oral solution, and sublingual spray (56)

For individuals who want to partake in CBD‘s overall potential health benefits, they can take CBD tinctures, CBD capsules, or CBD gummies. The oral method ensures that CBD stays in the system longer. 

For individuals experiencing headache pain or a severe migraine, a faster delivery method is vaping. This method ensures that CBD goes into the system within minutes after delivery. 

However, vaping may have several side effects. It has also been linked to lung disease (57).

There are also other ways to administer CBD, such as creams, essential oils, bath bombs, and teas. These methods are recommended for individuals who want to maintain overall wellness and relaxation.  


Can CBD Oil Make Dementia Better Or Worse?

Although there are studies that acknowledge CBD’s potential to treat epilepsy and improve symptoms of motor function disorders, its efficacy on individuals with dementia remains in an academic setting. 

There was some evidence from a preclinical study that CBD might interact with receptors, resulting in blocking neurotoxicity and increased cell survival (58). However, there was no mention of CBD making the symptoms worse.

The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health released a report in 2019 that mentioned how dementia patients who were given CBD with dronabinol (an FDA-approved synthetic version of medical marijuana) showed improvement, significantly reducing their caregiver’s burden (59)

The report also mentioned that there were significant improvements in agitation, irritability disinhibition, aberrant behavior, and nocturnal behavior disorder.  

Since studies on CBD remain in preliminary stages and dronabinol may only be taken with a prescription, it is advisable to consult a physician before using CBD for dementia. 

Can CBD Oil Help With Brain Injury?

A 2017 animal study posted in Frontiers of Pharmacology noted that CBD might help with traumatic brain injury

The study mentioned that CBD activated the g-protein-coupled receptor, which produces increased adenosine concentrations that downregulate inflammatory cells(60)

Adenosine is an organic molecule and a building block of ribonucleic acid (RNA), which is essential for forming new brain cells

The study concluded that CBD might be a promising subject for future investigations in the study of neuroinflammation caused by brain injury.

Can CBD Show Up in Drug Tests?

Derived from hemp, CBD is a legal substance under the United States Federal Law (61). The United States 2018 Farm Bill legalized hemp extraction, making CBD legal in all 50 states and U.S. territories. 

THC may show up in drug tests. In a full-spectrum CBD oil, the THC content must not exceed 0.3%. Even with the very low concentrations, there may be a chance that THC may show in drug tests. 

Individuals are advised not to take full-spectrum CBD oil if their occupation requires them to take routine drug tests. They may opt for broad-spectrum CBD oil instead. 


Many studies acknowledged CBD‘s therapeutic effects and how it might improve brain health. 

A study mentioned that CBD had been found to improve memory and cognitive performances (62). It also demonstrated neurogenesis (forming of new nerve cells) and neuroprotective properties (63).

Moreover, some studies have shown CBD’s potential benefits of reducing sleep disorders  (64), neuroinflammation (65), and anxiety (66).  

The FDA has already acknowledged CBD’s potential in treating neurological disorders by approving the first CBD drug for epilepsy. However, the total acceptance of CBD in the medical field remains to be seen. 

A 2018 study mentioned that regulatory agencies may eventually approve CBD as a form of treatment. However, a careful study of safety, quality, and efficacy is still needed (67).

Individuals are advised to consult a physician before adding CBD to their daily regimen. 

  1. Maroon, J., & Bost, J. (2018). Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids. Surgical neurology international, 9, 91.
  2. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. The Permanente journal, 23, 18–041.
  3. Watt, G., & Karl, T. (2017). In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer’s Disease. Frontiers in pharmacology, 8, 20.
  4. Peprah K, McCormack S. Medical Cannabis for the Treatment of Dementia: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2019 Jul 17. Available from:
  5. Maroon, J., & Bost, J. (2018), Op cit.
  6. Cassano, T., Villani, R., Pace, L., Carbone, A., Bukke, V. N., Orkisz, S., Avolio, C., & Serviddio, G. (2020). From Cannabis sativa to Cannabidiol: Promising Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases. Frontiers in pharmacology, 11, 124.
  7. Solowij, N., Broyd, S. J., Beale, C., Prick, J. A., Greenwood, L. M., van Hell, H., Suo, C., Galettis, P., Pai, N., Fu, S., Croft, R. J., Martin, J. H., & Yücel, M. (2018). Therapeutic Effects of Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment on Psychological Symptoms and Cognitive Function in Regular Cannabis Users: A Pragmatic Open-Label Clinical Trial. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 3(1), 21–34.
  8. Aso, E., Sánchez-Pla, A., Vegas-Lozano, E., Maldonado, R., & Ferrer, I. (2015). Cannabis-based medicine reduces multiple pathological processes in AβPP/PS1 mice. Journal of Alzheimer’s disease : JAD, 43(3), 977–991.
  9. Ibid
  10. Solowij, N., (2018). Op cit. 
  11. Tang N. K. (2008). Insomnia Co-Occurring with Chronic Pain: Clinical Features, Interaction, Assessments and Possible Interventions. Reviews in pain, 2(1), 2–7.
  12. Russo E. B. (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 4(1), 245–259.
  13. Babson, K. A., Sottile, J., & Morabito, D. (2017). Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature. Current psychiatry reports, 19(4), 23.
  14. Ibid
  15. Weatherall M. W. (2015). The diagnosis and treatment of chronic migraine. Therapeutic advances in chronic disease, 6(3), 115–123.
  16. US Food and Drug Administration, The FDA Approves New Treatment for Adults With Migraine (2019). Retrieved from
  17. Lochte, B. C., Beletsky, A., Samuel, N. K., & Grant, I. (2017). The Use of Cannabis for Headache Disorders. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 2(1), 61–71.
  18. Leimuranta, P., Khiroug, L., & Giniatullin, R. (2018). Emerging Role of (Endo)Cannabinoids in Migraine. Frontiers in pharmacology, 9, 420.
  19. Ibid
  20. Blessing, E. M., Steenkamp, M. M., Manzanares, J., & Marmar, C. R. (2015). Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 12(4), 825–836.
  21. Ibid
  22. Crippa, J. A., Guimarães, F. S., Campos, A. C., & Zuardi, A. W. (2018). Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 2009.
  23. Ibid
  24. Leweke, F. M., Piomelli, D., Pahlisch, F., Muhl, D., Gerth, C. W., Hoyer, C., Klosterkötter, J., Hellmich, M., & Koethe, D. (2012). Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational psychiatry, 2(3), e94.
  25. Ibid
  26. Fernández‐Ruiz, J., Sagredo, O., M. Ruth PazosGarcía, G.,  Pertwee, R., Mechoulam, R.,  Martínez‐Orgado, J., (2012). Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid? British Pharmacological Society 
  27. Ibid
  28. Ibid
  29. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves First Drug Comprised of an Active Ingredient Derived from Marijuana to Treat Rare, Severe Forms of Epilepsy. Retrieved from
  30. Silvestro, S., Mammana, S., Cavalli, E., Bramanti, P., & Mazzon, E. (2019). Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(8), 1459.
  31. Pacher, P., Bátkai, S., & Kunos, G. (2006). The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological reviews, 58(3), 389–462.
  32. Ibid
  33. Mechoulam, R., & Parker, L. A. (2013). The endocannabinoid system and the brain. Annual review of psychology, 64, 21–47.
  34. Pandey, R., Mousawy, K., Nagarkatti, M., & Nagarkatti, P. (2009). Endocannabinoids and immune regulation. Pharmacological research, 60(2), 85–92.
  35. Pertwee R. G. (2008). The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. British journal of pharmacology, 153(2), 199–215.
  36. Blessing, (2015), Op cit.
  37. Solowij, N., (2018), Op cit. 
  38. Aso, E., (2015), Op cit.
  39. Babson, K. A., (2017), Op cit.
  40. Russo E. B. (2008), Op cit. 
  41. Leimuranta, P., (2018), Op cit.
  42. Blessing, (2015), Op cit.
  43. Leweke, F. M., (2012), Op cit. 
  44. Crippa, J. A., (2018), Op cit. 
  45. WHO. Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. (2017, Nov 6-10). Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from
  46. The 2018 United States Farm Bill. Retrieved from
  47. Bauer, B. (2018, Dec 20). What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use? Retrieved from
  48. [Internet]. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. Alzheimer’s disease: Do Ginkgo products help? 2009 Mar 10 [Updated 2017 Jun 29]. Available from:
  49. Lopresti A. L. (2017). Salvia (Sage): A Review of its Potential Cognitive-Enhancing and Protective Effects. Drugs in R&D, 17(1), 53–64.
  50. Lozano, I.,(2008), The Therapeutic Use of Cannabis sativa (L.) in Arabic Medicine.  Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics.
  51. Dyall S. C. (2015). Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and the brain: a review of the independent and shared effects of EPA, DPA and DHA. Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 7, 52.
  52. Calaway, J.C., Hempseed in a Nutshell., (2010)., Retrieved from
  53. Aso, E.,(2015), Op cit.
  54. WHO, (2017, Nov 6-10), Op cit.
  55. Millar, S. A., Stone, N. L., Bellman, Z. D., Yates, A. S., England, T. J., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2019). A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 85(9), 1888–1900.
  56. Shmerling, R.H., Can Vaping Damage Your Lungs? (2019)., Retrieved from
  57. Ibid.
  58. Watt, G., & Karl, T. (2017). In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer’s Disease. Frontiers in pharmacology, 8, 20.
  59. Peprah K, McCormack S. Medical Cannabis for the Treatment of Dementia: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2019 Jul 17. Available from:
  60. Schurman, L. D., & Lichtman, A. H. (2017). Endocannabinoids: A Promising Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury. Frontiers in pharmacology, 8, 69.
  61. The 2018 United States Farm Bill, Op cit. 
  62. Solowij, N., (2018). Op cit. 
  63. Fernández‐Ruiz, (2012), Op cit.
  64. Babson, K. A., (2017), Op cit. 
  65. Leimuranta, P., (2018). Op cit.
  66. Blessing, E. M., (2015). Op cit.
  67. Bruni, N., Della Pepa, C., Oliaro-Bosso, S., Pessione, E., Gastaldi, D., & Dosio, F. (2018). Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(10), 2478.


CBD Clinicals is reader-supported. When you buy through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. Learn more